• Title, Summary, Keyword: Transmittance spectrum

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Comparison of Performance of Models to Predict Hardness of Tomato using Spectroscopic Data of Reflectance and Transmittance (토마토 반사광과 투과광 스펙트럼 분석에 의한 경도 예측 성능 비교)

  • Kim, Young-Tae;Suh, Sang-Ryong
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.63-68
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to find a useful method to predict hardness of tomato using optical spectrum data. Optical spectrum of reflectance and transmittance data were collected processed by 9 kind of preprocessing methods-normalizations of mean, maximum and range, SNV (standard normal variate), MSC (multiplicative scatter correction), the first derivative and second derivative of Savitzky-Golay and Norris-Gap. With the preprocessed and non-processed original spectrum data, prediction models of hardness of tomato were developed using analytical tools of PLS (partial least squares) and MLR (multiple linear regression) and tested for their validation. The test of validation resulted that the analytical tools of PLS and MLR output similar performances while the transmittance spectra showed much better result than the reflectance spectra.

Development of Prediction Model to Estimate the Storage Days of Tomato Using Transmittance Spectrum (투과 스펙트럼을 이용한 토마토 수확 후 저장일자 예측모형 개발)

  • Kim, Young-Tae;Suh, Sang-Ryong
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.309-316
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    • 2008
  • The goal of this study was to develop prediction models to estimate the storage days of tomato. The transmittance spectral data measured on tomato were preprocessed through normalization, SNV, Savitzky-Golay, and Norris Gap and then were used to build the prediction models using partial least square (PLS) method. For the experiments, the tomato samples of different varieties were collected at different harvest time. The samples were taken right after harvest from the field and then were stored in a low-temperature storage room in which room temperature was maintained at $10^{\circ}C$. The transmittance spectral data of the tomato samples were measured at three-day intervals for 16 days. The performance of the prediction models was affected by the preprocessing techniques as well as the varieties and harvest time of the tomato. The best model was found when SNV was applied. The accuracy of the best model was 90.2%. It can be concluded that the transmittance spectra are useful information for predicting the period of storage of tomato.

Characteristics of Transmittance Spectrum of Korean Red Ginseng Using VIS/NIR (가시광선 및 근적외선을 이용한 홍삼의 투과스펙트럼 특성)

  • 손재룡;이강진;최규홍;김기영;강석원;최동수;장익주
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.329-334
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of transmittance spectrum of Korean red ginseng using VIS/NIR spectroscopy. The results of this study were as follows; Light intensity affected the characteristics of the spectrum. For over 40% light intensity, the first and second peaks appeared at 700nm and 1,100nm, respectively. For the 20% light intensity, the first and second peaks appeared at 800nm and 1,100nm, respectively. Thus, the typical color characteristics of halogen lamp were similar to each other if over 40% of maximum light intensity power, otherwise it was not. Transmittance spectrum showed different characteristics at different portions of red ginseng. Normal red ginseng showed strong intensity at the first peak around 700nmbecause of reddish internal tissue. However, an internal white core red ginseng showed weak peak-intensity due to whitish internal tissue. There was no significant difference in the second peak at 800nm for the different internal qualities. Third peak at 900nm showed somewhat difference by internal qualities but it was difficult to find significant trend. To separate the differences of the internal qualities, intensity differences between peaks were used. It was possible to classify normal red ginseng by the differences of "peak 1 -peak 2" and "peak 1 - peak 3". In addition, shift of the first and the third peaks in the spectrum could separate normal red ginseng from others.ginseng from others.

