• Title, Summary, Keyword: Trace Minerals

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Trace Mineral Nutrition in Poultry and Swine

  • Richards, James D.;Zhao, Junmei;Harrell, Robert J.;Atwell, Cindy A.;Dibner, Julia J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1527-1534
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    • 2010
  • Trace minerals such as zinc, copper, and manganese are essential cofactors for hundreds of cellular enzymes and transcription factors in all animal species, and thus participate in a wide variety of biochemical processes. Immune development and response, tissue and bone development and integrity, protection against oxidative stress, and cellular growth and division are just a few examples. Deficiencies in trace minerals can lead to deficits in any of these processes, as well as reductions in growth performance. As such, most animal diets are supplemented with inorganic and/or organic forms of trace minerals. Inorganic trace minerals (ITM) such as sulfates and oxides form the bulk of trace mineral supplementation, but these forms of minerals are well known to be prone to dietary antagonisms. Feeding high-quality chelated trace minerals or other classes of organic trace minerals (OTM) can provide the animal with more bioavailable forms of the minerals. Interestingly, many, if not most, published experiments show little or no difference in the bioavailability of OTMs versus ITMs. In some cases, it appears that there truly is no difference. However, real differences in bioavailability can be masked if source comparisons are not made on the linear portion of the dose-response curve. When highly bioavailable chelated minerals are fed, they will better supply the biochemical systems of the cells of the animal, leading to a wide variety of benefits in both poultry and swine. Indeed, the use of certain chelated trace minerals has been shown to enhance mineral uptake, and improve the immune response, oxidative stress management, and tissue and bone development and strength. Furthermore, the higher bioavailability of these trace minerals allows the producer to achieve similar or improved performance, at reduced levels of trace mineral inclusion.

Effects of Organic Trace Mineral Supplementation on Sows' Reproductive and Neonates' Growth Performance through 2 wk Postweaning

  • Acda, S.P.;Chae, B.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.1312-1318
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    • 2002
  • A feeding trial using sows and their neonates was conducted to determine the effects of source and level of organic trace mineral supplementation on reproductive performance of sows and the subsequent performance of their neonates through 2 wk post weaning. A total of 16 gestating sows ($Landrace{\times}$Yorkshire) in parities 2 to 4 were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments following a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design. One of the two factors evaluated the effect of the source (inorganic vs organic), and the second factor evaluated the effect of the level (low vs high) of trace minerals added to the diet. The trace mineral premixes were formulated to provide a low concentration of trace minerals (50 ppm Fe/87.5 ppm Fe, 17.5 ppm Cu/85 ppm Cu, 45 ppm Zn/60 ppm Zn, and 20 ppm Mn/17.5 ppm Mn), and a high concentration of trace minerals (100 ppm Fe/175 ppm Fe, 35 ppm Cu/170 ppm Cu, 90 ppm Zn/120 ppm Zn, 40 ppm Mn/35 ppm Mn), when included at 0.20% in sows'/weaned pigs' diets, respectively. The total number born, total born alive and weaned, and the average neonate weight at birth were affected neither by the dietary source nor by the level of trace minerals (p>0.05), but an interaction effect (p<0.05) between the source and level of trace minerals was observed on the average weight at weaning. The neonates from sows fed the low level of organic trace minerals gained weight at an equal rate compared with those farrowed by sows fed the high level of inorganic trace minerals. Sows fed the organic trace minerals nursed their young with milk higher in Fe and Zn (p<0.05) compared with those fed diets with inorganic trace minerals. Consequently, the weaned pigs receiving the organic form of trace minerals tended to grow at a faster rate, consumed less feed and tended to utilize their feed more efficiently (p<0.10). It was further observed that the organic trace minerals significantly increased (p<0.05) Fe contents in the liver and serum, and Zn in the serum and bone. In conclusion, sows and neonates fed the organic minerals at low level showed similar performance compared with those fed the inorganic minerals at high level as specified in this study.

Mineral Retention in Young Broiler Chicks Fed Diets Based on Wheat, Sorghum or Maize

  • Thomas, D.V.;Ravindran, V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.68-73
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    • 2010
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in mineral retention of broiler chicks fed diets based on wheat, sorghum or maize during the first two weeks post-hatch. The retention of five major minerals (calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and magnesium) and four trace minerals (iron, manganese, zinc and copper) was determined on days 3, 5, 7, 9 and 14 of age. The retention coefficients of individual minerals differed widely and the retention coefficients of major minerals were found to be considerably higher than those of trace minerals. Age effects were significant (p<0.05) for all minerals. In general, mineral retention coefficients were highest at day 3, declined to day 7, and remained unchanged to day 14. Decline in mineral retention with age was similar on all three diets. The cereal effect was significant (p<0.05) for several minerals, with a general tendency for the sorghum-based diet to have greater retention than maize- or wheat-based diets.

