• Title, Summary, Keyword: Total digestible nutrients

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Tall fescue 품종의 환경적응성 VII. 계절과 품종에 따른 가소화양분총량과 건물소화율의 차이 ( Environmental Adaptation of Tall Fescue varieties in Mauntainous pastures VII. Seasonal and varietal differences of total digestible nutrients ( TDN ) and in vitro

  • 이주삼;한성윤;조익환
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.201-205
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    • 1994
  • The objectives of this research are to determine the seasonal and varietal differences of total digestible nutrients(TDN) and in vitro dry matter digestibility(1VDMD) of tall fescue grown in Takwalyon areas, based on the data of preceding paper(Lee et al. 1994b). The results are may be summarized as follows : 1. The values of total digestible nutrients(TDN) and in vitro dry matter digestibility(1VDMD) in 1st cutting were lower than the values of 2nd and 3rd cutting, and it was due to different stages of growth and seasonal difference of climatic conditions in this areas. 2. The relative yield(RY) had negative significantly correlation with in vitm dry matter digestibility(1VDMD) of 1st cutting. 3. Total digestible nutrients(TDN) indicated high positive significant correlation with in vitro dry matter digestility (IVDMD) in all cuttings. 4. The variety of Johnstone showed a high values of total digestible nutrients(TDN) and in vitm dry matter digestibility(1VDMD) of 2nd and 3rd cutting, but Fuego was lower than the other varieties.

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Effect of Total Digestible Nutrients Level of Concentrates on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Meat Composition of Korean Hanwoo Steers

  • Ahn, Jun Sang;Son, Gi Hwal;Kim, Min Ji;Choi, Chang Six;Lee, Chang Woo;Park, Joong Kook;Kwon, Eung Gi;Shin, Jong Suh;Park, Byung Ki
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.388-401
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the total digestible nutrients (TDN) level of commercial concentrates on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat composition of late fattening Hanwoo steers. A total of 28 steers were randomly assigned to one of four dietary groups; T1 (73.30% TDN), T2 (74.50% TDN), T3 (76.40% TDN), and T4 (77.10% TDN). Average daily gain (ADG) was slightly but not significantly higher in the T2 than in the other treatments. Dry matter intake (DMI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were higher in the T2 than in the other treatments; however, the differences were not statistically significant. Carcass back fat thickness was thicker in the T4 and marbling score was higher in the T2 than in the other treatments; however, the differences were not statistically significant. The TDN level of concentrates had no effect on the physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of the longissimus muscle. The finding of this study indicate that less than 74% or greater than 75% TDN in the commercial concentrate did not contribute to improve ADG, FCR, marbling score; therefore, in the present study, the recommendable TDN level in the commercial concentrate for late fattening period was 74% to 75% in terms of growth performance and marbling score of Hanwoo steer.

Nutrient Utilization of Broiler Litter and Bakery By-product Ration in Sheep (육계분-제과부산물 발효 완전혼합사료(TMR)의 면양 체내에서의 영양소 이용성 평가)

  • Kwak, W.S.;Yoon, J.S.;Jung, K.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.607-616
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding a total mixed ration(TMR) of broiler litter(BL) and bakery by-product(BB) with additional BL or rice straw incorporated at 10% of dietary DM as a roughage source on behavior pattern, nutrient intake, digestibility, digestible nutrient intake, ruminal and blood parameters, and N balance of sheep. All the treatment diets were formulated to be isoenergetic[total digestible nutrients(TDN) 66.9%]. Compared with the conventional formulated feed - rice straw feeding system(control), feeding TMR with BL(T1) or rice straw(T2) at 10% of dietary DM resulted in reduced eating, ruminating and total chewing time(P<0.05), similar DM intake, low(P<0.05) digestible DM, OM, fiber and total nutrients intake, low(P<0.05) nutrients digestibilities except EE, similar ruminal characteristics(pH, VFA concentrations and ratios, efficiency of carbohydrate fermentation, NH3-N), and favorable N digestion and retention. There were no differences in the above parameters between T1 and T2 with the exception of increased(P<0.05) eating, ruminating and total chewing time for T2. These results suggested that a TMR of BL and BB with or without rice straw may replace the conventional formulated feed and rice straw in ruminant diets successfully and furthermore feeding the TMR with rice straw made sheep behavior pattern more favorable.

