• Title, Summary, Keyword: Transdifferentiation

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Serum Lipids Can Convert Bovine Myogenic Satellite Cells to Adipocytes

  • Beloor, Jagadish;Kang, Hye-Kyeong;Moon, Yang-Soo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1519-1526
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    • 2010
  • Serum lipid (SL) is a commercially available cholesterol-rich, proteinaceous compound extracted from bovine serum. Here we investigated the adipogenic transdifferentiation potential of SL on bovine myogenic satellite cells. Exposure of satellite cells to SL could generate lipid droplets on day 2, and further exposure to SL increased cytoplasmic lipid accumulation giving adipocyte morphology. The expression analysis of PPAR gamma and GPDH adipocyte markers along with Oil-red-O staining results confirmed the transdifferentiation potential of SL. When cells were treated at different concentrations (5, 10, 20, $40{\mu}l$/ml) of SL, the results indicated that even levels as low as $5{\mu}l$ SL /ml could induce transdifferentiation, and maximum induction was obtained at $20{\mu}l$ SL/ml. After treatment with SL at different concentrations the expression levels of PPAR gamma varied significantly (p<0.05), whereas the expression of other adipogenic transcription factors showed no difference, indicating that SL acts through PPAR gamma. The combined effect of SL and troglitazone proved to be the best combination for induction of transdifferentiation compared to the individual effect of SL or troglitazone. Thus, overall results clearly show that SL induces transdifferentiation of bovine myogenic satellite cells to adipocytes.

Glucocorticoid treatment independently affects expansion and transdifferentiation of porcine neonatal pancreas cell clusters

  • Kim, Ji-Won;Sun, Cheng-Lin;Jeon, Sung-Yoon;You, Young-Hye;Shin, Ju-Young;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Cho, Jae-Hyoung;Park, Chung-Gyu;Yoon, Kun-Ho
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of duration and timing of glucocorticoid treatment on the expansion and differentiation of porcine neonatal pancreas cell clusters (NPCCs) into ${\beta}$-cells. After transplantation of NPCCs, the ductal cyst area and ${\beta}$-cell mass in the grafts both showed positive and negative correlations with duration of dexamethasone (Dx) treatment. Pdx-1 and HNF-3${\beta}$ gene expression was significantly downregulated following Dx treatment, whereas PGC-1${\alpha}$ expression increased. Pancreatic duct cell apoptosis significantly increased following Dx treatment, whereas proliferation did not change. Altogether, transdifferentiation of porcine NPCCs into ${\beta}$-cells was influenced by the duration of Dx treatment, which might have been due to the suppression of key pancreatic transcription factors. PGC-1${\alpha}$ plays an important role in the expansion and transdifferentiation of porcine NPCCs, and the initial 2 weeks following transplantation of porcine NPCCs is a critical period in determining the final ${\beta}$-cell mass in grafts.

Neural Transdifferentiation: MAPTau Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Cells

  • Lara-Padilla, E;Miliar-Garcia, A;Gomez-Lopez, M;Romero-Morelos, P;Bazan-Mendez, CI;Alfaro-Rodriguez, A;Anaya-Ruiz, M;Callender, K;Carlos, A;Bandala, C
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1967-1971
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    • 2016
  • Background: In tumor cells, aberrant differentiation programs have been described. Several neuronal proteins have been found associated with morphological neuronal-glial changes in breast cancer (BCa). These neuronal proteins have been related to mechanisms that are involved in carcinogenesis; however, this regulation is not well understood. Microtubule-associated protein-tau (MAP-Tau) has been describing in BCa but not its variants. This finding could partly explain the neuronal-glial morphology of BCa cells. Our aim was to determine mRNA expression of MAP-tau variants 2, 4 and 6 in breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Cultured cell lines MCF-10A, MDA-MB-231, SKBR3 and T47D were observed under phase-contrast microscopy for neural morphology and analyzed for gene expression of MAP-Tau transcript variants 2, 4 and 6 by real-time PCR. Results: Regarding morphology like neural/glial cells, T47D line shown more cells with these features than MDA-MB-231 and SKBR. In another hand, we found much greater mRNA expression of MAP-Tau transcript variants 2, and to a lesser extent 4 and 6, in T47D cells than the other lines. In conclusion, regulation of MAP-Tau could bring about changes in cytoskeleton, cell morphology and motility; these findings cast further light on neuronal transdifferentiation in BCa.

Transdifferentiation of bovine epithelial cells towards adipocytes in the presence of myoepithelium

  • Sugathan, Subi;Lee, Sung-Jin;Shiwani, Supriya;Singh, Naresh Kumar
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.349-359
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    • 2020
  • Objective: Orchastric changes in the mammary glands are vital, especially during lactation. The secretary epithelial cells together with the supporting myoepithelial and stromal cells function cordially to secrete milk. Increase in the number of luminal epithelial cells and a decrease in adipocytes are visible during lactation, whereas the reverse happens in the involution. However, an early involution occurs if the epithelial cells transdifferentiate towards adipocytes during the lactation period. We aimed to inhibit the adipocyte transdifferentiation of luminal cells by restraining the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) pathway. Methods: Linolenic acid (LA) and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) induced adipogenesis in mammary epithelial cells were conducted in monolayer, mixed culture as well as in transwell plate co-culture with mammary myoepithelial cells. Results: Co-culture with myoepithelial cells showed higher adipogenic gene expression in epithelial cells under LA+TZDs treatment. Increase in the expressions of PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and vimentin in both mRNA as well as protein levels were observed. Whereas, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether treatment blocked LA+TZDs induced adipogenesis, as it could not show a significant rise in adipose related markers. Although comparative results were found in both mixed culture and monolayer conditions, co-culture technic was found to work better than the others. Conclusion: Antagonizing PPARγ pathway in the presence of myoepithelial cells can significantly reduce the adipogenisis in epithelial cells, suggesting therapeutic inhibition of PPARγ can be considered to counter early involution or excessive adipogenesis in mammary epithelium in animals.

Effects of Ectopic Expression of Transcription Factors on Adipogenic Transdifferentiation in Bovine Myoblasts (한우(Bos taurus coreanae) 유래 myoblast에서 전사인자 과발현에 의한 지방세포로의 교차 분화 유도)

  • Moon, Yang Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.10
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    • pp.1316-1323
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    • 2012
  • The present study was conducted to investigate whether myoblasts can be transdifferentiated into adipocytes by ectopic expression of adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-${\gamma}$ ($PPAR{\gamma}$), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-${\alpha}$ (C/$EBP{\alpha}$), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c), and Krueppel-like factor 5 (KLF5), in primary bovine satellite cells. Transcription factors were transiently transfected into primary bovine myoblasts, and the cells were cultured with adipogenic differentiation medium for 2 days and then cultured on growth medium for an additional 8 days. Ectopic expression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ or C/$EBP{\alpha}$ alone was insufficient to induce adipogenesis in myoblasts. However, overexpression of both $PPAR{\gamma}$ and C/$EBP{\alpha}$ in myoblasts was able to induce adipogenic transdifferentiation as indicated by the appearance of mature adipocytes, the induction of adipogenic gene expressions, and the suppression of myogenic gene expressions. In addition, KLF5 and $PPAR{\gamma}$ co-transfected bovine myoblasts were converted to adipocytes but not in cells transfected with only KLF5 expression vector. Overexpression of SREBP1c alone was sufficient to induce transdifferentiation from myoblasts into adipocytes. These results demonstrate that primary bovine satellite cells can be transdifferentiated into adipocytes either by single ectopic expression or combined expression of adipogenic transcription factors in a culture system.