• Title, Summary, Keyword: Tonic Immobility

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Effects of Early Age Feed Restriction and Dietary Ascorbic Acid on Heterophil/ Lymphocyte and Tonic Immobility Reactions of Transported Broiler Chickens

  • Zulkifli, I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.1545-1549
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    • 2003
  • Broiler chickens were subjected to (i) pre-treatment for 24 h with 1,200 ppm L-ascorbic acid in their drinking water on day 42 (AA), (ii) 60% feed restriction on days 4, 5 and 6 (FR), (iii) combination of AA and FR (AAFR), or (iv) neither treatment (control). On day 43, the birds were crated and transported in an open truck for either 60 min or 120 min. Heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (HLR) were determined prior to ($T_0$) and 20 h following the 60 min ($T_60$) and 120 min ($T_120$) journeys. Prior to transportation, all treatment groups had similar HLR. Following $T_60$, the AAFR chicks had smaller increase in HLR than their control, AA and FR counterparts. The AA, FR and AAFR birds exhibited lower HLR than controls following $T_120$. The means HLR of AA, FR and AAFR did not differ significantly. Irrespective of journey time, AA and AAFR birds had shorter tonic immobility duration than their FR and control counterparts. The tonic immobility duration of all birds increased with journey duration.

Influence of Intermittent Lighting on Broiler Performance, Incidence of Tibial Dyschondroplasia, Tonic Immobility, Some Blood Parameters and Antibody Production

  • Onbasilar, E.E.;Erol, H.;Cantekin, Z.;Kaya, U.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.550-555
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    • 2007
  • The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two lighting programs (continuous lighting (CL) 24L:0D and intermittent lighting (IL) 1L:3D) on the broiler performance, carcass traits, incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), relative asymmetry (RA), duration of induced tonic immobility (TI), heterophils-lymphocytes ratio (H/L), serum glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The chicks were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups consisting of 100 chicks per treatment, continuous lighting (CL) 24L:0D or intermittent lighting (IL) 1L:3D. Each treatment consists of 5 replicates of 20 chicks. The experimental period was 6 weeks. Use of IL decreased feed to gain ratio, improved immune response and reduced fearful. Body weight, carcass traits, TD and stress parameters (organ weights, RA, H/L, glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels) were not significant in different lighting groups. As a result IL was beneficial for producers and chickens than CL.

Daylength Effects on Stress and Fear Responses in Broiler Chickens

  • Zulkifli, I.;Rasedee, A.;Nor Syaadah, O.;Che Norma, M.T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.751-754
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    • 1998
  • Heterophil (H) to lymphocyte (L) ratios and durations of tonic immobility (TI) were measured to assess stress and fear responses, respectively, in broiler chickens provided either 12 h of natural lighting (12L) or 12 h natural lighting and 12 h of supplementary lighting (24L). Birds illuminated 24L had greater H/L ratios and TI durations than their 12L counterparts. Neither age, sex nor cage level had significant effect on TI reactions.

Effects of Breeder Age and Stocking Density on Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Some Stress Parameters of Broilers

  • Onbasilar, E.E.;Poyraz, O.;Cetin, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.262-269
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    • 2008
  • The aim of this study was to determine the effects of breeder age and stocking density on performance, carcass characteristics and some stress parameters (H-L ratio, serum glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, tonic immobility test (TI), antibody production, relative asymmetry (RA) and external appearances). This experiment was carried out with 705 one-day old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) obtained from three different ages of broiler breeder (32, 48 and 61 wks). Each age group was randomly divided into two stocking density groups (11.9 and 17.5 broilers per $m^2$) with 5 replications per group. The experimental period was 6 weeks. Broilers from 32 wk-old breeders had lower initial weight (p<0.001), body weight gain of the first 3 week of rearing (p<0.01), the percentage of abdominal fat (p<0.001) and serum cholesterol level (p<0.01); higher percentage of gizzard (p<0.01) and longer TI duration (p<0.001) than those from 48 and 61 wk-old breeders. Broilers reared at 17.5 b/m2 had lower final BW, body weight gain, feed consumption, feather condition and foot health (p<0.001), higher percentage of heart, H-L ratio, serum glucose and cholesterol levels (p<0.001), and longer TI durations (p<0.001). There were no significant interactions in examined parameters except for feed to gain ratio between breeder age and stocking density.