Effects of Feeding Urea and Soybean Meal-Treated Rice Straw on Digestibility of Feed Nutrients and Growth Performance of Bull Calves

  • Ahmed, S.;Khan, M.J.;Shahjalal, M.;Islam, K.M.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.522-527
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    • 2002
  • The experiment was conducted for a period of 56 days with twelve Bangladeshi bull calves of average body weight of $127.20{\pm}11.34$ kg. The calves were divided into 3 groups having 4 animals in each. The animals were fed urea-treated rice straw designated as A) 4% urea-treated rice straw, B) 4% urea+4% soybean-treated rice straw and C) 4% urea+6% soybean-treated rice straw. In addition, all the animals were supplied 2 kg green grass, 350 g Til-oil-cake and 100 g common salt per 100 kg body weight of animals. Straw was treated with 4% urea solution and soybean meal at 4 and 6% were added to treated straw and kept for 48 h in double layer polythene bags under anaerobic condition. Urea treatment improved crude protein (CP) content of rice straw from 2.68 to 8.70% and it was further increased by 10.74 and 12.12% with the addition of 4 and 6% soybean meal. Dry matter (DM) intake (kg) was higher (p<0.05) in C (4.2) followed by B (4.1) and A (4.0). Crude protein intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) in group B and C than group A. Total live weight gains were 20.2, 24.8 and 25.6 kg for calves of group A, B and C respectively (p<0.01). The addition of soybean meal to treated rice straw did not affect the coefficients of digestibility of DM, OM, EE and NFE. However, CP and CF digestibility were significantly higher in group B and C (p<0.05). The values for digestible crude protein (DCP), digestible ether extract (DEE), digestible nitrogen free extract (DNFE) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in diet C and B in comparison to diet A, but there were no significant difference in digestible organic matter (DOM) and digestible crude fibre (DCF) value among the groups. It may be concluded that 4% urea treated rice straw can be fed to growing bull calves with 2 kg green grass and a small quantity of concentrate without any adverse effect on feed intake and growth. Moreover, soybean meal at 4 and 6% can be added to urea treated rice straw at the time of treatment for rapid hydrolyzing of urea, which resulted an improvement in nutrient digestibility and better utilization of rice straw for growth of growing bull calves.

Evaluation of feed value of a by-product of pickled radish for ruminants: analyses of nutrient composition, storage stability, and in vitro ruminal fermentation

  • Jeon, Seoyoung;Sohn, Keun-Nam;Seo, Seongwon
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.58 no.9
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    • pp.34.1-34.9
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    • 2016
  • Background: By-products of pickled radish (BPR) are considered food waste. Approximately 300 g/kg of the total mass of raw materials becomes BPR. Production of pickled radish has grown continuously and is presently about 40,000 metric tons annually in Korea. The objective of the present study was thus to explore the possibility of using BPR as a ruminant feed ingredient. Results: BPR contained a large amount of moisture (more than 800 g/kg) and ash, and comprised mostly sodium (103 g/kg DM) and chloride (142 g/kg DM). On a dry matter basis, the crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) levels in BPR were 75 g/kg and 7 g/kg, respectively. The total digestible nutrient (TDN) level was 527 g/kg and the major portion of digestible nutrients was carbohydrate; 88 % organic matter (OM) was carbohydrate and 65 % of total carbohydrate was soluble or degradable fiber. The coefficient of variation (CV) of nutrient contents among production batches ranged from 4.65 to 33.83 %. The smallest CV was observed in OM, and the largest, in EE. The variation in CP content was relatively small (10.11 %). The storage stability test revealed that storage of BPR at $20^{\circ}C$ (room temperature) might not cause spoilage for 4 d, and possibly longer. If BPR is refrigerated, spoilage can be deferred for 21 d and longer. The in vitro ruminal fermentation study showed that substitution of annual ryegrass straw with BPR improved ruminal fermentation, as evidenced by an increase in VFA concentration, DM degradability, and total gas production. Conclusion: The major portion of nutrients in BPR is soluble or degradable fiber that can be easily fermented in the rumen without adverse effects, to provide energy to ruminant animals. Although its high sodium chloride content needs to be considered when formulating a ration, BPR can be successfully used as a feed ingredient in a ruminant diet, particularly if it is one component of a total mixed ration.

