• Title, Summary, Keyword: Total column density of CO

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Enhancement of Ozone and Carbon Monoxide Associated with Upper Cut-off Low during Springtime in East Asia

  • Moon, Yun-Seob;Drummond, James R.
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.475-489
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    • 2010
  • In order to verify the enhancement of ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) during springtime in East Asia, we investigated weather conditions and data from remote sensors, air quality models, and air quality monitors. These include the geopotential height archived from the final (FNL) meteorological field, the potential vorticity and the wind velocity simulated by the Meteorological Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5), the back trajectory estimated by the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, the total column amount of ozone and the aerosol index retrieved from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the total column density of CO retrieved from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), and the concentration of ozone and CO simulated by the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART). In particular, the total column density of CO, which mightoriginate from the combustion of fossil fuels and the burning of biomass in China, increased in East Asia during spring 2000. In addition, the enhancement of total column amounts of ozone and CO appeared to be associated with both the upper cut-off low near 500 hPa and the frontogenesis of a surface cyclone during a weak Asian dust event. At the same time, high concentrations of ozone and CO on the Earth's surface were shown at the Seoul air quality monitoring site, located at the surface frontogenesis in Korea. It was clear that the ozone was invaded by the downward stretched vortex anomalies, which included the ozone-rich airflow, during movement and development of the cut-off low, and then there was the catalytic photochemical reaction of ozone precursors on the Earth's surface during the day. In addition, air pollutants such as CO and aerosol were tracked along both the cyclone vortex and the strong westerly as shown at the back trajectory in Seoul and Busan, respectively. Consequently, the maxima of ozone and CO between the two areas showed up differently because of the time lag between those gases, including their catalytic photochemical reactions together with the invasion from the upper troposphere, as well as the path of their transport from China during the weak Asian dust event.

MASS ESTIMATE TECHNIQUES OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS

  • Lee, Young-Ung
    • Publications of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.55-68
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    • 1994
  • We have reviewed three different techniques to estimate molecular cloud mass, and discussed the uncertainties involved. We found that determination of the most important parameter, the $^{13}CO$ abundance, is not very sensitive to the real LTE conditions, and that any possible error in deriving LTE column density may not introduce an error in the total gas column density, as far as the visual extinction is established for the object cloud. The virial technique always endows the largest mass estimate as there are several uncertainties, even if the cloud is in virial equilibrium. The strong indicator of the cloud perturbation is the centroid velocity dispersion. The mass using CO luminosity is based on the empirical law, but weakly dependent on the virial assumption, thus it still gives a larger mass estimate. The mass discrepancy is likely to be inevitable, and a factor of two or three difference between mass estimates could easily be attributed to the uncertainties mentioned above. The LTE mass estimate may be the most reliable one if we use the relation visual extinction and $^{13}CO$ column density of the object cloud, and the intercept is included.

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CO OBSERVATIONS AND STABILITY ANALYSIS OF B133 AND B134

  • Hong, S.S.;Kim, H.G.;Park, S.H.;Park, Y.S.;Imaoka, K.
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.71-94
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    • 1991
  • With the 14 m radio telescope at DRAO and the 4 m at Nagoya University, we have made detailed maps of $^{12}CO$ and $^{13}CO$ emissions from two Barnard objects B133 and B134 in the $J=1{\rightarrow}O$ rotational transition lines. Usual LTE analyses of the CO observations led us to determine the distribution of column densities over an entire area encompassing both globules. Total gas masses estimated from the column density map are $90\;M_{\odot}$ and $20\;M_{\odot}$ for B133 and B134, respectively. The radial velocity of B133 is red shifted with respect to B134 by $0.8\;km\;s^{-1}$, which is too lagre to bind the two clouds as a binary system. We have shown that the usual stability analysis based on the simplified version of virial theorem with the second time-derivative of the moment of inertia term $\ddot{I}$ being ignored could mislead us in determining whether a given cloud eventually collapses or not. The lull version of the scalar virial theorem with the $\ddot{I}$ term is shown to be useful in following up the time-dependent variations of the cloud size R and its streaming velocity $\dot{R}$ as functions of time. Results of our stability analysis suggest that B133 will eventually collapse in $(2{\sim}4){\times}10^6$ years.

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[ HCO+ ]CLOUDS IN THE SGR B2 REGION (SGR B2 지역에 있는 HCO+ 분자운의 특성 연구)

  • Minh Y. C.
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.233-242
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    • 2004
  • The $HCO^+$ 1-0 transition line was observed toward the Sgr B2 region in our Galactic center. We found that there exist two large-scale velocity structures of $v_{lsr}\;{\sim}50\;and\;{\sim}100kms^{-1}$, which are thought to interact with each other. A new gas clump 'OF28 Cloud'('Odenwald & Fazio FIR 38' Cloud), showing different chemical and kinematical properties with the Sgr B2(M) cloud, was found in the $50kms^{-1}$ gas component. Toward the core of this component, we derive the $HCO^+$ total column density, $N(HCO^+)=(2-5){\times}10^{14}cm^{-2}$ and the mass $M=1{\times}10^6M_{\odot}$, by estimating its size, ${\sim}15pc$, from the half-power width of this component. We also found that there is a highly turbulent component in this region in the velocity range of about $100kms^{-1}$. The column density of this component is $N(HCO^+)=1{\times}10^{13}cm^{-2}$. The $HCO^+$ in this region may form effectively by the reaction between $C^+$ and OH, which are the elements whose abundances increase rapidly in shocked region.

DENSE MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE GALACTIC CENTER REGION II. H13CN (J=1-0) DATA AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE CLOUDS

  • Lee, Chang-Won;Lee, Hyung-Mok
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.271-282
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    • 2003
  • We present results of a $H^{13}CN$ J=1-0 mapping survey of molecular clouds toward the Galactic Center (GC) region of $-1.6^{\circ}{\le}{\iota}{\le}2^{\circ}$ and $-0.23^{\circ}{\le}b{\le}0.30^{\circ}$ with 2' grid resolution. The $H^{13}CN$ emissions show similar distribution and velocity structures to those of the $H^{12}CN$ emissions, but are found to better trace the feature saturated with $H^{12}CN$ (1-0). The bright components among multi-components of $H^{12}CN$ line profiles usually appear in the $H^{13}CN$ line while most of the dynamically forbidden, weak $H^{12}CN$ components are seldom detected in the $H^{13}CN$ line. We also present results of other complementary observations in $^{12}CO$ (J=1-0) and $^{13}CO$ (J=1-0) lines to estimate physical quantities of the GC clouds, such as fractional abundance of HCN isotopes and mass of the GC cloud complexes. We confirm that the GC has very rich chemistry. The overall fractional abundance of $H^{12}CN$ and $H^{13}CN$ relative to $H_2$ in the GC region is found to be significantly higher than those of any other regions, such as star forming region and dark cloud. Especially cloud complexes nearer to the GC tend to have various higher abundance of HCN. Total mass of the HCN molecular clouds within $[{\iota}]{\le}6^{\circ}$ is estimated to be ${\~}2 {\times}10^7\;M_{\bigodot}$ using the abundances of HCN isotopes, which is fairly consistent with previous other estimates. Masses of four main complexes in the GC range from a few $10^5$ to ${\~}10^7\;M_{\bigodot}$ All the HCN spectra with multi-components for the four main cloud complexes were investigated to compare the line widths of the complexes. The largest mode (45 km $s^{-1}$) of the FWHM distributions among the complexes is in the Clump 2. The value of the mode tends to be smaller at the farther complexes from the GC.