• Title/Summary/Keyword: Transfer

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Determination of Transfer Ratio According to Transfer Time Reflecting Passenger Attributes (대중교통 이용자 속성을 고려한 환승시간별 환승률 결정모형의 개발)

  • Song, Ki-Tae;Park, Jun-Sik;Kho, Seung-Young;Kim, Jum-San;Rhee, Sung-Mo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.217-227
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this research is the estimation of a transfer ratio according to transfer time reflecting passenger attributes such as sex, age, income, job, the car ownership, and other variables with the assumption that a transfer ratio would be different depending on each passenger attribute. This research tested transfer time through a question-survey, estimated transfer time according to the passenger attributes using a data sample, and presented some applicable models about marginal transfer time for the case of the determination of transfer ratios according to transfer time. In this research the sample which had been surveyed for passengers walking to access a transfer station was used to test and estimate and the question was present walking time to the transfer time and the marginal transfer walking time.

Performance Evaluation of a Thermo Siphon Type Radiator for LED Lighting System by using an Inverse Heat Transfer Method (역열전달해석기법에 의한 LED 조명용 무동력 냉각사이클링 방열기 성능평가)

  • Kim, E.H.;Kim, H.K.;Seo, K.S.;Lee, M.K.;Cho, C.D.
    • Transactions of Materials Processing
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.473-478
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    • 2011
  • In this study, the performance of a thermo siphon type radiator made of copper for LED lighting system was evaluated by using an inverse heat transfer method. Heating experiments and finite element heat transfer analysis were conducted for three different cases. The data obtained from experiments were compared with the analysis results. Based on the data obtained from experiments, the inverse heat transfer method was used in order to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient. First, the heat transfer analysis was conducted for non-vacuum state, without the refrigerant. The evaluated heat transfer coefficient on the radiator surface was 40W/$m^2^{\circ}C$. Second, the heat transfer analysis was conducted for non-vacuum state, with the refrigerant, resulting in the heat transfer coefficient of 95W/$m^2^{\circ}C$. Third, the heat transfer analysis was conducted for vacuum state, with refrigerant. For the third case, the evaluated heat transfer coefficients were 140W/$m^2^{\circ}C$. Third, the heat transfer analysis was conducted for vacuum state, with refrigerant. For the third case, the evaluated heat transfer coefficients were 140W/$m^2^{\circ}C$ for the radiator body, 5W/$m^2^{\circ}C$. Third, the heat transfer analysis was conducted for vacuum state, with refrigerant for the rising position of radiator pipe, 35W/$m^2^{\circ}C$. Third, the heat transfer analysis was conducted for vacuum state, with refrigerant. For the highest position of radiator pipe, and 120W/$m^2^{\circ}C$ for the downturn position of radiator pipe. As a result of inverse heat transfer analysis, it was confirmed that the thermal performance of the current radiator was best in the case of the vacuum state using the refrigerant.

A Study on the Heat Transfer Perfomance of Dimpled Double Pipe Heat Exchanger on a Fuel Cell (연료전지용 딤플형 이중관열교환기의 열전달 성능에 관한 연구)

  • CHO, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.1727-1733
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    • 2015
  • In the present study, the heat transfer performance of dimpled double-pipe heat exchangers for fuel cells that are utilized as cooling systems of fuel cells was studied. In addition, to comparatively analyze the heat transfer performance of dimpled double-pipe heat exchanger for fuel cells, plain double-pipe heat exchangers were also studied. Experimental results were derived on changes in the Reynolds numbers of the cooling water flowing in dimpled and plain double-pipe heat exchangers and changes in the heat flux of the air. Thereafter, to verify the reliability of the experimental results, the theoretical overall heat transfer coefficients and the experimental overall heat transfer coefficients were comparatively analyzed and the following results were derived. The heat transfer rate lost by the hot air and that of the heat transfer rate obtained by the cooling water were well balanced. The experiments of plain double-pipe heat exchangers and dimpled double-pipe heat exchangers were conducted under normal conditions and the theoretical overall heat transfer coefficient and the experimental overall heat transfer coefficient coincided well with each other. In both plain double-pipe heat exchangers and dimpled double-pipe heat exchangers, heat transfer rates increased as the cooling water flow velocity increased. Under the same experimental conditions, the heat transfer performance of dimpled double-pipe heat exchangers was shown to be higher by 1.2 times than that of plain double-pipe heat exchangers.

Reduction of the Wet Surface Heat Transfer Coefficients from Experimental Data

  • Kim, Nae-Hyun;Sim, Yong-Sub
    • International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.37-49
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    • 2004
  • Four different data reduction methods for the heat transfer coefficients from experimental data under dehumidifying conditions are compared. The four methods consist of two heat and mass transfer models and two fin efficiency models. Data are obtained from two heat exchanger samples having plain fins or wave fins. Comparison of the reduced heat transfer coefficients revealed that the single potential heat and mass transfer model yielded the humidity-independent heat transfer coefficients. Two fin efficiency models-enthalpy model and humidity model-yielded approximately the same fin efficiencies, and accordingly approximately the same heat transfer coefficients. The heat transfer coefficients under wet conditions were approximately the same as those of the dry conditions for the plain fin configuration. For the wave fin configuration, however, wet surface heat transfer coefficients were approximately 12% higher. The pressure drops of the wet surface were 10% to 45% larger than those of the dry surface.