Variability of laying hen behaviour depending on the breed

  • Kozak, Agnieszka;Kasperek, Kornel;Zieba, Grzegorz;Rozempolska-Rucinska, Iwona
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.1062-1068
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    • 2019
  • Objective: For many generations, most species of farm animals have been subjected to intense and strictly targeted selection for improvement of their performance traits. This has led to substantial changes in animal anatomy and physiology, which resulted in considerable differences between the current animal breeds and their wild ancestors. The aim of the study was to determine whether there is breed-specific variability in behaviour as well as differences in emotional reactivity and preferences of laying hens. Methods: The investigations involved 50 Green-legged Partridge, 50 Polbar, and 50 Leghorn hens. All birds were kept in the same conditions, and the behavioural tests were carried out at 30 weeks of age. We used the tonic immobility test and a modified open-field test including such objects as water, commercial feed, feed enriched with cereal grains, finely cut straw, and insect larvae, a sandpit, a mirror, and a shelter imitating a hen nest. Results: The research results demonstrate that the birds of the analysed breeds differ not only in the excitability and emotional reactivity but, importantly, also in the preferences for environment-enriching elements. Ensuring hens' well-being should therefore be based on environmental modifications that will facilitate acquisition of essential elements of chickens' behaviour. The greatest emotional reactivity was found in the Leghorn breed, which may be a result of correlated selection aimed at an increase in chicken productivity. Conclusion: The differences in the behaviour of the birds from the analysed breeds indicate that laying hens cannot be regarded as one group of animals with the same environmental requirements.

Immune-enhancing effect of Acanthopanax Koreanum and its component, Eleutheroside E on the protein-energy malnourished C57bl/6 mice

  • Kim, Na-Hyung;Kim, Kyu-Yeob;Kim, Jeong-Ah;Kim, Young-Ho;Kang, In-Cheol;Kim, Hyung-Min;Jeong, Hyun-Ja
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.191-199
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    • 2010
  • Acanthopanax Koreanum stem (AK) has been used in Korea as a tonic and sedative as well as a drug with ginseng like activities. The purpose of our present study was to investigate the effects of AK extract (AKE) and Eleutheroside E, major component of AKE on an exacerbated immune function through utilization of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) diet by using forced swimming test (FST). The immobility time were significantly decreased in the AKE or Eleutheroside E-administrated group compared with the control group on the FST (P < 0.05). The level of blood parameters were not changed significantly. PEM-induced weight loss of mice was reduced by oral administration of 500 mg/kg AKE. AKE oral administration improved the nutritional status such as the food efficiency ratio and the adrenal gland weight. AKE treatment significantly increased the production of interferon (IFN)-$\gamma$ compared with unstimulated splenocytes but not interleukin (IL)-4. Eleutheroside E also significantly increased the IFN-$\gamma$ production but not IL-2 and IL-4 in T cell line, MOLT-4 cells. These results suggest that AKE and Eleutheroside E may influence to immune-enhancing through increasing the physical endurance capacity and immune cell activation.

Effects of Housing Systems on Behaviour, Performance and Welfare of Fast-growing Broilers

  • Zhao, Zi-Guang;Li, Jian-Hong;Li, Xiang;Bao, Jun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.140-146
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    • 2014
  • This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of different housing systems on behavioral activities, welfare and meat quality of fast-growing broilers. Two hundred broilers were allocated into two housing systems: indoor housing vs indoor with outdoor access. Their general behavior (feeding, drinking, fighting, standing, lying, walking, investigating, dust-bathing and preening) was observed, and tonic immobility, fluctuating asymmetry of legs and wings were measured, and meat quality was analyzed. The results showed that the indoor-housed broilers with outdoor access had significant higher standing, walking, investigating, dust-bathing and preening than those indoor only. However, farming system was not found to significantly affect their feeding, drinking and fighting activities (p>0.05). The value of FA of tibia length of the broilers with outdoor access was significantly lower than that of the indoor-housed birds ($1.57{\pm}1.30$ vs $2.76{\pm}1.40$, p<0.05), while no difference was found for the value of FA in tibia diameter and wing length (p>0.05). TI of the broilers with outdoor access was 165.5 that was significantly higher than that (147.2) of the indoor birds (p<0.05). However, death rate in the outdoor run groups was significantly higher than that of the indoor ones ($2.0{\pm}0.81$ vs $4.0{\pm}0.82$, p<0.05). Meat quality was not affected by the two farming systems. It can be concluded that the results of this study may suggest that the indoor housing with outdoor access provides enriched environment for broilers and facilitates the expression of natural behaviors of the broilers but resulted in poorer performance and higher death rate.

Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens

  • Li, Xiang;Chen, Donghua;Li, Jianhong;Bao, Jun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.887-894
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens' behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p<0.05). The birds in MFC-III had significant higher preening, scratching and feather-pecking behavior than in the other cages (p<0.05). No difference in nesting behavior was found in the hens between the furnished cages (p>0.05). The hens in MFC-I, -II, and -III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05). The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs.

Effects of four dim vs high intensity red color light regimens on growth performance and welfare of broilers

  • Senaratna, D.;Samarakone, T.S.;Gunawardena, W.W.D.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.149-156
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Broilers show clear preference towards red color light (RL). However setting of an optimum light intensity is difficult since dim intensities that favor growth reduce welfare. This experiment was conducted to test the most effective RL intensity regimen (Dim [5 lux; DI] vs high [320 lux; HI]) in combination applied at different growth stages that favors for both performance and welfare. Methods: Complete randomize design was adopted with 6 replicates. Treatments were; T1 = early DI (8-21 d)+latter HI (22-35 d); T2 = early DI (8-28 d)+latter HI (29-35 d), T3 = early HI (8-21 d)+latter DI (22-35 d), T4 = early HI (8-28 d)+latter DI (29-35 d) and T5 = control (white light; WT) (8-35 d) at medium intensity (20 lux). Body weight (BW), weight gain (WG), water/feed intake and ratio, feed conversion ratios (FCR) were assessed. Common behaviours (15) were recorded by scan sampling method. Lameness, foot pad dermatitis, breast blisters, hock burning damage were assessed as welfare parameters. Fear reactions were tested using Tonic Immobility Test. Ocular and carcass evaluations were done. Meat and tibiae were analyzed for fat and bone ash respectively. Results: On 35 d, the highest BW ($2,155.72{\pm}176g$), WG ($1,967.78{\pm}174g$) were recorded by T2 compared to WT ($BW_{WT}=1,878.22{\pm}155$, $WG_{WT}=1,691.83{\pm}160$). But, application of RL, either DI, or HI during early/latter stage had no significant effect on FCR. Under HI, birds showed much higher active behaviours. DI encourages eating. Though LI changed from DI to HI, same trend could be seen even under HI. The highest leg strength ($218.5{\pm}120s$) was recorded by T2. The lowest leg strength ($64.58{\pm}33s$) and the highest ocular weight ($2.48{\pm}1g$) were recorded by T1. Significantly (p<0.05) the highest skin weight ($162.17{\pm}6g$) but the lowest fat% in meat ($13.03%{\pm}5%$) was recorded by T2. Conclusion: Early exposure to DI-RL up to 28 days followed by exposure to HI-RL is the most favorable lighting regimen for optimizing production, better welfare of broilers and improving health benefits of meat.

Influence of Sex Ratio on Behavior and Welfare Indexes in Broiler Chicken (육계의 성비가 행동 및 복지지표에 미치는 영향)

  • Son, Jang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 2010
  • The effect of sex ratio on behavior and welfare indexes in broiler chickens was investigated. Five variants of the sex ratio (male to female), namely, 100:0 (T1), 75:25 (T2), 50:50 (T3), 25:75 (T4) and 0:100 (T5) were tested in broilers between the ages of 7 to 35 days. It was found that the most common behavior in all sex ratios was resting behavior, ranging over 74.4 % of total behavioral frequency. The ranges of other behavior traits of total behavior traits were as follows: pecking, 5.4 to 23.1 %; standing, 1.8 to 24.8 %, and moving, 0.6 to 11.5 %. The behavioral frequency of resting, pecking, standing and moving were not affected by the sex ratio and between male and female. But the percentage of pecking, resting and moving behavioral frequency was significantly different by the age of birds (P<0.05). Age of birds had no effect on standing behavioral frequency. It seems that gait, food pad and hock burn score were no affect by sex ratio but tend to decreased in female than male. Claw length of 21 and 35 days was not affected by sex ratio and between male and female. The duration of tonic immobility (TI- reaction) was tend to decreased age of 21 than 35 days, and female than male. Both male and female of the study, hock burn score, claw length and TI-reaction were tend to lower in T4 than other treatments. The results suggest that, when male and female broilers are reared together, sex ratio can influence broiler welfare indexes in this study.