• Title, Summary, Keyword: Traditional salt

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Effects of Traditional Salt on the Quality Characteristics and Growth of Microorganisms from Kimchi (자염(煮鹽)으로 담근 배추김치의 발효숙성 중 이화학적.관능적 특성 및 자염이 김치발효 미생물의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hye-Ran;Kim, Mee-Ree
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of various kinds of commercial salts, including sun-dried (Korea), purified, and traditional salts on the chemical and sensory properties and growth of microorganisms involved in kimchi fermentation. Kimchi was prepared by salting in 10% NaCl solution for 2 hours followed by addition of other spices and fermentation at $20^{\circ}C$. The decreases in pH suggested that kimchi fermentation can be classified into 3 steps: initial, intermediate, and final stages. In texture analysis, the hardness and fracturability of traditional salt kimchi were higher than those of regular kimchi. From the sensory evaluation test for kimchi, sensory scores were high for traditional salt addition, especially taste, overall preference and texture. Among various microorganisms related to kimchi fermentation, the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pichia membranaefaciens and Escherichia coli were examined. Based on the conditions of kimchi fermentation, a 2% and 5% concentration of each salt were studied. Also, the conditions of the cultures at $37^{\circ}C$ were examined. There was no considerable difference in the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Escherichia coli in the different kinds of salts. However, the growth of Pichia membranaefaciens was strongly inhibited by a 5% concentration of traditional salt during incubation at $37^{\circ}C$.

Salt Production on the Young-Hea of Eastern Coast in Yi-dynasty (조선시대(朝鮮時代) 자고(煮?) 생산과정(生産過程) - 동해안(東海岸)(영해(寧海))을 중심(中心)으로 -)

  • Choi, Sung-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.279-294
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    • 1986
  • In order to survey the traditional salt production at the eastern coast, Young-Hae, in Yi-dynasty, data of salt production were collected through interviewing with whom had received the skill from ancestors and analyzed the data. The results obtained were as follows. Salt-producer take the salt water containing much salt and then he transported the salt-water by having water buckets an back in with using the water-toting device (Mul ji ge). Finally he carried out the irrigation (Mul dae gi) to a ditch (Dorang). It is noteworthy that the East-sea salt production method was not selecting a method of salt-pond style with a bank for salt production but using the salt water transportation fashion without a bank for that. Judging from these facts, we could conclude that traditional salt production method was handed down into the Yi-dynasty from ancient times.

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Quality Characteristics of Kimchi made with South-East Asian Fish Sauce (동남아산 피시소스를 이용하여 제조한 김치의 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Kuem-Jung;Lee, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.862-874
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    • 2014
  • Salt-fermented fish and fish sauce are very important materials to make Kimchi. They provide good taste and plenty of nutrition to Kimchi during fermentation. However, it is difficult to purchase Korean salt-fermented fish or fish sauce out of Korea. Therefore, to generalize Kimchi for other countries, this research carefully compared the quality differences between Kimchi made with South East Asian fish sauce, which is fairly similar to traditional Korean salt-fermented anchovy extract (Aekjeot) in terms of taste and ingredients, and that made with traditional Korean salt-fermented anchovy extract. To determine quality differences among traditional Korean Kimchies made with different sauces, Korean-made salt-fermented shrimp, salt-fermented shrimp extract, salt-fermented anchovy and salt-fermented anchovy extract were used. Of the four Kimchis, the one made with salt-fermented anchovy extract was chosen as a control sample and compared with those made with three different South-East Asian fish sauces. In the sensory evaluation for acceptance of fish sauces, characteristics of taste, texture and overall acceptance showed significant differences. In the sensory evaluation for differences, characteristics of fish odor and crunchiness showed visible differences. For umami taste, all fish sauces received higher points than Korean salt-fermented anchovy extract (control sample), although the difference was not significant. Sensory evaluation and research results show that Kimchi can become a highly likable food overseas and Kimchi can substitute easily bought South-East Asian fish sauces for Korean salt-fermented fish sauces (Jeotkal).

