• Title, Summary, Keyword: Trace mineral

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Effects of Different Levels of Vitamin-Mineral Premixes on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Growing-Finishing Pigs

  • Tian, J.Z.;Lee, J.H.;Kim, J.D.;Han, Y.K.;Park, K.M.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.515-524
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    • 2001
  • Two experiments using growing and finishing pigs (Landrace$\times$Duroc$\times$Yorkshire) were conducted to determine the effects of different levels of vitamins and trace minerals (VTM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics and meat quality of growing-finishing pigs, and to evaluate the suitability of vitamin-mineral levels commonly used in the swine industry in Korea. A total of 120 three crossbred (Landrace$\times$Duroc$\times$Yorkshire) growing (Experiment I: 20.90 0.44 kg average initial body weight) and finishing (Experiment II: 53.55 0.97 kg average initial body weight) were used in 6 and 9 weeks feeding trials, respectively. Pigs were allotted on the basis of sex and weight to 5 treatments with 6 replications per treatment with 4 pigs per pen in a completely randomized block design. Treatments were: 1) control, 2) fat soluble vitamin 200% vs. control, 3) water soluble vitamin 200% vs. control, 4) trace mineral 50% vs. control, 5) trace mineral 200% vs. control. In experiment I, during the overall experimental period (0 to 6 weeks, 21 to 54 kg body weight), ADG of the 200% trace mineral supplemented group was significantly higher than that of the 50% trace mineral supplemented group. There were no significant differences among other the treatments. Digestibility of crude protein was lowest in mineral 50% supplemented group (p<0.05). Calcium digestibility was significantly higher in the 200% fat soluble vitamin supplemented group than in the other treatments (p<0.05). In experiment II, during the overall experimental period (0 to 9 weeks, 54 to 106 kg body weight), growth performance was not significantly affected by dietary vitamin and trace mineral levels. However, increasing level of water soluble vitamins at the level of 200% compared to control had a tendency to improve the overall growth performance. Overall carcass characteristics except for carcass length did not differ among pigs fed the dietary treatments. Loin eye area, pH, drip loss and shear force of meat were not affected by dietary vitamin and trace mineral levels. There was a trend for less fat content (%) in pork when the level of vitamin and trace mineral was increased, but the difference was not significant. Flavor score was the lowest in control and highest in the 200% fat soluble vitamin supplemented group (p<0.05). Juiciness of muscle was lower in the 200% fat soluble vitamin supplemented group than other dietary treatments, except for trace mineral 50% supplemented group (p<0.05). Based on these results, it is suggested that "typical" commercial levels of vitamin and trace minerals used by feed companies in Korea are sufficient to meet requirement for the maximum growth of growing-finishing pigs. Our results suggests that a reduction in trace mineral levels in commercial diets could be considered to reduce feed cost and nutrient excretion with economic and environmental benefits.

Trace Mineral Nutrition in Poultry and Swine

  • Richards, James D.;Zhao, Junmei;Harrell, Robert J.;Atwell, Cindy A.;Dibner, Julia J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1527-1534
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    • 2010
  • Trace minerals such as zinc, copper, and manganese are essential cofactors for hundreds of cellular enzymes and transcription factors in all animal species, and thus participate in a wide variety of biochemical processes. Immune development and response, tissue and bone development and integrity, protection against oxidative stress, and cellular growth and division are just a few examples. Deficiencies in trace minerals can lead to deficits in any of these processes, as well as reductions in growth performance. As such, most animal diets are supplemented with inorganic and/or organic forms of trace minerals. Inorganic trace minerals (ITM) such as sulfates and oxides form the bulk of trace mineral supplementation, but these forms of minerals are well known to be prone to dietary antagonisms. Feeding high-quality chelated trace minerals or other classes of organic trace minerals (OTM) can provide the animal with more bioavailable forms of the minerals. Interestingly, many, if not most, published experiments show little or no difference in the bioavailability of OTMs versus ITMs. In some cases, it appears that there truly is no difference. However, real differences in bioavailability can be masked if source comparisons are not made on the linear portion of the dose-response curve. When highly bioavailable chelated minerals are fed, they will better supply the biochemical systems of the cells of the animal, leading to a wide variety of benefits in both poultry and swine. Indeed, the use of certain chelated trace minerals has been shown to enhance mineral uptake, and improve the immune response, oxidative stress management, and tissue and bone development and strength. Furthermore, the higher bioavailability of these trace minerals allows the producer to achieve similar or improved performance, at reduced levels of trace mineral inclusion.