Effect of Niacin Supplementation on Growth, Nutrient Utilization and Blood Biochemical Profile in Male Buffalo Calves

  • Kumar, Ravindra;Dass, R.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1422-1428
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    • 2006
  • In order to investigate the effect of different levels of niacin supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization, their balance and blood biochemical profile, 15 male buffalo calves (9-10 months of age, $88.4{\pm}4.37kg$ average body weight) were divided into 3 equal groups each of 5 calves, following a completely randomized design, and fed individually for 120 days with wheat straw and concentrate mixture to meet their nutrient requirements. In addition calves were supplemented with 0 ppm (control, group I), 100 ppm (group II) and 200 ppm (group III) niacin. After 90 days of experimental feeding a metabolism trial was conducted to estimate the digestibility of nutrients and their balance. Fortnightly body weights were recorded to assess their growth rate and blood was collected from the jugular vein at day 0 and subsequently at 30-day intervals from all the experimental buffalo calves to study blood biochemical parameters. Results showed that intake and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, total carbohydrates, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose and hemicelluloses were statistically similar in the 3 groups. Buffalo calves in all three groups were in positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance, without showing any significant effect of the treatments. Dry matter, crude protein, digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrient intake ($g/d/kgW^{0.75}$) were similar in the control and niacin supplemented groups. Digestible crude protein (%) and total digestible nutrients (%) in the ration of the 3 groups were 8.07, 7.99, 7.92 and 56.70, 56.63, 56.74, respectively, and were comparable among the groups. The average daily gain (g) in-group II (567.50) was not significantly (p>0.05) higher than group I (500.0) and group III (510.0). Blood biochemical constituents (glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea-N, insulin) showed no significant effect of niacin supplementation. However, serum cholesterol (mg/100 ml) was significantly (p<0.01) lower in the 200 ppm niacin-supplemented group than in the control and 100 ppm niacin-supplemented groups. It can be concluded that supplementation of niacin at 100 and 200 ppm in the diet of buffalo calves had no significant beneficial effect on their growth and nutrient utilization.

Evaluation of Organic Sudangrass for Feed Value, Silage Quality and Palatability in Korea (유기 수단그라스의 사료가치, 사일리지 품질 및 기호성 평가)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Shim, Keum-Seob;Joo, Jong-Cheol;Lee, Hyun-Jiun;Jeon, Gyeong-Hyeop;Youn, Young-You;Oh, Eung-Yong;Lee, Hyo-Won
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.144-147
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    • 2011
  • The main nutritional problem of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor${\times}$Sorghum sudanese) silage is low quality and palatability. This experiment was conducted to evaluate whether organic com grain and crushed rice addition of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage increases forage quality of the silage. The sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silages with added com grain and crushed rice were similar to conventional com silage in moisture content. However organic sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage had low pH values. Silage added with gain and byproduct had higher crude ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents than control com silages, while its non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) showed the opposite results. Lactic acid, butyric acid and lactic percentage of total organic acid (L/T) of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silages were higher than those of com silage, but acetic acid was higher than control. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of com silage was higher than other sorghum silages. Feed intake of sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage added with crushed rice was highest among silages. Therefore, these data indicate that crushed rice and com grain added sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid silage could be recommended as the most effective treatment for increasing silage quality and palatability.

Effects of Cellulase Supplementation on Nutrient Digestibility, Energy Utilization and Methane Emission by Boer Crossbred Goats

  • Wang, Lizhi;Xue, Bai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.204-210
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    • 2016
  • This study examined the effect of supplementing exogenous cellulase on nutrient and energy utilization. Twelve desexed Boer crossbred goats were used in a replicated $3{\times}3$ Latin square design with 23-d periods. Dietary treatments were basal diet (control, no cellulase), basal diet plus 2 g unitary cellulase/kg of total mixed ration dry matter (DM), and basal diet plus 2 g compound cellulase/kg of total mixed ration DM. Three stages of feeding trials were used corresponding to the three treatments, each comprised 23 d, with the first 14 d as the preliminary period and the following 9 d as formal trial period for metabolism trial. Total collection of feces and urine were conducted from the 4th d of the formal trial, and gas exchange measures were determined in indirect respiratory chambers in the last 3 d of the formal trial. Results showed that cellulase addition had no effect (p>0.05) on nutrient digestibility. Dietary supplementation of cellulase did not affect (p>0.05) N intake and retention in goats. Gross energy (GE) intake, fecal energy and urinary energy excretion, heat production were not affected (p>0.05) by the cellulase supplementation. Total methane emission (g/d), $CH_4$ emission as a proportion of live weight or feed intake (DM, organic matter [OM], digestible DM or digestible OM), or $CH_4$ energy output ($CH_4$-E) as a proportion of energy intake (GE, digestible energy, or metabolizable energy), were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. There was a significant (p<0.001) relationship between $CH_4$ and live weight (y = 0.645x+0.2, $R^2$ = 0.54), $CH_4$ and DM intake (y = 16.7x+1.4, $R^2$ = 0.51), $CH_4$ and OM intake (y = 18.8x+1.3, $R^2$ = 0.51) and $CH_4$-E and GE intake. Results from this study revealed that dietary supplementation of cellulase may have no effect on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention, energy metabolism, and methane emission in goat.