Layout of Long-pass-edge Filter Correspond with the Optical Transmission in Crystalline (수정체 광투과에 대응하는 LPE Filter 설계)

  • Kim, YongGeun
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 1999
  • The optical absorption and transmittance of cow' crystalline were measured by spectrophotometer in the 200~800nm wavelength regions. The optical absorptions of crystalline composed of a high absorption band in the UV-A, UV-B, and appeared the light transmittance edge in the 400nm wavelength region, and completely transmitted without the absorption in the high wavelength regions than 400nm. Also, the optical absorption and transmittance had no temperature dependence. The optical transmittance spectrum of crystalline concord with the thin film structure of $n_0/(0.5H)L(LH)^6(0.5H)/n_s$ and $n_0{\mid}(0.5LH0.5L)^kL/1.25{\mid}4.0$ of long-pass edge filter form. In the artificial crystalline and inter lens layout, long-pass edge filter layout can UV cut off.

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A study on the transmittance due to thickness of zirconium core (지르코니아 코어의 두께에 따른 분광광도계 투과율에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, In-Ho;Park, Myung-Ja;Kim, Joo-Won
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Dental Technology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.129-136
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the transmittance differences of zirconium core due to thickness within the visible light spectrum. Methods: 36 specimens were divided into 3 groups (0.6mm, 0.8mm, 1.0mm) which have each 12 specimens. The size of specimens was 10mm high and 10mm wide. The transmittance of specimens are measured by spectrophotometer Model Cary 500 that can measure infrared-ray, visible wave and ultraviolet-ray. Results: The results shows that there was no significant difference between specimen's thickness and transmittance. Conclusion: The individual's color perception is personal and there are numerous factors that influence on it. In general, human eye can perceive the color of thing only within visible light spectrum but in this experiment through spectrophotometer there was no big difference between specimen's thickness and transmittance. To sum up, The most important factors were a layed porcelain structure and its thickness rather than core thickness in the porcelain crown.

A study on the visible wave of transmittance pressable ceramic core (열가압성형도재 코어의 가시광선 투과율에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, In-Ho;Lee, Sang-Deok;Nam, Sang-Yong
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Dental Technology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the transmittance differences of pressable ceramic core due to thickness within the visible light spectrum. Methods: 36 specimens were divided into 2 groups (0.6mm, 0.8mm) which have each 3 specimens. The size of specimens was 10mm high and 10mm wide. The transmittance of specimens are measured by spectrophotometer Model Cary 500 that can measure infrared-ray, visible wave and ultraviolet-ray. Results: The results shows that there was no significant difference between specimen's thickness(0.6mm, 0.8mm) and transmittance. Conclusion: The individual's color perception is personal and there are numerous factors that influence on it. In general, human eye can perceive the color of thing only within visible light spectrum but in this experiment through spectrophotometer there was no big difference between specimen's thickness(0.6mm, 0.8mm) and transmittance. To sum up, The most important factors were a layed porcelain structure and its thickness rather than core thickness in the porcelain crown. Also, When making all ceramic core with dead pulp (nervous treatment tooth) when used as a restorative esthetic think is more efficient to improve.

Extraordinary Optical Transmission and Enhanced Magneto-optical Faraday Effect in the Cascaded Double-fishnet Structure with Periodic Rectangular Apertures

  • Lei, Chengxin;Man, Zhongsheng;Tang, Shaolong
    • Current Optics and Photonics
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.134-140
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    • 2020
  • A significant enhancement of the magneto-optical Faraday rotation and extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) in the cascaded double-fishnet (CDF) structure with periodic rectangular apertures is theoretically predicted by using the extended finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The results demonstrate that the transmittance spectrum of the CDF structure has two EOT resonant peaks in a broad spectrum spanning visible to near-infrared wavebands, one of them coinciding with the enhanced Faraday rotation and large figure of merit (FOM) at the same wavelength. It is most important that the resonant position and intensity of the transmittance, Faraday rotation and FOM can be simply tailored by adjusting the incident wavelength, the thickness of the magnetic layer, and the offset between two metallic rectangular apertures, etc. Furthermore, the intrinsic physical mechanism of the resonance characteristics of the transmittance and Faraday rotation is thoroughly studied by investigating the electromagnetic field distributions at the location of resonance. It is shown that the transmittance resonance is mainly determined by different hybrid modes of surface plasmons (SPs) and plasmonic electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) behavior, and the enhancement of Faraday rotation is mostly governed by the plasmonic electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) behavior and the conversion of the transverse magnetic (TM) mode and transverse electric (TE) mode in the magnetic dielectric layer.