Effect of Inorganic and Organic Trace Mineral Supplementation on the Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Fecal Mineral Excretion of Phase-fed, Grow-finish Swine

  • Burkett, J.L.;Stalder, K.J.;Powers, W.J.;Bregendahl, K.;Pierce, J.L.;Baas, T.J.;Bailey, T.;Shafer, B.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1279-1287
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    • 2009
  • Concentrated livestock production has led to soil nutrient accumulation concerns. To reduce the environmental impact, it is necessary to understand current recommended livestock feeding practices. Two experiments were conducted to compare the effects of trace mineral supplementation on performance, carcass composition, and fecal mineral excretion of phase-fed, grow-finish pigs. Crossbred pigs (Experiment 1 (Exp. 1), (n = 528); Experiment 2 (Exp. 2), (n = 560)) were housed in totally-slatted, confinement barns, blocked by weight, penned by sex, and randomly assigned to pens at approximately 18 kg BW. Treatments were allocated in a randomized complete block design (12 replicate pens per treatment) with 9 to 12 pigs per pen throughout the grow-finish period. In Exp. 1, the control diet (Io100) contained Cu as $CuSO_{4}$, Fe as $FeSO_{4}$, and Zn (of which 25% was ZnO and 75% was $ZnO_{4}$) at concentrations of 63 and 378 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment 2 (O100) contained supplemental Cu, Fe, and Zn from organic sources (Bioplex, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) at concentrations of 19, 131, and 91 mg/kg, respectively, which are the commercially recommended dietary inclusion levels for these organic trace minerals. Organic Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations from O100 were reduced by 25% and 50% to form treatments 3 (O75) and 4 (O50-1), respectively. In Exp. 2, treatment 5 (Io25) contained 25% of the Cu, Fe, and Zn (inorganic sources) concentrations found in Io100. Treatment 6 (O50-2) was identical to the O50-1 diet from Exp. 1. Treatment 7 (O25) contained the experimental microminerals reduced by 75% from concentrations found in O100. Treatment 8 (O0) contained no trace mineral supplementation and served as a negative control for Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, tenth-rib backfat, loin muscle area and ADG did not differ (p>0.05) between treatments. Pigs fed the control diet (Io100) consumed less feed (p<0.01) compared to pigs fed diets containing organic trace minerals, thus, G:F was greater (p = 0.03). In Exp. 2, there were no differences among treatment means for loin muscle area, but pigs fed the reduced organic trace mineral diets consumed less (p<0.05) feed and tended (p = 0.10) to have less tenth-rib backfat compared to pigs fed the reduced inorganic trace mineral diet. Considering that performance and feed intake of pigs was not affected by lower dietary trace mineral inclusion, mineral excretion could be reduced during the grow-finish phase by reducing dietary trace mineral concentration.