The Changes of Component in Traditional Korean Soy Sauce During Ripening Period(I) (숙성기간에 따른 재래 간장의 성분변화(I))

  • 정혜정;손경희
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 1994
  • In this stydy, Korean traditional Meju adjusted with: the salt contents of 12%, 16%, 20% and the ripeming periods of 90, 135 and 180 days. The results were summerized as follows; 1 The changes of moisture content in soy sauce by 16% salt content was slightly high and the protein was 5.88 by 12%, salt content 2. As the ripening periods was increased, the pH was decreased, on the other hand the total acidity was increased slightly. 3. In the 180 day ripened sample, the salt content increa-sed and the 12% salt content represented 30.6ft salt content. 4. The reduced sugar decreased 135 day ripening, but it increased 180 day ripening at 12fs, 16fs, 20fs salt content. 5. The amino acid content siginificantly decreased by salt content (Serine, Arginine), ripeming periods (Glutamic acid, Asparagine, Glycine, Threomine, Alanine, Methionine, Valine, Isoleucine, Lysine) and ripening time and salt content (Phenylalanine, Leucine) 6. The Fe content decreased 12% salt content while it increa-sed 16% 20% salt content. 7. According to the ripening time, there were significant changes in color, clearance, taste, flavor and over all acceptabilities. As the lower the acceptabilities on flavor or taste increase.

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A Plan for Improving Quality of Traditional Soybean Paste (전통된장의 품질개선에 관한 연구)

  • 최동원
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.218-223
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    • 2003
  • This study is proceeded on the development of standard method for making soybean paste by Korean traditional method. Fermentation condition of Meju was 1) Pre-fermentation : 30 days in about 20$^{\circ}C$ room, 2) Main fermentation : 5 days in 30$^{\circ}C$ or upper temperature, 3) Post fermentation and drying : 30 days in well sunlightened room in January. Meju was soaked in 18% salt solution(Meju 7kg/salt solution 20L) for 35~40 days (from late February to early April) and after soaking Meju was filtered as unsoluble solute and crushed and put into traditional Korean receptacle(named 'Dok'). Crushed Meju was stored from early April to mid September and Meju was changed into soybean paste(Doen-jang). During fermentation amino acid nitrogen in Doen-jang was slightly increased in early period and decreased lately. It has been proved that by panel test soybean paste made by the method suggested in this study was more excellent than commercially fermented soybean paste. This study has presented the possibility of commercial production of soybean paste made by traditional method.

Analysis of Quality Characteristics of Regional Traditional and Commercial Soybean Pastes (Doenjang) (지역별 전통된장과 개량된장의 품질특성)

  • Park, Sun-Young;Kim, Seulki;Hong, Sang-pil;Lim, Sang-Dong
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.686-695
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the quality characteristics of traditional and commercial soybean pastes (Doenjang) for development of traditional soybean pastes. Methods: Proximate compositions, amino acid nitrogen contents, pH, acidity, salt contents, chromaticity, viable bacteria and inorganic substance contents of nineteen traditional and three commercial Doenjang were investigated. Results: Analysis of proximate compositions indicated a significant difference between samples. In moisture content, D10 did not meet the standard of food codex. The contents of moisture, fat, protein and ash were slightly higher in traditional than commercial Doenjang. However, the carbohydrate content was 2-fold higher in commercial than traditional, and thus, the calories were also higher. The amino nitrogen content was lower in commercial than traditional Doenjang. pH, acidity and salt contents of Doenjang were pH 4.67-6.15, 1.53-3.29%, and 9.01-18.78%, respectively. pH and acidity showed no significant differences between traditional and commercial Doenjang, however, salt contents were significantly higher in traditional than commercial Doenjang. In case of chromaticity, the averages of L, a, b values were higher in traditional Doenjang. In microbiological analysis, total bacteria counts were higher in traditional than commercial Doenjang. The number of Bacillus cereus in D12 and D19 exceeded the standard of food codex. Staphylococcus aureust was undetected in all samples. The number of fungi varied widely between samples, with no detection in five traditional and all commercial Doenjang. Results of inorganic substance analysis indicated that contents of inorganic substances in Doenjang were in order of Na, K, Mg and Ca. Overall, Na content was higher in traditional Doenjang. Contents of inorganic substances showed wide variations in traditional Doenjang. Conclusion: For the development of traditional Doenjang, quality standardization and ensuring safety are considered necessary.

Physicochemical Analysis of Korean Traditional Soy Sauce and Commercial Soy sauce (재래식 조선간장과 시판양조간장의 이화학적 특성 연구)

  • 김영아;김현숙;정명준
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.273-278
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    • 1996
  • To investigate the main components of Korean traditional soy sauce for its typical taste, we compare the physicochemical properties of Korean traditional soy sauce and commercial soy sauce. The physicochemical analysis revealed that each components showed significant difference between Korean traditional soy sauce and commercial soy sauce. The significant characters for discrimination between Korean traditional soy sauce and commercial soy sauce were salt content, ammonia nitrogen content and total acidity (R$^2$=0.99). The components of Korean traditional soy sauce divided into 3 clusters, and each group is characterized as formol nitrogen, salt and total nitrogen content by cluster analysis. Main amino acids of Korean traditional soy sauce were alanine, glutamic acid, leucine and valine.

