• Title, Summary, Keyword: Total digestible nutrients (TDN)

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Tall fescue 품종의 환경적응성 VII. 계절과 품종에 따른 가소화양분총량과 건물소화율의 차이 ( Environmental Adaptation of Tall Fescue varieties in Mauntainous pastures VII. Seasonal and varietal differences of total digestible nutrients ( TDN ) and in vitro

  • 이주삼;한성윤;조익환
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.201-205
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    • 1994
  • The objectives of this research are to determine the seasonal and varietal differences of total digestible nutrients(TDN) and in vitro dry matter digestibility(1VDMD) of tall fescue grown in Takwalyon areas, based on the data of preceding paper(Lee et al. 1994b). The results are may be summarized as follows : 1. The values of total digestible nutrients(TDN) and in vitro dry matter digestibility(1VDMD) in 1st cutting were lower than the values of 2nd and 3rd cutting, and it was due to different stages of growth and seasonal difference of climatic conditions in this areas. 2. The relative yield(RY) had negative significantly correlation with in vitm dry matter digestibility(1VDMD) of 1st cutting. 3. Total digestible nutrients(TDN) indicated high positive significant correlation with in vitro dry matter digestility (IVDMD) in all cuttings. 4. The variety of Johnstone showed a high values of total digestible nutrients(TDN) and in vitm dry matter digestibility(1VDMD) of 2nd and 3rd cutting, but Fuego was lower than the other varieties.

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Effect of Total Digestible Nutrients Level of Concentrates on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Meat Composition of Korean Hanwoo Steers

  • Ahn, Jun Sang;Son, Gi Hwal;Kim, Min Ji;Choi, Chang Six;Lee, Chang Woo;Park, Joong Kook;Kwon, Eung Gi;Shin, Jong Suh;Park, Byung Ki
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.388-401
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the total digestible nutrients (TDN) level of commercial concentrates on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat composition of late fattening Hanwoo steers. A total of 28 steers were randomly assigned to one of four dietary groups; T1 (73.30% TDN), T2 (74.50% TDN), T3 (76.40% TDN), and T4 (77.10% TDN). Average daily gain (ADG) was slightly but not significantly higher in the T2 than in the other treatments. Dry matter intake (DMI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were higher in the T2 than in the other treatments; however, the differences were not statistically significant. Carcass back fat thickness was thicker in the T4 and marbling score was higher in the T2 than in the other treatments; however, the differences were not statistically significant. The TDN level of concentrates had no effect on the physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of the longissimus muscle. The finding of this study indicate that less than 74% or greater than 75% TDN in the commercial concentrate did not contribute to improve ADG, FCR, marbling score; therefore, in the present study, the recommendable TDN level in the commercial concentrate for late fattening period was 74% to 75% in terms of growth performance and marbling score of Hanwoo steer.

Nutrient Utilization of Broiler Litter and Bakery By-product Ration in Sheep (육계분-제과부산물 발효 완전혼합사료(TMR)의 면양 체내에서의 영양소 이용성 평가)

  • Kwak, W.S.;Yoon, J.S.;Jung, K.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.607-616
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding a total mixed ration(TMR) of broiler litter(BL) and bakery by-product(BB) with additional BL or rice straw incorporated at 10% of dietary DM as a roughage source on behavior pattern, nutrient intake, digestibility, digestible nutrient intake, ruminal and blood parameters, and N balance of sheep. All the treatment diets were formulated to be isoenergetic[total digestible nutrients(TDN) 66.9%]. Compared with the conventional formulated feed - rice straw feeding system(control), feeding TMR with BL(T1) or rice straw(T2) at 10% of dietary DM resulted in reduced eating, ruminating and total chewing time(P<0.05), similar DM intake, low(P<0.05) digestible DM, OM, fiber and total nutrients intake, low(P<0.05) nutrients digestibilities except EE, similar ruminal characteristics(pH, VFA concentrations and ratios, efficiency of carbohydrate fermentation, NH3-N), and favorable N digestion and retention. There were no differences in the above parameters between T1 and T2 with the exception of increased(P<0.05) eating, ruminating and total chewing time for T2. These results suggested that a TMR of BL and BB with or without rice straw may replace the conventional formulated feed and rice straw in ruminant diets successfully and furthermore feeding the TMR with rice straw made sheep behavior pattern more favorable.

