• Title, Summary, Keyword: Transcription Activator-like Effector Nuclease [TALEN]

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No excessive mutations in transcription activator-like effector nuclease-mediated α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout Yucatan miniature pigs

  • Choi, Kimyung;Shim, Joohyun;Ko, Nayoung;Park, Joonghoon
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.360-372
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    • 2020
  • Objective: Specific genomic sites can be recognized and permanently modified by genome editing. The discovery of endonucleases has advanced genome editing in pigs, attenuating xenograft rejection and cross-species disease transmission. However, off-target mutagenesis caused by these nucleases is a major barrier to putative clinical applications. Furthermore, off-target mutagenesis by genome editing has not yet been addressed in pigs. Methods: Here, we generated genetically inheritable α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) knockout Yucatan miniature pigs by combining transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and nuclear transfer. For precise estimation of genomic mutations induced by TALEN in GGTA1 knockout pigs, we obtained the whole-genome sequence of the donor cells for use as an internal control genome. Results: In-depth whole-genome sequencing analysis demonstrated that TALEN-mediated GGTA1 knockout pigs had a comparable mutation rate to homologous recombination-treated pigs and wild-type strain controls. RNA sequencing analysis associated with genomic mutations revealed that TALEN-induced off-target mutations had no discernable effect on RNA transcript abundance. Conclusion: Therefore, TALEN appears to be a precise and safe tool for generating genomeedited pigs, and the TALEN-mediated GGTA1 knockout Yucatan miniature pigs produced in this study can serve as a safe and effective organ and tissue resource for clinical applications.

Generation of Fibroblasts Lacking the Sal-like 1 Gene by Using Transcription Activator-like Effector Nuclease-mediated Homologous Recombination

  • Kim, Se Eun;Kim, Ji Woo;Kim, Yeong Ji;Kwon, Deug-Nam;Kim, Jin-Hoi;Kang, Man-Jong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.564-570
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    • 2016
  • The Sal-like 1 gene (Sall1) is essential for kidney development, and mutations in this gene result in abnormalities in the kidneys. Mice lacking Sall1 show agenesis or severe dysgenesis of the kidneys. In a recent study, blastocyst complementation was used to develop mice and pigs with exogenic organs. In the present study, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated homologous recombination was used to produce Sall1-knockout porcine fibroblasts for developing knockout pigs. The vector targeting the Sall1 locus included a 5.5-kb 5' arm, 1.8-kb 3' arm, and a neomycin resistance gene as a positive selection marker. The knockout vector and TALEN were introduced into porcine fibroblasts by electroporation. Antibiotic selection was performed over 11 days by using $300{\mu}g/mL$ G418. DNA of cells from G418-resistant colonies was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm the presence of fragments corresponding to the 3' and 5' arms of Sall1. Further, mono- and bi-allelic knockout cells were isolated and analyzed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results of our study indicated that TALEN-mediated homologous recombination induced bi-allelic knockout of the endogenous gene.

A One-Step System for Convenient and Flexible Assembly of Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs)

  • Zhao, Jinlong;Sun, Wenye;Liang, Jing;Jiang, Jing;Wu, Zhao
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.9
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    • pp.687-691
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    • 2016
  • Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are powerful tools for targeted genome editing in diverse cell types and organisms. However, the highly identical TALE repeat sequences make it challenging to assemble TALEs using conventional cloning approaches, and multiple repeats in one plasmid are easily catalyzed for homologous recombination in bacteria. Although the methods for TALE assembly are constantly improving, these methods are not convenient because of laborious assembly steps or large module libraries, limiting their broad utility. To overcome the barrier of multiple assembly steps, we report a one-step system for the convenient and flexible assembly of a 180 TALE module library. This study is the first demonstration to ligate 9 mono-/dimer modules and one circular TALEN backbone vector in a one step process, generating 9.5 to 18.5 repeat sequences with an overall assembly rate higher than 50%. This system makes TALEN assembly much simpler than the conventional cloning of two DNA fragments because this strategy combines digestion and ligation into one step using circular vectors and different modules to avoid gel extraction. Therefore, this system provides a convenient tool for the application of TALEN-mediated genome editing in scientific studies and clinical trials.

BK Knockout by TALEN-Mediated Gene Targeting in Osteoblasts: KCNMA1 Determines the Proliferation and Differentiation of Osteoblasts

  • Hei, Hongya;Gao, Jianjun;Dong, Jibin;Tao, Jie;Tian, Lulu;Pan, Wanma;Wang, Hongyu;Zhang, Xuemei
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.7
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    • pp.530-535
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    • 2016
  • Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels participate in many important physiological functions in excitable tissues such as neurons, cardiac and smooth muscles, whereas the knowledge of BK channels in bone tissues and osteoblasts remains elusive. To investigate the role of BK channels in osteoblasts, we used transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) to establish a BK knockout cell line on rat ROS17/2.8 osteoblast, and detected the proliferation and mineralization of the BK-knockout cells. Our study found that the BKknockout cells significantly decreased the ability of proliferation and mineralization as osteoblasts, compared to the wild type cells. The overall expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes in the BK-knockout cells was significantly lower than that in wild type osteoblast cells. The BK-knockout osteoblast cell line in our study displays a phenotype decrease in osteoblast function which can mimic the pathological state of osteoblast and thus provide a working cell line as a tool for study of osteoblast function and bone related diseases.

Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9

  • Koo, Taeyoung;Lee, Jungjoon;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.475-481
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    • 2015
  • Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.

Current Strategies of Genomic Modification in Livestock and Applications in Poultry

  • Park, Tae Sub
    • Journal of Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.65-69
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    • 2019
  • Since the development of the first genetically-modified mouse, transgenic animals have been utilized for a wide range of industrial applications as well as basic research. To date, these transgenic animals have been used in functional genomics studies, disease models, and therapeutic protein production. Recent advances in genome modification techniques such zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRIPSR)-Cas9, have led to rapid advancement in the generation of genome-tailored livestock, as well as experimental animals; however, the development of genome-edited poultry has shown considerably slower progress compared to that seen in mammals. Here, we will focus primarily on the technical strategies for production of transgenic and gene-edited chickens, and their potential for future applications.

Generation of knockout mouse models of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors by engineered nuclease-mediated genome editing

  • Park, Bo Min;Roh, Jae-il;Lee, Jaehoon;Lee, Han-Woong
    • Laboraroty Animal Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.264-269
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    • 2018
  • Cell cycle dysfunction can cause severe diseases, including neurodegenerative disease and cancer. Mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors controlling the G1 phase of the cell cycle are prevalent in various cancers. Mice lacking the tumor suppressors $p16^{Ink4a}$ (Cdkn2a, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2a), $p19^{Arf}$ (an alternative reading frame product of Cdkn2a,), and $p27^{Kip1}$ (Cdkn1b, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1b) result in malignant progression of epithelial cancers, sarcomas, and melanomas, respectively. Here, we generated knockout mouse models for each of these three cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors using engineered nucleases. The $p16^{Ink4a}$ and $p19^{Arf}$ knockout mice were generated via transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and $p27^{Kip1}$ knockout mice via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9). These gene editing technologies were targeted to the first exon of each gene, to induce frameshifts producing premature termination codons. Unlike preexisting embryonic stem cell-based knockout mice, our mouse models are free from selectable markers or other external gene insertions, permitting more precise study of cell cycle-related diseases without confounding influences of foreign DNA.