Effects of Trace Mineral Supplementation and Source, 30 Days Post-weaning and 28 Days Post Receiving, on Performance and Health of Feeder Cattle

  • Dorton, K.L.;Engle, T.E.;Enns, R.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1450-1454
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    • 2006
  • Three hundred and seventy-five steers (approximately 7 mo of age and $239.0{\pm}10.4kg$) were utilized to determine the effects of trace mineral (TM) supplementation and source on performance during the on-farm backgrounding and feedlot receiving phases of beef cattle production. At their respective ranches, steers were stratified by body weight into six groups. Groups were then assigned to one of six pens and pens were randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments consisted of: 1) control (no supplemental Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co), 2) inorganic trace mineral ($CuSO_4$, $ZnSO_4$, $MnSO_4$, and $CoCO_3$), and 3) organic trace mineral (iso-amounts of organic Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co). Mineral treatments were fed in alfalfa pellets formulated to supply 360 mg of Zn, 200 mg of Mn, 125 mg of Cu, and 12.5 mg of Co per head per day from either organic or inorganic trace mineral sources. Control steers received alfalfa pellets with no additional Cu, Zn, Mn, or Co. Steers were allowed free access to harvested alfalfa-grass hay throughout the 30-d on-farm backgrounding phase. On day 30 post-weaning, steers were weighed and transported to the feedlot. Steers were blocked by treatment within ranch, stratified by initial body weight, and randomly assigned to one of 36 pens (9-12 head per pen; 12 pens per treatment). Steers remained on the same on-farm backgrounding trace mineral treatments, however, trace mineral treatments were included in the total mixed growing ration. Steers were fed a corn silage-based growing diet throughout the 28 d feedlot receiving period. There was no effect of TM supplementation on performance of steers during the on-farm backgrounding phase. By the end of the 28-d feedlot receiving phase, ADG was similar between control and trace mineral supplemented steers. Steers supplemented with organic TM had greater (p<0.05) ADG than steers supplemented with inorganic TM by the end of the 28-d feedlot receiving phase. Morbidity and mortality rates were similar across treatments.

Evaluation of trace mineral source and preharvest deletion of trace minerals from finishing diets on tissue mineral status in pigs

  • Ma, Y.L.;Lindemann, M.D.;Webb, S.F.;Rentfrow, G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.252-262
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    • 2018
  • Objective: An experiment was conducted to evaluate dietary supplemental trace mineral source and deletion on mineral content in tissues. Methods: Weanling crossbred pigs (n = 144; 72 barrows and 72 gilts; body weight [BW] = $7.4{\pm}1.05kg$) were used. A basal diet was prepared, and trace mineral premix containing either inorganic (ITM) or organic (OTM) trace minerals (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) was added to the basal diet. Pigs were blocked by sex and BW and randomly allotted to 24 pens for a total of 6 pigs per pen, and fed a diet containing either ITM or OTM supplemented at the 1998 NRC requirement estimates for each of 5 BW phases (Phase I to V) from 7 to 120 kg. The trace mineral supplementation was deleted for 6, 4, 2, and 0 wk of Phase V; regarding nutrient adequacy during this phase, the indigenous dietary Fe and Mn was sufficient, Cu was marginal and Zn was deficient. Results: At the end of Phase IV, Mn content (mg/kg on the dry matter basis) was greater (p<0.05) in heart (0.77 vs 0.68), kidney (6.32 vs 5.87), liver (9.46 vs 8.30), and longissimus dorsi (LD; 0.30 vs 0.23) of pigs fed OTM. The pigs fed OTM were greater (p<0.05) in LD Cu (2.12 vs 1.89) and Fe (21.75 vs 19.40) and metacarpal bone Zn (141.86 vs 130.05). At the end of Phase V, increased length of deletion period (from 0 to 6 wk) resulted in a decrease (linear, p<0.01) in liver Zn (196.5 to 121.8), metacarpal bone Zn (146.6 to 86.2) and an increase (linear, p<0.01) in heart Mn (0.70 to 1.08), liver Mn (7.74 to 12.96), and kidney Mn (5.58 to 7.56). The only mineral source by deletion period interaction (p<0.05) was observed in LD Zn. Conclusion: The results demonstrated differential effects of mineral deletion on tissue mineral content depending on both mineral assessed and source of the mineral.

Determination of Mineral and Trace Elements in Ganoderma Lucidum Consumed in China, Vietnam and Korea

  • Nguyen Thi Van;Park Moon-Ki
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.21-26
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    • 2007
  • The concentrations of fourteen mineral and trace elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Se, Ba, Co, Cu, V, Pb, Hg, Cd and As) were determined in Ganoderma Lucidum and their infusions consumed for medical purposes collected from Vietnam, China and some places in Korea. Concentrated acid digestion procedure was applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of these medicinal fungi. Element concentrations in these fungi and their in-fusions were then determined by ICP-AES. The mineral and trace element content of these samples and their in-fusions showed a wide variability However, distribution of some elements in the infusions is not high.

Potential Antioxidant Trace Mineral (Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe) Concentrations Measured by Biochemical Indices in South Koreans

  • Cho, Young-Eun;Byun, Young-Mee;Kwak, Eun-Hee;Yoon, Jin-Sook;Oh, Hyun-Mee;Kim, Jae-Wang;Shin, Hyun-Soo;Kwon, Chong-Suk;Kwun, In-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.374-382
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    • 2004
  • The concern of the antioxidant micronutrient status in normal healthy people, including antioxidant trace minerals such as Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Se is focused since systemic oxidation is involved in various chronic diseases. In the present study, we evaluated the concentration of trace minerals (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe) which are considered as potential antioxidant minerals in plasma, red blood cells (RBCs) and urine in normal healthy Korean subjects. The 760 subjects (male 341, female 419; mean age 54.2 $\pm$ 18.9) were recruited from the rural, urban and metropolitan city in South Korea. Dietary intake was evaluated using 24-hours recall for general major nutrient intake assessment. The trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe) concentrations in plasma, RBCs, and urine were measured by inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer (ICP) and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Cu and Zn levels in plasma, RBCs and urine in normal healthy South Koreans were within the normal range of those mineral levels, but Mn and Fe levels were higher compared to the normal range of those mineral levels. None of the selected trace mineral levels in plasma and RBC's was lower than the normal range value. The results showed that Zn and Cu levels in plasma and RBC's in Korean were within the normal range, and plasma and urinary Mn and Fe levels were higher than the normal reference values. Potential antioxidant trace mineral (Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) levels in Koreans are within or a bit higher than the normal range.

Influence of a Single Dose of Fe Dextran Administration with Organic Trace Mineral Supplementation on the Performance of Piglets

  • Acda, S.P.;Joo, J.W.;Kim, W.T.;Shim, Y.H.;Lee, S.H.;Chae, B.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.1469-1474
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    • 2002
  • This study was designed to evaluate the influence of a single or double dose of Fe dextran with organic trace mineral supplementation on the performance of piglets from dams fed diets with either inorganic (ITM) or organic trace minerals (OTM). It also determined the effect of the source of the trace minerals on the reproductive performance of sows. The trace mineral premixes were prepared using metal proteinates and the corresponding inorganic salts for the OTM and the ITM, respectively. Each mineral premix provided 100 ppm Fe/175 ppm Fe, 35 ppm Cu/170 ppm Cu, 90 ppm Zn/120 ppm Zn, and 40 ppm Mn/35 ppm Mn when added at 0.20% in sows /weaned pigs' diets, respectively. The first dose of Fe dextran was administered to piglets at 3 d and the second dose at 10 d after birth. One dose of Fe dextran supplied 100 mg of Fe. A total of 16 gestating sows (Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire) in parities 2 to 4 were randomly allocated to four treatments: 1) diet with ITM/one dose of Fe dextran to piglets, 2) diet with ITM/two doses of Fe dextran to piglets, 3) diet with OTM/one dose of Fe dextran to piglets, and 4) diet with OTM/two doses of Fe dextran to piglets. The total born alive, weaned, body weight at birth and at weaning were not affected by the sow's dietary treatment. Although organic trace mineral supplementation tended to increase the milk Fe content (p<0.10) at 7 d postpartum, piglets in all treatments performed equally from birth to weaning. The double doses of Fe dextran neither improved the average daily gain (ADG) nor influenced the survival of piglets from birth to weaning (21 d). Results suggest that a single dose of Fe dextran given to suckling pigs is adequate to sustain their needs for growth throughout the lactation period (21 d). Furthermore, there was a 21% improvement in both the ADG and the average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) in weaned pigs fed diets with OTM. Cu and Fe in the liver (p<0.01), and Zn in both the bone (p<0.01) and the serum (p<0.01) were higher in piglets fed OTM than in those fed ITM. It would be concluded that single dose of Fe dextran administration with organic trace mineral supplementation show similar growth performance compared to 2 dose Fe dextran administration with inorganic mineral supplementation in young pigs.