Effects of Wheat Bran Addition on the Quality of Rye Silage (호밀 사일리지에 있어서 밀기울 첨가 효과)

  • 장진호;한성윤;김대진
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.285-290
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    • 1995
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of wheat bran addition on the fermentative quality and dry matter digestibility(Dh4D) of rye silage. This hexbage was ensiled by the conventional methods in small glass silo of 0.82 liter with addition of wheat bran of 0%, 5%. 01%, and 15%. mpectivery.The samples of rye silage were determined the pH, lactic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid. The DMD was evaluated by pepsin-cellulase technique method. The energy values (total digestible nutrients. TDN : digestible energy, DE : metabolizable energy, ME) were calculated by DMD. The results obtained were as follows : 1. The pH and butyric acid of rye silage were reduced with increasing of wheat bran addition, but the contents of lactic acid and total acid were increased. 2. TDN, DE and ME were increased with high rate of wheat bran addition. 3. Regression equation and correlation coefficients between Flieg's score(X) and DMD(Y) of silage were Y =48.7+0.157X(r=0.917, p<0.01). 4. Regression equation and correlation coefficients between level of wheat bran(X) and Flieg's score(Y) of silage were Y= 18.3+5.56X(r=0.929, p<0.01).

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Evaluation of Organic Sudangrass for Feed Value, Silage Quality and Palatability in Korea (유기 수단그라스의 사료가치, 사일리지 품질 및 기호성 평가)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Shim, Keum-Seob;Joo, Jong-Cheol;Lee, Hyun-Jiun;Jeon, Gyeong-Hyeop;Youn, Young-You;Oh, Eung-Yong;Lee, Hyo-Won
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.144-147
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    • 2011
  • The main nutritional problem of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor${\times}$Sorghum sudanese) silage is low quality and palatability. This experiment was conducted to evaluate whether organic com grain and crushed rice addition of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage increases forage quality of the silage. The sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silages with added com grain and crushed rice were similar to conventional com silage in moisture content. However organic sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage had low pH values. Silage added with gain and byproduct had higher crude ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents than control com silages, while its non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) showed the opposite results. Lactic acid, butyric acid and lactic percentage of total organic acid (L/T) of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silages were higher than those of com silage, but acetic acid was higher than control. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of com silage was higher than other sorghum silages. Feed intake of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage added with crushed rice was highest among silages. Therefore, these data indicate that crushed rice and com grain added sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage could be recommended as the most effective treatment for increasing silage quality and palatability.

Effects of seeding dates on dry matter yield and feed values of whole-crop barley cultivated in a paddy field

  • Lee, Sang Moo;Kim, Eun Joong
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.61 no.5
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    • pp.278-284
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    • 2019
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of seeding dates on the yield and feed value of whole-crop barley cultivated in paddy soil. The field experiment was conceived as a randomized block design performed in triplicate with seeding dates of Oct. 19 (T1 as treatment 1), Oct. 26 (T2 as treatment 2), Nov. 2 (T3 as treatment 3), Nov. 9 (T4 as treatment 4), and Nov. 16 (T5 as treatment 5) as treatments. The barley grown in all treatments was harvested on May 21 of the following year. Plant length, fresh yield, dry matter yield, and total digestible nutrient (TDN) yield were higher (p < 0.05) in barley with early seeding dates, whereas crude protein and ether extract were higher (p < 0.05) with late seeding dates. Crude fiber and neutral detergent fiber were highest in the T3 treatment and lowest in the T1 treatment. There was no significant difference between acid detergent fiber and TDN among the different seeding dates. Total mineral contents were higher in the order T1 > T2 > T3 > T4 > T5 (p < 0.05), whereas the total amino acid content increased significantly (p < 0.05) with a delay in seeding date. Free sugar contents (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) were higher with early seeding dates (p < 0.05). Collectively, the results obtained in this study indicate that it is favorable to seed soon after harvesting rice to increase dry matter and TDN yields and mineral and free sugar contents of whole-crop barley in the midlands of Korea.

Nutrient requirement for maintenance and nutritional changes of the Hanwoo steers in early-fattening stage under heat stress

  • Choi, Chang Weon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.74-83
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    • 2018
  • Four early-fattening Hanwoo steers weighing $247{\pm}13.5kg$ were used within a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to establish a nutrient requirement for maintenance and to investigate nutritional changes in the steers under heat stress condition. The steers were fed four different energy level diets: 100% (control) and 100%, 115% and 130% of total digestible nutrients (TDN) requirement of the early-fattening Hanwoo steers for maintenance based on the Korean Feeding Standard for Hanwoo. The steers in the control were housed with no stress (temperature $24^{\circ}C$ and humidity 60%), whereas the steers in the other groups were under heat stress (temperature $30^{\circ}C$ and humidity 70%). True digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and other nutrients were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by heat stress (i.e., control vs T100). This may be the result of a lower DM intake than that of the Korean feeding standard due to the establishment of the nutrients requirement under heat stress. Heat stress and different energy intake levels did not affect the blood metabolite concentrations. Average daily gain (ADG) for T100 (-69.6 g) was lower than that of the control (-44.6 g, numerically), T115 (44.6 g, p < 0.05) and T130 (83.3 g, p < 0.05), respectively. Based on the ADG and TDN intake, the equation (Y = 0.1814X + 111.5) for the TDN requirement of the early fattening Hanwoo steers for maintenance was calculated, indicating that 11.5% of TDN requirement for maintenance under heat stress may be additionally supplied.

