• Title, Summary, Keyword: Total Mixed Ration

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Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculant on Fermentation Quality and in vitro Rumen Fermentation of Total Mixed Ration

  • Choi, Yeon Jae;Lee, Sang Suk
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.132-140
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    • 2019
  • Fermented total mixed ration (TMR) is a novel feed for ruminants in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the quality of TMR and in vitro ruminal fermentation. Strains of three LAB spp. (Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, L. mucosae) were used in fermentation of TMR. Inoculations with the three LAB spp. lowered pH and increased concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid, and total organic acid compared to non-LAB inoculated control (only addition of an equivalent amount of water) (p<0.05). Bacterial composition indicated that aerobic bacteria and LAB were higher. However, E. coli were lower in the fermented TMR than those in the control treatment (p<0.05). Among the treatments, L. brevis treatment had the highest concentration of total organic acid without fungus detection. Gas production, pH, and ammonia-nitrogen during ruminal in vitro incubation did not differ throughout incubation. However, ruminal total VFA concentration was higher (p<0.05) in the LAB spp. treatments than the control treatment at 48 hours. Overall, the use of L. brevis as an inoculant for fermentation of high moisture. TMR could inhibit fungi growth and promote lactic fermentation, and enhance digestion in the rumen.

Development and Evaluation of Protected Fat in Wheat Straw Based Total Mixed Ration

  • Sirohi, S.K.;Malik, Raman;Walli, T.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.1405-1408
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    • 2001
  • Ca salt of soybean oil (PSO) and that of mustard oil plus mahua oil (PMOMO) (50:50) were prepared using double decomposition method, and further tested for their fatty acid composition and degree of saponification. Furthermore, the different levels of protected fat of PSO and PMOMO were evaluated in wheat straw based total mixed ration (TMR) in vitro. Results indicated that capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, steric, oleic, linoleic, leinolenic acids were traces, traces, traces, 10.00, 2.00, 25.00, 58.50, 5.0% in PSO while the corresponding values in PMOMO were 1.08, 0.28, 0.45, 16.9, 12.95, 44.38, 17.46 and 6.50%, respectively. The degree of saponification of both protected fat supplements was more than 80%. Six treatment combinations were tested I.e., blank without feed and fat supplement (T1); control diet with out fat supplement (T2); control diet plus bypass fat supplement (PSO) so that diet contain 5% fat (T3); control diet plus bypass fat supplement (PSO) so that diet contain 7.5% fat (T4); two more diets viz. T5 and T6 were formulated using bypass fat supplement from PMOMO containing 5 and 7.5% fat respectively. TMR was prepared using 50% concentrate mixture and 50% wheat straw. Result indicated that TVFA, $NH_3-N$,TCA-N, total-N and total gas production were increased in treatment diets at 7.5% level of supplementation, however, fermentation pattern remain similar at 5.0% level of supplementation with respect to control diet. Nevertheless, IVDMD and IVOMD values remained unchanged, rather non-significant at both fat levels and with the both fat sources. On the basis of results it was concluded that Ca-salt of Soybean oil or Mustard plus Mahua oil did not show any negative effect either on digestibility or on microbial protein synthesis in rumen, hence the dietary fat upto 7.5% level in total mixed ration based on wheat straw, could be safely used without any adverse effect on rumen fermentation.

Effects of Feeding Methods of Total Mixed Ration on Behavior Patterns of Growing Hanwoo Steers

  • Lee, Sang-Moo;Kim, Young-Il;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Kwak, Wan-Sup
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1469-1475
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    • 2010
  • A study was conducted to investigate the effects of methods of feeding a total mixed ration (TMR) on behavior patterns of growing Hanwoo steers. A total of 15 growing steers (13 months old) were assigned to the control (fed roughage and concentrate mix separately), TMR1 (fed restricted TMR), and TMR2 (fed TMR ad libitum) groups. Individual behaviors of steers were observed for 48 hours. Compared with the control, feeding restricted TMR (TMR1) resulted in short eating time, long ruminating time, short chewing time, high frequencies of defecation, urination, and drinking of water, great numbers of boluses and chews, long ruminating time per bolus, low feed value index, high eating and chewing efficiencies (p<0.05). Compared with feeding restricted TMR (TMR1), feeding TMR ad libitum (TMR2) resulted in 1.2 kg more daily feed DM intake, long eating and chewing times, short resting time, great frequencies of defecation, urination and drinking of water, more numbers of boluses and chews, long ruminating time per bolus, low feed value index, low eating and high ruminating efficiencies (p<0.05) and similar chewing efficiency (p>0.05). Considering all these results, the wet TMR feeding system induced generally more desirable eating and ruminating behaviors of growing Hanwoo steers, but made the barn floor wetter due to more defecation and urination.