Effect of Ti on Spatter Generation of $CO_2$Welding ($CO_2$용접시 Spatter발생에 미치는 Ti의 영향)

  • 안영호;이종봉;방국수;엄동석
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.106-112
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    • 1996
  • The effects of Ti addition in welding wire on the spatter generation and the droplet transfer phenomena were investigated. With increasing Ti content the spattering rate was decreased but the ratio of large size spatter (D $\geq$ 1. 0mm) was increased in both short circuit and globular transfer mode of $CO_2$welding. In short circuit transfer region, the arcing time was increased and the droplet transfer frequency was decreased with increasing Ti content In globular transfer region, the transition current and voltage to globular transfer was lowered and the welding condition region for stable globular transfer was widened with increasing Ti content.

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APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROPLATING METHOD FOR HEAT TRANSFER STUDIES USING ANALOGY CONCEPT

  • Ko, Sang-Hyuk;Moon, Deok-Won;Chung, Bum-Jin
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.251-258
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    • 2006
  • This study presents an idea of using analogy concept to the heat transfer studies regarding the HTGR development. Theoretical backgrounds regarding the idea were reviewed. In order to investigate the predictability of a mass transfer system for heat transfer system phenomenology, an electroplating system coupled with a limiting current technique was adopted. Test facilities for laminar forced convection and natural convections under laminar and turbulent conditions were constructed, for which heat transfer correlations are known. The test results showed a close agreement between mass transfer and heat transfer systems, which is an encouraging indication of the validity of the analogy theory and the experimental methodology adopted. This paper shows the potential of the experimental method that validates the little-understood heat transfer phenomena, even in complex geometries such as HTGR.

Experimental Study on Heat and Mass Transfer Characteristics in bundles of horizontal absorption tubes (수평관군 흡수기의 열 및 물질 전달특성에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 설원실;정용욱;문춘근;윤정인
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2000
  • On the absorber of absorption chiller/heater, LiBr solution at high concentration is sprinkled on a bundle of horizontal tube cooled by cooling water. In this case, the conditions of LiBr solution and cooling water have an influence on heat/mass transfer coefficient in this system. Therefor it is important to find optimal operation conditions of absorption chiller/heater to save energy. Heat and mass transfer coefficient increased with the increase of solution flow rate, and also heat and mass transfer rate increased but overall heat and mass transfer coefficient decreased by increasing the solution concentration within the experimental range. The superheating of the solution resulted in superior heat transfer character to a state of equilibrium from the point of heat flux and overall heat transfer coefficient.

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토양 중 디젤 성분의 생분해에 있어서 mass-transfer 영향

  • 조한나;염익태;박주양
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.203-206
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    • 2002
  • 토양 오염의 주된 원인인 디젤은 휘발성과 용해도가 낮아 생물학적 처리법이 많이 이용된다. 생물학적 처리에서 Bioavailability 는 생분해의 속도에 영향을 미치며 유효성평가에 있어 중요하다. 디젤로 오염된 토양의 생분해 특성 및 Bioavailability를 평가하기 위하여 생분해 실험과 mass transfer 실험을 수행하였다. 생분해 속도와 mass transfer 속도의 비교를 통해 생분해 초기에는 mass transfer에 의해 그 속도가 부분적으로 제한을 받으나, 일정시간 후에는 mass transfer 속도에 의해 생분해 속도가 결정되어짐을 알 수 있었다. Multi -component 인 디젤 성분에서의 mass transfer 의 영향을 알기 위해 각 성분별에 따라 조사한 결과, linear H.C 성분과 고 휘발성 성분은 생분해 속도가 초기에는 mass transfer 에 의해 부분적으로 제한되고 후에 mass transfer 에 의해 결정되어지나, tracked H.C 성분과 저휘발성 성분은 전체적으로 mass transfer 에 의해 생분해 속도가 제한되고 있음을 알 수 있었다.

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A Study on the Laminar Flow Field and Heat Transfer Coefficient Distribution for Supercritical Water in a Tube (초임계상태의 물에 대한 관 내 층류유동장 및 열전달계수 분포특성에 관한 연구)

  • 이상호
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.768-778
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    • 2003
  • Numerical analysis has been carried out to investigate laminar convective heat transfer in a tube for supercritical water near the thermodynamic critical point. Fluid flow and heat transfer are strongly coupled due to large variations of thermodynamic and transport properties such as density, specific heat, viscosity, and thermal conductivity near the critical point. Heat transfer characteristics in the developing region of the tube show transition behavior between liquid-like and gas-like phases with a peak in heat transfer coefficient distribution near the pseudocritical point. The peak of the heat transfer coefficient depends on pressure and wall heat flux rather than inlet temperature and Reynolds number, Results of the modeling provide convective heat transfer characteristics including velocity vectors, temperature, and the properties as well as the heat transfer coefficient. The effect of proximity to the critical point is considered and a heat transfer correlation is suggested for the peak of Nusselt number in the tube.