• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Transmission Source Correction Method

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CORRECTION METHOD OF ESTIMATED INSERTION-LOSS WITH FLOW

  • Nishimura, Tsuyoshi;Usagawa, Tsuyoshi;Ebata, Masanao
    • Proceedings of the Acoustical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.746-751
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    • 1994
  • The four-terminal transmission matrix method has been widely used to estimate the insertion-loss. However, the predictins using the equations in the four-terminal transmission matrix method do not reflect a practical phenomenon accurately, In this paper, the correction method to derive the insertion-loss for a constant sound pressure source is presented. The method of correction to the four-terminal transmission matrix method was proposed by rewriting the real and imaginary parts as they depend solely on the flow velocity. Then the result was compensated for by adding the component of the temperature gradient.

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Determination of Attenuation Collection Methods According to the Type of Radioactive Waste Drums (방사성폐기물드럼 종류별 감쇠보정방법의 결정)

  • Kwak, Sang-Soo;Choi, Byung-I1;Yoon, Suk-Jung;Lee, Ik-Whan;Kang, Duck-Won;Sung, Ki-Bang
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.309-317
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    • 1997
  • The measured radioactivity of gamma-emitting radionuclides in each radioactive waste drum using the non-destructive waste assay method is underestimated than real radioactivity in radioactive waste drum because the gamma-rays are attenuated within the medium. Therefore, the measured radioactivity should be corrected for the attenuation of gamma-rays. For the correction of the attenuation of gamma-rays, the attenuation correction method should be applied differently by considering the distribution and density of medium in radioactive wastes drum generated from nuclear power plants. In this study, the model drums were fabricated for simulating five types of radioactive waste drums generated from nuclear power plant and the optimum methods of the attenuation correction were experimentally determined to analyze the activity of radionuclides in the waste drum accurately using the segmented gamma scanning system. With the determination of the attenuation correction methods from the experimental results the transmission method and the average density method for the miscellaneous waste drum, the transmission method and the differential peak absorption method for the shielded miscellaneous waste drum were used to measure the density of medium in waste drums. Also, the average density method and the differential peak absorption method for the spent resin drum, the paraffin solidified drum, and the spent filter drum were used.

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A Study on the Performance of Multicast Transmission Protocol using FEC Method and Local Recovery Method based on Receiver in Mobile Host (이동 호스트에서 FEC기법과 수신자 기반 지역복극 방식의 멀티캐스트 전송 프로토콜 연구)

  • 김회옥;위승정;이웅기
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.68-76
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    • 2002
  • Multicast in mobile host has the problem of hast mobility, multicast decision, triangle routing, tunnel convergence, implosion of retransmission, and bandwidth waste. In particular, the bandwidth waste in radio is a definite factor that decreases transmission rate. To solve the problems, this paper proposes a new multicast transmission protocol called FIM(Forward Error Correction Integrated Multicast), which supports reliable packet recovery mechanism by integrating If Mobility Support for the host mobility, IGMP(Interned Group Management Protocol) for the group management, and DVMRP(Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol) for the multicast routing, and it also uses FEC and the local recovery method based on receiver. The performance measurement is performed by dividing the losses into the homogeneous independent loss, the heterogeneous independent loss, and the shared source link loss model.. The result shows that the performances improves in proportion to the size of local areal group when the size of transmission group exceeds designated size. This indicates FIM is effective in the environment where there are much of data and many receivers in the mobile host.

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Performance Analysis of Error Control Techniques Using Forward Error Correction in B-ISDN (B-ISDN에서 Forward Error Correction을 이용한 오류제어 기법의 성능분석)

  • 임효택
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.24 no.9A
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    • pp.1372-1382
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    • 1999
  • The major source of errors in high-speed networks such as Broadband ISDN(B-lSDN) is buffer overflow during congested conditions. These congestion errors are the dominant sources of errors in 1high-speed networks and result in cell losses. Conventional communication protocols use error detection and retransmission to deal with lost packets and transmission errors. However, these conventional ARQ(Automatic Repeat Request) methods are not suitable for the high-speed networks since the transmission delay due to retransmissions becomes significantly large. As an alternative, we have presented a method to recover consecutive cell losses using forward error correction(FEC) in ATM(Asynchronous Transfer Mode)networks to reduce the problem. The performance estimation based on the cell discard process model has showed our method can reduce the cell loss rate substantially. Also, the performance estimations in ATM networks by interleaving and IP multicast service are discussed.

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Software-based Performance Analysis of a Pseudolite Time Synchronization Method Depending on the Clock Source

  • Lee, Ju Hyun;Hwang, Soyoung;Yu, Dong-Hui;Park, Chansik;Lee, Sang Jeong
    • Journal of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.163-170
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    • 2014
  • A pseudolite is used as a GPS backup system, and is also used for the purpose of indoor navigation and correction information transmission. It is installed on the ground, and transmits signals that are similar to those of a GPS satellite. In addition, in recent years, studies on the improvement of positioning accuracy using the pseudorange measurement of a pseudolite have been performed. As for the effect of the time synchronization error between a pseudolite and a GPS satellite, a time synchronization error of 1 us generally induces a pseudorange error of 300 m; and to achieve meter-level positioning, ns-level time synchronization between a pseudolite and a GPS satellite is required. Therefore, for the operation of a pseudolite, a time synchronization algorithm between a GPS satellite and a pseudolite is essential. In this study, for the time synchronization of a pseudolite, "a pseudolite time synchronization method using the time source of UTC (KRIS)" and "a time synchronization method using a GPS timing receiver" were introduced; and the time synchronization performance depending on the pseudolite time source and reference time source was evaluated by designing a software-based pseudolite time synchronization performance evaluation simulation platform.

Security-reliability Analysis for a Cognitive Multi-hop Protocol in Cluster Networks with Hardware Imperfections

  • Tin, Phu Tran;Nam, Pham Minh;Duy, Tran Trung;Voznak, Miroslav
    • IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.200-209
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    • 2017
  • In this paper, we investigate the tradeoff between security and reliability for a multi-hop protocol in cluster-based underlay cognitive radio networks. In the proposed protocol, a secondary source communicates with a secondary destination via the multi-hop relay method in the presence of a secondary eavesdropper. To enhance system performance under the joint impact of interference constraint required by multiple primary users and hardware impairments, the best relay node is selected at each hop to relay the source data to the destination. Moreover, the destination is equipped with multiple antennas and employs a selection combining (SC) technique to combine the received data. We derive closed-form expressions of the intercept probability (IP) for the eavesdropping links and the outage probability (OP) for the data links over a Rayleigh fading channel. Finally, the correction of our derivations is verified by Monte-Carlo simulations.

Comparison of the Correction Methods for Gamma Ray Attenuation in the Radioactive Waste Drum Assay (방사성폐기물드럼 핵종분석에서 감마선 감쇠보정 방법들의 비교 평가)

  • Ji Young-Yong;Ryu Young-Gerl;Kwak Kyoung-Kil;Kang Duck-Won;Kim Ki-Hong
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.275-284
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    • 2006
  • In the measurement of gamma rays emitted from the nuclide in the radioactive waste drum, to analyze the nuclide concentration accurately, it is necessary to use the proper calibration standards and to correct for the attenuation of the gamma rays. Two drums having a different density were used to analyze the nuclide concentration inside the drum in this study. After carrying out the system calibration, we measured the gamma rays emitted from the standard source inside the model drum with changing the distance between the drum and the detector. The measured values were corrected with the three kinds of gamma attenuation correction methode, as a results, the error was less than 10 % in the low density drum and less than 25 % in the high density drum. The measured activity in the short distance was more accruable than in the long distance. The transmission correction for the mass attenuation showed good results(very Low error) compared to the mean density and the differential peak correction method.