Enhancing Seed Productivity and Feed Value of Oats (Avena sativa L.) with Different Seeding Rate and Nitrogen Fertilizing Levels in Gyeongbuk Area

  • Tomple, Byamungu Mayange;Hwan, Jo Ik
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.61-72
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    • 2018
  • The aim of this present study was to investigate the impact of different seeding rate and nitrogen fertilizing levels on the seed yield and feed value of oats(Avena sativa L.) grown in Gyeongbuk area for two years. The experiment was arranged in split plot design with 3 main plots(100, 130 and 160 kg of seed/ha) and 4 subplots(0, 50, 70 and 90 kg N/ha), with 3 replicates. Heading, flowering, and maturing dates of oats sown in spring 2017, delayed by two days compared to that of spring 2016, and the plant height of spring 2017 were significantly shorter than that of spring 2016(18.1 ~ 23.4 cm). In addition, the highest number of stems and number of panicles according to different seeding rate and nitrogen fertilizing levels were achieved with the seeding rate of 160 kg/ha and 90 kg of N/ha in 2016 and 2017, respectively. In case of seed yield as affected by different seeding rate, the highest seed yield was achieved with a seeding rate of 130 kg/ha(p<0.05), and based on nitrogen fertilizing levels, the highest yield was obtained in 50 kg of N/ha compared to others. The crude fiber(CF), neutral detergent fiber(NDF) and total digestible nutrients(TDN) of oats cultivated and harvested in spring 2016 and 2017 according to different sowing rate were the highest in the seeding rate of 130 kg/ha. The crude protein(CP) content and total digestible nutrients(TDN) of 2016-2017 as influenced by nitrogen fertilizer levels were the highest in the nitrogen fertilizer level of 90 and 50 kg N/ha, respectively. In conclusion, the proper seeding rate and the optimal nitrogen fertilizing level in Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk province were considered to be the most appropriate in 130 kg/ha and 50 kg of N/ha, respectively.

A Comparative Study on the Nutritive Value of Oak Browse (참나무 수엽의 사료가치 비교 연구)

  • 이인덕;이중해;이형석
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.221-227
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    • 1993
  • Browse from Quercus aliena Blume, Quercus mongolica Fisch.. Quercus serrata Thunb., Quercus acutissima Carruth., Quercus variabilies Blume, and Quercus dentata Thunb. were analyzed for crude protein (CP). crude fiber(CF). neutral detergent fiber(NDF). acid detergent fiber(ADF). cellulose. lignin, in vitro dry matter digestibility(DMD), and tannin acid equivalents(TAE). According to the chemical composition and DMD. the total digestible nutrients(TDN). digestible energy(DE), and metabolizable energy(ME) were estimated. Oak browse samples were collected from May through October from 1990 to 1992 in Mt. Kyeryong. Browse from Quercus aliena, Quercus acutissima, and Quercus serrata contained higher levels of CP, DMD. TDN, DE. and ME. but lower levels of CF, NDF. ADF, and TAE as compared with other oak browse. Differences among seasons and years in the concentration of CP. NDF, and organic matter digestibility(0MD) were significantly appeared in all oak browse(P<0.05). The order of preference ratings of oak browse were Quercus aliena ) Quercus acutissima ) Quercus serrata ) Quercus mongollca ) Quercus variabilies ) Quercus dentata. As the results of this study, it could be considered that Quercus aliena and Quercus acutisslma were more valuable browse source than others.

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EFFECTS OF VARYING DIETARY LEVELS OF TOTAL DIGESTIBLE NUTRIENTS, PROTEIN AND FIBER ON THE GROWTH OF CROSSBRED HOLSTEIN HEIFERS FED UREA-TREATED RICE STRAW DIETS UNDER TWO FEEDING SYSTEMS

  • Promma, S.;Tuikumpee, S.;Jeenklum, P.;Indratula, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.91-97
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    • 1993
  • This experiment was carried out to examine the effects of urea-treated rice straw feeding on the growth performance of crossbred Holstein heifers under different feeding conditions. In the first experiment, the animals were given diets having 2 levels of TDN and CP and 3 levels of crude fiber (22, 30 and 36%) which were formulated with urea-treated rice straw and concentrates. Daily weight gain of heifers was not different between 22% and 30% CF diets, but the reduction of TDN or CP level to 90% of the requirements decreased the weight gain. Fiber content of 36% also reduced the body weight gain. The reduction of TDN significantly reduced DM intake and increased feed conversion ratio. Feed cost per kg weight gain was significantly increased by an increase in CF to 36%. In the second experiment, separate feeding and total mixing feeding were compared. There were no significant differences between the two feeding systems in body weight gain although the possibility of superiority in SF to TMF remained. DM intake was not affected by the feeding system, but 30% CF diet gave higher DM intake. Feed cost per kg weight gain was lower in the 30% CF diet.