Effect of Replacement of Groundnut Cake with Urea-treated Neem (Azadirachta indica A. juss) Seed Kernel Cake on Nutrient Utilisation in Lambs

  • Musalia, L.M.;Anandan, S.;Sastry, V.R.B.;Katiyar, R.C.;Agrawal, D.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.1273-1277
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    • 2002
  • The effect of urea treatment on chemical composition of neem seed kernel cake (NSKC) was investigated by soaking the cake in 2.1% urea solution (1.2 l $kg^{-1}$ NSKC) for five days. The effect on utilisation of nutrients by replacing groundnut cake (GNC) (30%) with urea-treated neem seed kernel cake (UTNSKC) (33%) in a concentrate mixture fed to meet 70% of the protein requirements of lambs (8 males and 8 females), was monitored in a digestibility study. Following urea treatment of NSKC only 9.5% of urea was hydrolysed and the crude protein content of the cake was increased by 6.65%. The tannin content in depulped neem seeds was 37% catechin equivalent. Whereas feeding UTNSKC had no effect on intake of dry matter (72.5 vs 66.3 g/kg $BW^{0.75}day^{-1}$) and digestibility of crude fibre (41.3 vs 43.4%), the cake depressed (p<0.01) the percent digestibility of dry matter (63.7 vs 70.2), crude protein (63.2 vs 70.2), nitrogen free extract (73.8 vs 80.5) and gross energy (64.3 vs 69.1). Digestibility of ether extract (75.8 vs 70.9%) was higher (p<0.05) in animals offered UTNSKC. The nutritive value of the composite ration consumed by lambs offered UTNSKC was lower (p<0.01) in terms of total digestible nutrients (64.7 vs 70.2%) and digestible energy (2.8 vs 3.0 Kcal/g DM). Intake of digestible energy (199.8 vs 194.1 Kcal/kg $BW^{0.75}day^{-1}$) and retention of nitrogen (7.53 vs 8.23 g $day^{-1}$) and calcium (2.12 vs 1.84 g $day^{-1}$) were comparable on the 2 rations. Animals fed UTNSKC retained less (p<0.01) phosphorus (0.37 vs 1.05 g $day^{-1}$). The results indicate that urea treatment increased the protein level of NSKC whereas feeding the treated cake as a replacement of GNC, lowered the digestibility of nutrients and retention of phosphorus.

Enhancing Seed Productivity and Feed Value of Oats (Avena sativa L.) with Different Seeding Rate and Nitrogen Fertilizing Levels in Gyeongbuk Area

  • Tomple, Byamungu Mayange;Hwan, Jo Ik
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.61-72
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    • 2018
  • The aim of this present study was to investigate the impact of different seeding rate and nitrogen fertilizing levels on the seed yield and feed value of oats(Avena sativa L.) grown in Gyeongbuk area for two years. The experiment was arranged in split plot design with 3 main plots(100, 130 and 160 kg of seed/ha) and 4 subplots(0, 50, 70 and 90 kg N/ha), with 3 replicates. Heading, flowering, and maturing dates of oats sown in spring 2017, delayed by two days compared to that of spring 2016, and the plant height of spring 2017 were significantly shorter than that of spring 2016(18.1 ~ 23.4 cm). In addition, the highest number of stems and number of panicles according to different seeding rate and nitrogen fertilizing levels were achieved with the seeding rate of 160 kg/ha and 90 kg of N/ha in 2016 and 2017, respectively. In case of seed yield as affected by different seeding rate, the highest seed yield was achieved with a seeding rate of 130 kg/ha(p<0.05), and based on nitrogen fertilizing levels, the highest yield was obtained in 50 kg of N/ha compared to others. The crude fiber(CF), neutral detergent fiber(NDF) and total digestible nutrients(TDN) of oats cultivated and harvested in spring 2016 and 2017 according to different sowing rate were the highest in the seeding rate of 130 kg/ha. The crude protein(CP) content and total digestible nutrients(TDN) of 2016-2017 as influenced by nitrogen fertilizer levels were the highest in the nitrogen fertilizer level of 90 and 50 kg N/ha, respectively. In conclusion, the proper seeding rate and the optimal nitrogen fertilizing level in Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk province were considered to be the most appropriate in 130 kg/ha and 50 kg of N/ha, respectively.