Effect of feeding mixed microbial culture fortified with trace minerals on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen and trace mineral balance in Sheep

  • Kwak, W.S.;Kim, Y.I.;Choi, D.Y.;Lee, Y.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.58 no.5
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    • pp.21.1-21.8
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    • 2016
  • Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of feeding trace mineralsfortified mixed microbial culture (TMC) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, blood electrolyte status, nitrogen balance, and trace mineral balance in sheep. Methods: Mixed microbes [0.6 % (v/w) of Enterobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Saccharomyces sp.] were cultured with 99 % feedstuffs and 0.4 % trace minerals including zinc and copper for ensiling. Six sheep (a mean body weight of $46.5{\pm}1.2kg$) were fed two diets: a control diet (concentrate mix and rye straw) and an experimental diet (a control diet + 3.1 % TMC). Results: TMC feeding did not induce negative effects on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, blood electrolytes, and nitrogen balance in sheep. Feeding with TMC increased the intake of trace minerals (p < 0.05) and did not affect absorption of trace minerals in the whole digestive tract. Feeding with TMC increased fecal excretion and absorbable intake, and retention of zinc and copper (p < 0.05) by 71 % and 77 %, respectively. Conclusion: Feeding with TMC resulted in higher zinc and copper bioavailability and retention without any adverse effects on sheep performance.

Distribution of the trace minerals in the wild duck egg (청둥오리알중 미량광물질의 함량 분포)

  • 이명헌;박신자
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.9-13
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out to quantify 11 trace minerals including Ca in wild duck egg, focused on health-aid-food, with Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry(ICAPS). It showed the highest levels of P, Fe, Zn and Cu in egg yolk compared with those of another constituents in wild duck egg. In egg white, the trace mineral levels were demonstrated K 1096 ppm, Na 1666 ppm, respectively. Therefore the levels of K, Na are considerably high. The contents of Ca and Mg are conspicuously high in egg shell respectively. The essential minerals such as Co, Cr and Mn were trace in all constituent of wild duck egg, respectively.

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Substantial Estimated Availability and NDF-Bound Trace Minerals (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) Contents of Seven Different Seaweeds (7종 해조류 NDF에 결합된 미량무기질(Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn) 함량 및 추정 이용률)

  • Kwak, Yeon-Hwa;Kim, Hyeong-Soo;Choi, Su-Jin;Kim, Dae-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.7
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    • pp.1078-1082
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    • 2010
  • The substantial trace mineral usabilities of seven seaweeds for nutrient evaluation have been studied. As the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) bound trace minerals have been known to be indigestible, these contents were excluded in the digestible trace mineral contents evaluation. Therefore, those four trace mineral contents in seven seaweeds and their NDF-bound contents were estimated. Consequently, the NDF-bound Zn, Cu and Mn contents, except Fe, in seven seaweeds were between 10 and 20% of total trace mineral contents, thus 80~90% of seaweeds trace minerals were observed to be substantially digestible. Although the average estimated availability of Fe in the seaweeds were relatively low, those Zn, Cu and Mn were high in relative to those total contents. Thus, even with consideration of their digestibility, seaweeds could be one of good sources of trace minerals for human nutrition because of their high availabilities of Zn, Cu and Mn.

Potential Antioxidant Trace Mineral (Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe) Concentrations Measured by Biochemical Indices in South Koreans

  • Cho, Young-Eun;Byun, Young-Mee;Kwak, Eun-Hee;Yoon, Jin-Sook;Oh, Hyun-Mee;Kim, Jae-Wang;Shin, Hyun-Soo;Kwon, Chong-Suk;Kwun, In-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.374-382
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    • 2004
  • The concern of the antioxidant micronutrient status in normal healthy people, including antioxidant trace minerals such as Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Se is focused since systemic oxidation is involved in various chronic diseases. In the present study, we evaluated the concentration of trace minerals (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe) which are considered as potential antioxidant minerals in plasma, red blood cells (RBCs) and urine in normal healthy Korean subjects. The 760 subjects (male 341, female 419; mean age 54.2 $\pm$ 18.9) were recruited from the rural, urban and metropolitan city in South Korea. Dietary intake was evaluated using 24-hours recall for general major nutrient intake assessment. The trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe) concentrations in plasma, RBCs, and urine were measured by inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer (ICP) and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Cu and Zn levels in plasma, RBCs and urine in normal healthy South Koreans were within the normal range of those mineral levels, but Mn and Fe levels were higher compared to the normal range of those mineral levels. None of the selected trace mineral levels in plasma and RBC's was lower than the normal range value. The results showed that Zn and Cu levels in plasma and RBC's in Korean were within the normal range, and plasma and urinary Mn and Fe levels were higher than the normal reference values. Potential antioxidant trace mineral (Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) levels in Koreans are within or a bit higher than the normal range.