Low-dose of organic trace minerals reduced fecal mineral excretion without compromising performance of laying hens

  • Qiu, Jialing;Lu, Xintao;Ma, Lianxiang;Hou, Chuanchuan;He, Junna;Liu, Bing;Yu, Dongyou;Lin, Gang;Xu, Jiming
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.588-596
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low doses of organic trace minerals (iron, copper, manganese, and zinc) on productive performance, egg quality, yolk and tissue mineral retention, and fecal mineral excretion of laying hens during the late laying period. Methods: A total of 405 healthy hens (HY-Line White, 50-week-old) were randomly divided into 3 treatments, with 9 replicates per treatment and 15 birds per replicate. The dietary treatments included feeding a basal diet + inorganic trace minerals at commercial levels (CON), a basal diet + inorganic trace minerals at 1/3 commercial levels (ITM), and a basal diet + proteinated trace minerals at 1/3 commercial levels (TRT). The trial lasted for 56 days. Results: Compared to CON, ITM decreased (p<0.05) egg production, daily egg mass, albumen height, eggshell strength, yolk Fe concentration, serum alkaline phosphatase activity and total protein, and increased (p<0.05) egg loss and feed to egg ratio. Whereas with productive performance, egg quality, yolk mineral retention, and serum indices there were no differences (p>0.05) between CON and TRT. The concentrations of Fe and Mn in the tissue and tibia were changed notably in ITM relative to CON and TRT. Both ITM and TRT reduced (p<0.05) fecal mineral excretion compared to CON. Conclusion: These results indicate that dietary supplementation of low-dose organic trace minerals reduced fecal mineral excretion without negatively impacting hen performance and egg quality.

Effects of low-dose organic trace minerals on performance, mineral status, and fecal mineral excretion of sows

  • Ma, Lianxiang;He, Junna;Lu, Xintao;Qiu, Jialing;Hou, Chuanchuan;Liu, Bing;Lin, Gang;Yu, Dongyou
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.132-138
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    • 2020
  • Objective: To investigate the effects of low-dose trace mineral proteinates on reproductive performance, mineral status, milk immunoglobulin contents and fecal mineral excretion of sows. Methods: Eighty crossbred sows (Landrace×Large White) were randomly allocated to two groups in a 135-day trail, from breeding through 21 d postpartum. The two treatments were inorganic trace minerals (ITM): a basal diet+inorganic iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) at 90, 15, 25 and 90 mg/kg, respectively and organic trace minerals (OTM): a basal diet+proteinates of Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn at 72, 12, 20, and 72 mg/kg, respectively. Results: Compared with ITM, OTM significantly increased (p<0.05) the number of piglets with birthweight >1 kg, the litter weaning weight, and milk Fe, Cu contents. No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed on sow hair mineral contents or immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA contents in colostrum and milk. In comparsion to ITM, OTM decreased fecal Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn contents of gestating sows (p<0.01) and Fe, Mn, and Zn in lactating sows (p<0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that low-dose mineral proteinates can increase the number of piglets with birthweight >1 kg, the litter weaning weight and certain milk mineral concentrations while reducing fecal mineral excretion.