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Spatio-Temporal Error Concealment of I-frame using GOP structure of MPEG-2 (MPEG-2의 GOP 구조를 이용한 I 프레임의 시공간적 오류 은닉)

  • Kang, Min-Jung;Ryu, Chul
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.29 no.1C
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    • pp.72-82
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    • 2004
  • This paper proposes more robust error concealment techniques (ECTs) for MPEG-2 intra coded frame. MPEG-2 source coding algorithm is very sensitive to transmission errors due to the use of variable-length coding. The transmission errors are corrected by error correction scheme, however, they cannot be revised properly. Error concealment (EC) is used to conceal the errors which are not corrected by error correction and to provide minimum visual distortion at the decoder. If errors are generated in intra coded frame, that is the starting frame of GOP, they are propagated to other inter coded frames due to the nature of motion compensated prediction coding. Such propagation of error may cause severe visual distortion. The proposed algorithm in this paper utilizes the spatio-temporal information of neighboring inter coded frames to conceal the successive slices errors occurred in I-frame. The proposed method also overcomes the problems that previous ECTs reside. The proposed algorithm generates consistent performance even in network where the violent transmission errors frequently occur. Algorithm is performed in MPEG-2 video codec and we can confirm that the proposed algorithm provides less visible distortion and higher PSNR than other approaches through simulations.

IMAGE DATA CHAIN ANALYSIS FOR SATELLITE CAMERA ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

  • Park, Jong-Euk;Kong, Jong-Pil;Heo, Haeng-Pal;Kim, Young-Sun;Chang, Young-Jun
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • v.2
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    • pp.791-793
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    • 2006
  • In the satellite camera, the incoming light source is converted to electronic analog signals by the electronic component for example CCD (Charge Coupled Device) detectors. The analog signals are amplified, biased and converted into digital signals (pixel data stream) in the video processor (A/Ds). The outputs of the A/Ds are digitally multiplexed and driven out using differential line drivers (two pairs of wires) for cross strap requirement. The MSC (Multi-Spectral Camera) in the KOMPSAT-2 which is a LEO spacecraft will be used to generate observation imagery data in two main channels. The MSC is to obtain data for high-resolution images by converting incoming light from the earth into digital stream of pixel data. The video data outputs are then MUXd, converted to 8 bit bytes, serialized and transmitted to the NUC (Non-Uniformity Correction) module by the Hotlink data transmitter. In this paper, the video data streams, the video data format, and the image data processing routine for satellite camera are described in terms of satellite camera control hardware. The advanced satellite with very high resolution requires faster and more complex image data chain than this algorithm. So, the effective change of the used image data chain and the fast video data transmission method are discussed in this paper

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Assessment of Attenuation Correction Techniques with a $^{137}Cs$ Point Source ($^{137}Cs$ 점선원을 이용한 감쇠 보정기법들의 평가)

  • Bong, Jung-Kyun;Kim, Hee-Joung;Son, Hye-Kyoung;Park, Yun-Young;Park, Hae-Joung;Yun, Mi-Jin;Lee, Jong-Doo;Jung, Hae-Jo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.57-68
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess attenuation correction algorithms with the $^{137}Cs$ point source for the brain positron omission tomography (PET) imaging process. Materials & Methods: Four different types of phantoms were used in this study for testing various types of the attenuation correction techniques. Transmission data of a $^{137}Cs$ point source were acquired after infusing the emission source into phantoms and then the emission data were subsequently acquired in 3D acquisition mode. Scatter corrections were performed with a background tail-fitting algorithm. Emission data were then reconstructed using iterative reconstruction method with a measured (MAC), elliptical (ELAC), segmented (SAC) and remapping (RAC) attenuation correction, respectively. Reconstructed images were then both qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. In addition, reconstructed images of a normal subject were assessed by nuclear medicine physicians. Subtracted images were also compared. Results: ELEC, SAC, and RAC provided a uniform phantom image with less noise for a cylindrical phantom. In contrast, a decrease in intensity at the central portion of the attenuation map was noticed at the result of the MAC. Reconstructed images of Jaszack and Hoffan phantoms presented better quality with RAC and SAC. The attenuation of a skull on images of the normal subject was clearly noticed and the attenuation correction without considering the attenuation of the skull resulted in artificial defects on images of the brain. Conclusion: the complicated and improved attenuation correction methods were needed to obtain the better accuracy of the quantitative brain PET images.