Low-dose of organic trace minerals reduced fecal mineral excretion without compromising performance of laying hens

  • Qiu, Jialing;Lu, Xintao;Ma, Lianxiang;Hou, Chuanchuan;He, Junna;Liu, Bing;Yu, Dongyou;Lin, Gang;Xu, Jiming
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.588-596
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low doses of organic trace minerals (iron, copper, manganese, and zinc) on productive performance, egg quality, yolk and tissue mineral retention, and fecal mineral excretion of laying hens during the late laying period. Methods: A total of 405 healthy hens (HY-Line White, 50-week-old) were randomly divided into 3 treatments, with 9 replicates per treatment and 15 birds per replicate. The dietary treatments included feeding a basal diet + inorganic trace minerals at commercial levels (CON), a basal diet + inorganic trace minerals at 1/3 commercial levels (ITM), and a basal diet + proteinated trace minerals at 1/3 commercial levels (TRT). The trial lasted for 56 days. Results: Compared to CON, ITM decreased (p<0.05) egg production, daily egg mass, albumen height, eggshell strength, yolk Fe concentration, serum alkaline phosphatase activity and total protein, and increased (p<0.05) egg loss and feed to egg ratio. Whereas with productive performance, egg quality, yolk mineral retention, and serum indices there were no differences (p>0.05) between CON and TRT. The concentrations of Fe and Mn in the tissue and tibia were changed notably in ITM relative to CON and TRT. Both ITM and TRT reduced (p<0.05) fecal mineral excretion compared to CON. Conclusion: These results indicate that dietary supplementation of low-dose organic trace minerals reduced fecal mineral excretion without negatively impacting hen performance and egg quality.

Behaviors of Trace Elements Caused by the Precipitation of Minerals in Acid Mine Drainage (산성광산배수에서 광물의 침전에 따른 미량 원소의 거동)

  • Yoon, Young Jin;Lee, Ji Eun;Bang, Sang Je;Baek, Young Doo;Kim, Yeongkyoo
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.173-182
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    • 2018
  • The precipitation and phase transformation processes of iron minerals in acid mine drainage have a great influence on the behavior of trace elements in drainage. However, it is not easy to accurately trace these processes in natural environments, and therefore, most studies have carried out in the laboratory to obtain the information on the precipitation and transformation of those minerals. In this study, the precipitation of minerals and the changes of trace elements in drainage water were investigated at different pH values in actual acid mine drainage collected from the Dalsung mine. The amount of some precipitated minerals was not enough for the mineral identification. However, from the minerals identified, amorphous minerals were formed first, and then goethite was precipitated probably from schwertmannite. When the pH of the sample was high (10), amorphous phases of minerals were still observed at even high pH (pH 10). With increasing time, the pH values decreased by precipitation and transformation of minerals. All the elements showed low concentrations at high pH (8, 10), which might be due to the precipitation of minerals at high pH and the effect of surface charge, and the concentrations of elements gradually increased with time. In the case of sulfur, it also increased in water due to the transformation of schwertmannite to goethite.

Effects of Dietary Zinc and Iron Levels on Serum Trace Minerals and Obesity Index in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats (고지방 식이를 섭취한 흰쥐의 비만지수 및 식이 아연과 철분 수준에 따른 혈청 미량무기질 함량 변화)

  • 김현숙;승정자
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.325-330
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the obesity index and effect of dietary zinc and iron levels on serum trace minerals status in the high fat diet-induced obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control and high fat diet groups. Ten weeks later, the control and high fat diet group were rearranged into six groups by zinc and iron levels. After 16 wk serum zinc, iron, copper and manganese was analyzed. Obesity index was significantly higher in the group fed high fat diet (20% lard) than that of control group (5% corn oil). Body fat content was 12.10$\pm$4.51g/100g BW in high fat diet group and 7.64$\pm$4.18g/100g BW in control group. So, the obese rats were successfully induced by high fat diet. The trace mineral concentration of obese rats in serum were affected by zinc levels. Serum zinc concentration was increased by dietary zinc overload, whereas the iron, copper and manganese were decreased. Specially the manganese concentration was significantly affected by zinc levels. In both groups, serum trace mineral concentration was not changed significantly by the dietary iron levels. There were positive correlations between zinc, iron and manganese concentration according to dietary zinc and iron levels.

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