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Study on Sugar, Amino Acid, and Sensory Characteristics in Traditional Korean Gyupjang (Soy sauce) According to Different Methods (제조방법을 달리한 겹장의 당, 아미노산 분석 및 관능 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kyungmin;Lee, Jiyoon;Chung, Rak Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.348-356
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical contents (sugar, nitrogen, and amino acids) and sensory characteristics of traditional soy sauce according to three different methods. The samples were taken from four different periods (0, 20, 40, and 60 days after fermentation). Total sugar contents increased in all groups according to ripening period, and Gyupjang (G) showed the highest sugar content among the groups. Total nitrogen and amino acid contents of all groups increased after 60 days of ripening, and Gyupjang (G) and Gyupjang mixed with salt water (SG) had higher total nitrogen content compared to Chungjang (S) at the same period. The results from the sensory evaluation show that preferable sensory characteristics, such as color preferences, sweetness, umami taste, and overall preference, were significantly higher in Gyupjang (G) and Gyupjang mixed with salt water (SG) than in Chungjang (S). Preferable sensory characteristics had significantly high positive correlation with most amino acids, total nitrogen, and sugar contents, except for glutamine. Based on the significant difference in preferable sensory characteristics between Gyupjang mixed with salt water (SG) and Chungjang (S), Gyupjang mixed with salt water (SG) can be used to improve sensory characteristics. This research implies that adding salt water during the manufacturing Gyupjang process is advisable to yield high quality soy sauce.

Effects of bamboo salt on dental caries prevention (임상가를 위한 특집 2 - 죽염을 이용한 우식예방)

  • Choi, Choong-Ho
    • The journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.50 no.9
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    • pp.552-557
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    • 2012
  • Bamboo salt is a special processed salt by Korean traditional recipe. Recent study results showed that bamboo salt or bamboo salt with some other materials like herbal extracts have the anti-microbial activity, inhibition effects of dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Bamboo salt also showed anti-cariogenic effects; remineralization and acid resistance. Compare to fluoride toothpaste, bomboo salt toothpaste with fluoride showed the more effective remineralization on inner part of the early dental caries lesion. It increased the surface hardness and decreased lesion depth of early dental caries lesion. Thus, it is suggested thai bamboo salt could be used as a anti-microbial, anti-plaque, anti-inflammatory and anti-cariogenic material for oral disease prevention. Especially, bamboo salt dentifrice with fluoride can be recommanded as a useful remineralizing agent.

Investigation and Removal Method of Efflorescence Phenomenon of Traditional Bricks - Focusing on the Efflorescence of Hwaseong Fortress in Suwon - (전(塼)의 백화현상 규명 및 제거방안 연구 - 수원화성 백화현상을 중심으로 -)

  • Chung, Kwang-Yong;Cha, Hyun-Seok
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 2013
  • This study progressed an investigation on the cause of the efflorescence phenomenon of bricks in Suwon Hwaseong Fortress, which is designated as a UNESCO World Heritage by using diverse scientific analyses. The samples were taken in Hwaseong and analyzed using XRD and SEM-EDS for the material identification of efflorescence. We observed under a polarizing microscope and measured absorption factors for the basic investigation for traditional bricks. As a result of material identification, soluble salt($Na_2SO_4$, $KNO_3$) and insoluble salt($CaCO_3$) were detected. There was no big difference between original bricks and repaired bricks under the polarizing microscope. However, in terms of the water absorption rate, bricks which were used for repair nowadays showed low water absorption rate(1%). In conclusion, soluble salt and insoluble salt appeared due to an effect of an air pollution and joint mortar. Soluble salt was removed in the rainy season, but insoluble salt was not removed. As a result of the efficiency and safety tests for chemicals removing efflorescence, chemical E is likely to be the suitable chemicals for the efflorescence phenomenon of traditional bricks in Suwon Hwaseong Fortress. In the future, consideration whether the use of lime is available or not should be studied through comprehensive researches including repair work, construction work and the environment factor with lime. Also, physical, chemical identifications of repairing bricks will be required.