PREPROCESSING EFFECTS ON ON-LINE SSC MEASUREMENT OF FUJI APPLE BY NIR SPECTROSCOPY

  • Ryu, D.S.;Noh, S.H.;Hwang, I.G.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.560-568
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    • 2000
  • The aims of this research were to investigate the preprocessing effect of spectrum data on prediction performance and to develop a robust model to predict SSC in intact apple. Spectrum data of 320 Fuji apples were measured with the on-line transmittance measurement system at the wavelength range of 550∼1100nm. Preprocess methods adopted for the tests were Savitzky Golay, MSC, SNV, first derivative and OSC. Several combinations of those methods were applied to the raw spectrum data set to investigate the relative effect of each method on the performance of the calibration model. PLS method was used to regress the preprocessed data set and the SSCs of samples, and the cross-validation was to select the optimal number of PLS factors. Smoothing and scattering corection were essential in increasing the prediction performance of PLS regression model and the OSC contributed to reduction of the number of PLS factors. The first derivative resulted in unfavorable effect on the prediction performance. MSC and SNV showed similar effect. A robust calibration model could be developed by the preprocessing combination of Savitzky Golay smoothing, MSC and OSC, which resulted in SEP= 0.507, bias=0.032 and R$^2$=0.8823.

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Development of Real-Time Internal Quality Evaluation Technique for Korean Red Ginseng using NIR Spectroscopy

  • Son, J.R.;Kim, G.;Kang, S.;Lee, K.J.
    • Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.8-12
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to develop a real-time internal quality evaluation technique for Korean red ginseng using NIR spectroscopy while they were moving to be graded. Internal qualities of Korean red ginseng were defined by color, amount of white core and cavity in the red ginseng. To evaluate the internal quality, PLS (Partial Least Square) model was developed. Spectrum saturation can be occurred when most red ginseng has a sound internal quality expressed by higher light transmittance ratio, but that could not found in the ginseng of internal white core under the same light situation. And, if spectrum saturation is obtained, it is hard to identify the exact information of internal quality. In order to evaluate of the internal quality regardless of having internal normal core or white core, an integral time controlled method was used to obtain traditional spectrum. This procedure was applied in real-time process when red ginseng was moving to be graded in the line. Among the 450 samples including 223 internal normal ginsengs and 227 internal white core ginsengs, 315 ginsengs (70%) were used to develop a calibration model and 135 ginsengs were spent to validate the model. The result of quality evaluation by the model was very good showing SEP and bias were 0.3573 and 0.0310, respectively, and the accuracy was 95.6%.

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Internal Quality Estimation of Korean Red Ginseng Using VIS/NIR Transmittance Spectrum (가시광선 및 근적외선 투과스펙트럼을 이용한 홍삼의 내부품질예측)

  • 손재룡;이강진;김기영;강석원;최규홍;장익주
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.335-340
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the internal quality of Korean red ginseng using VIS/NIR transmittance spectra. To classify the internal qualities, partial least squares(PLS) regression was conducted. The main results are as follows: To develop the PLS model, several wave bands were divided and incorporated into the model. Among the bands, the wavelength range of 550-1,020nm, excluded noise signal, showed the best evaluation results. Effect of step size on the performance of quality evaluation showed optimal at 15 steps. In order to enhance the accuracy of quality evaluation, the abnormal spectrum shape was considered first and then the PLS model was applied. Among the 150 samples, 12 samples were evaluated by the spectrum shape. In this study, to develop the optimal PLS regression model, among the 150 samples, 138 samples was used with exception of 12 samples which could evaluate the spectrum shape. The result of quality evaluation was promising as SEC and correlation coefficient were 1.09 and 0.967, respectively, and SEP and correlation coefficient were 1.04 and 0.958, respectively.