Fermentation Characteristics and Lactic Acid Bacteria Succession of Total Mixed Ration Silages Formulated with Peach Pomace

  • Hu, Xiaodong;Hao, Wei;Wang, Huili;Ning, Tingting;Zheng, Mingli;Xu, Chuncheng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.502-510
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR) silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages.

Characteristics of proteolytic microorganisms and their effects on proteolysis in total mixed ration silages of soybean curd residue

  • Hao, Wei;Tian, Pengjiao;Zheng, Mingli;Wang, Huili;Xu, Chuncheng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.100-110
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to isolate proteolytic microorganisms and evaluate their effects on proteolysis in total mixed ration (TMR) silages of soybean curd residue. Methods: TMRs were formulated with soybean curd residue, alfalfa or Leymus chinensis hay, corn meal, soybean meal, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 25.0: 40.0:30.0:4.0:0.5:0.5, respectively, on a basis of dry matter. The microbial proteinases during ensiling were characterized, the dominate strains associated with proteolysis were identified, and their enzymatic characterization were evaluated in alfalfa (A-TMR) and Leymus chinensis (L-TMR) TMR silages containing soybean curd residue. Results: Both A-TMR and L-TMR silages were well preserved, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic bacteria and yeast counts in both TMR silages decreased to about 105 cfu/g fresh matter (FM) and below the detection limit, respectively. The lactic acid bacteria count increased to 109 cfu/g FM. The total microbial proteinases activities reached their maximums during the early ensiling stage and then reduced in both TMR silages with fermentation prolonged. Metalloproteinase was the main proteinase when the total proteinases activities reached their maximums, and when ensiling terminated, metallo and serine proteinases played equally important parts in proteolysis in both TMR silages. Strains in the genera Curtobacterium and Paenibacillus were identified as the most dominant proteolytic bacteria in A-TMR and L-TMR, respectively, and both their proteinases were mainly with metalloproteinase characteristics. In the latter ensiling phase, Enterococcus faecium strains became the major sources of proteolytic enzymes in both TMR silages. Their proteinases were mainly of metallo and serine proteinases classes in this experiment. Conclusion: Proteolytic aerobic bacteria were substituted by proteolytic lactic acid bacteria during ensiling, and the microbial serine and metallo proteinases in these strains played leading roles in proteolysis in TMR silages.

Effect of Particle Size of Forage in the Dairy Ration on Feed Intake, Production Parameters and Quantification of Manure Index

  • Moharrery, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.483-490
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    • 2010
  • The objectives of this study were to measure particle size and evaluate the effect of increasing alfalfa hay particle size on production characteristics in lactating Holstein dairy cows. Ninety multiparous Holstein cows in early to mid-lactation were randomly assigned in a complete randomized design for a 30-day period. Animals were offered one of the three diets, which were identical in energy, protein, and chemical composition, but differed only in particle size of alfalfa hay. The treatments were A) total mixed ration (TMR) in which only fine chopped alfalfa hay was incorporated in the ration, B) the same diet in which half of the alfalfa hay was fine chopped and incorporated in the mixed ration and half was long hay and offered as a top dressing, and C) the same diet with long hay alfalfa offered as a top dressing. Distribution of particle size of rations was determined through 20,000, 8,000 and 1,000 ${\mu}m$ sieves. The new method of quantitative determination of manure index was examined for each cow on different treatments. The geometric mean length of particle size in the rations was 5,666, 9,900 and 11,549 ${\mu}m$ for treatments A, B and C, respectively. Fat corrected milk (4%), milk fat percentage and production were significantly different (p<0.05) in treatment A versus B and C (fat corrected milk (FCM, 4%)) 28.3 vs. 35.2 and 32.3 kg/d, fat percentage 2.89, 4.04 and 3.62; but the change of ration particle size had no significant effect on milk production (p>0.05). Blood concentration of cholesterol in treatment A was significantly higher (p<0.05) than treatment B and C (181.0 vs. 150.0 and 155.2 mg/dl). Manure index in treatment C was significantly different (p<0.05) from treatment B (15.86 vs. 17.67). Based on these experimental findings, it is concluded that an increase in the ration particle size can increase milk fat percentage due to providing more physically effective fiber, which in turn could effect changes in manure consistency.

Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage

  • Wang, Huili;Hao, Wei;Ning, Tingting;Zheng, Mingli;Xu, Chuncheng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.198-207
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Methods: Whole crop corn (WCC) silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencing analyses of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain. Characteristics (assimilation and tolerance) of the yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration were investigated. Results: In addition to species of Candida glabrata and Pichia kudriavzevii (P. kudriavzevii) previously isolated in WCC and TMR, Pichia manshurica (P. manshurica), Candida ethanolica (C. ethanolica), and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (Z. bailii) isolated at great frequency during deterioration, were capable of assimilating lactic or acetic acid and tolerant to acetic acid and might function more in deteriorating TMR silages at early fermentation (7 d and 14 d). With ensiling prolonged to 28 d, silages became more (p<0.01) stable when exposed to air, coinciding with the inhibition of yeast to below the detection limit. Species of P. manshurica that were predominant in deteriorating WCC silages were not detectable in TMR silages. In addition, the predominant yeast species of Z. bailii in deteriorating TMR silages at later fermentation (28 d and 56 d) were not observed in both WCC and WCC silages. Conclusion: The inhibition of yeasts, particularly P. kudriavzevii, probably account for the improved aerobic stability of TMR silages at later fermentation. Fewer species seemed to be involved in aerobic deterioration of silages at later fermentation and Z. bailii was most likely to initiate the aerobic deterioration of TMR silages at later fermentation. The use of WCC in TMR might not influence the predominant yeast species during aerobic deterioration of TMR silages.

Analysis of total mixed ration (TMR) nutrition and metabolic diseases in Korean dairy farm (국내 고능력우 Holsteins 농가의 TMR 영양성분 및 대사성 질병 분석)

  • Kim, SeonHo;Cho, Yong-il
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.67-71
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    • 2019
  • A variety of livestock feed resources were used in Korean dairy farm due to a lack of the endemic feed. However, there is inadequate real farm data to support farmers' decisions on the choice of options. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of total mixed ration (TMR) as well as the metabolic diseases status in Korean dairy farms. TMR samples were collected from nine feed companies and eight selected self-formulated by the dairy farms. The nutrient contents were examined by AOAC methods. The frequency of metabolic diseases such as ketosis and hypocalcemia were surveyed. The average moisture content was 36.2% although the min. and max. value were varied from 21.7% and 50.6% among farms. The mean${\pm}$standard deviation of crude fiber (CF), crude ash (CA), ether extract (EE), and crude protein (CP) were $21.4{\pm}2.5$, $4.6{\pm}0.4$, $3.2{\pm}0.5$ and $9.8{\pm}1.7$, respectively. However, the average ADF and NDF was $17.3{\pm}3.7$ and $31.0{\pm}5.7$, respectively. The compositions of TMR were varied significantly among the dairy farms. The frequency of clinical Ketosis (CK), subclinical ketosis (SCK) and hypocalcemia were higher in early lactation period with 4.5%, 11.0% and 3.0%, respectively. Also, the frequency of SCK was higher than CK and hypocalcemia throughout the lactation. Periodic TMR nutrient analysis based on herd production or physiology change would maximize the effects of TMR feeding. Furthermore, the study results would be useful to the farm practitioner and producer for their farm management.

Effects of Varying Levels of Fungal (Arachniotus sp.) Treated Wheat Straw as an Ingredient of Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves

  • Shahzad, F.;Abdullah, M.;Chaudhry, A.S.;Bhatti, J.A.;Jabbar, M.A.;Ahmed, F.;Mehmood, T.;Asim, M.;Ahmed, S.;Kamran, Z.;Irshad, I.;Tahir, M.N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.359-364
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    • 2016
  • The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1), 33 (TMR2), 67 (TMR3), and 100% (TMR4) fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6) according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves.

Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

  • Hao, W.;Wang, H.L.;Ning, T.T.;Yang, F.Y.;Xu, C.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.816-826
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    • 2015
  • The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML), 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML), and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML), and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM) basis, yeast populations significantly increased from $10^7$ to $10^{10}cfu/g$ during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to $10^9cfu/g$ DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR.