• Title, Summary, Keyword: Tobacco use

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Extending Application of the 'Hardcore' Definition to Smokeless Tobacco Use: Estimates from a Nationally Representative Population in India and its Implications

  • Jena, Pratap Kumar;Bandyopadhyay, Chandan;Mathur, Manu Raj;Das, Sagarika
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.5959-5963
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    • 2012
  • Background: The term 'hardcore' has been applied to use of smoking tobacco and generally referred to as the inability or unwillingness of regular smokers to quit. The component constructs of hardcore except nicotine dependence are product neutral. With the use of 'time to first chew' as a measure of nicotine dependence, hardcore definition can be extended to characterize smokeless tobacco users. Hardcore users respond less to tobacco cessation interventions, and are prone to tobacco induced diseases including cancer. Thus identifying hardcore users would help in estimate the burden of high risk population for tobacco induced diseases. Smokeless tobacco use is predominant and accounts for more than 50% of oral cancer in India. Hence, hardcore chewing information could be used for planning of tobacco and cancer control interventions. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smokeless tobacco use in India. Materials and Methods: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)-India 2010 data were analyzed to quantify hardcore smokeless tobacco use in India with following five criteria: (1) current daily smokeless tobacco use; (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration; (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting; (4) time to first use of smokeless tobacco product within 30 minutes of waking up; and (5) knowledge of smokeless tobacco hazards. Results: The number of hardcore smokeless tobacco users among adult Indians is estimated to be 5% (39.5 million). This group comprises 23.2% of daily smokeless tobacco users. The population prevalence varied from 1.4-9.1% across different national regions of India. Logistic regression modeling indicated age, education and employment status to be the major predictors of hardcore smokeless tobacco use in India. Conclusions: The presence of a huge number (39.5 million) of hardcore smokeless tobacco users is a challenge to tobacco control and cancer prevention in India. There is an unmet need for a universal tobacco cessation programme and intensification of anti-tobacco education in communities.

Social Determinants of Health and Tobacco Use in Five Low - and Middle-Income Countries - Results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), 2011 - 2012

  • Tee, Guat Hiong;Aris, Tahir;Rarick, James;Irimie, Sorina
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1269-1276
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    • 2016
  • Background: Tobacco consumption continues to be the leading cause of preventable deaths globally. The objective of this study was to examine the associaton of selected socio-demographic variables with current tobacco use in five countries that participated in the Phase II Global Adult Tobacco Survey in 2011 - 2012. Materials and Methods: We analysed internationally comparable representative household survey data from 33,482 respondents aged ${\geq}15years$ in Indonesia, Malaysia, Romania, Argentina and Nigeria for determinants of tobacco use within each country. Socio-demographic variables analysed included gender, age, residency, education, wealth index and awareness of smoking health consequences. Current tobacco use was defined as smoking or use of smokeless tobacco daily or occasionally. Results: The overall prevalence of tobacco use varied from 5.5% in Nigeria to 35.7% in Indonesia and was significantly higher among males than females in all five countries. Odds ratios for current tobacco use were significantly higher among males for all countries [with the greatest odds among Indonesian men (OR=67.4, 95% CI: 51.2-88.7)] and among urban dwellers in Romania. The odds of current tobacco use decreased as age increased for all countries except Nigeria where. The reverse was true for Argentina and Nigeria. Significant trends for decreasing tobacco use with increasing educational levels and wealth index were seen in Indonesia, Malaysia and Romania. Significant negative associations between current tobacco use and awareness of adverse health consequences of smoking were found in all countries except Argentina. Conclusions: Males and the socially and economically disadvantaged populations are at the greatest risk of tobacco use. Tobacco control interventions maybe tailored to this segment of population and incorporate educational interventions to increase knowledge of adverse health consequences of smoking.

Evaluation of a Specially Designed Tobacco Control Program to Reduce Tobacco Use among School Children in Kerala

  • Philip, Phinse Mappalakayil;Parambil, Neetu Ambali;Bhaskarapillai, Binukumar;Balasubramanian, Satheesan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3455-3459
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    • 2013
  • Background: Smoking and smokeless tobacco use are almost always initiated and established during adolescence. More than 80% of adult smokers begin smoking before 18 years of age. The main objective of the present study is to assess the feasibility of preventing adolescent tobacco use with the help of a specially designed tobacco control program. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey on tobacco use and related health effects was conducted using a structured questionnaire in 13 randomly selected schools in Kannur district of Kerala. These students were followed for a period of one academic year with multiple spaced interventions such as anti-tobacco awareness classes, formation of anti-tobacco task forces, inter-school competitions, supplying IEC (information, education and communication) materials and providing a handbook on tobacco control for school personnel. Final evaluation was at the end of one year. Results: There were 4,144 school children who participated in the first phase of the study. The prevalence of tobacco smoking and chewing habits were 9.85% and 2.24% respectively. Ninety-one percent had parental advice against tobacco use and only 3.79% expressed desire for future tobacco use. The final evaluation witnessed a sharp decline in the current tobacco use as 4.68%. We observed a statistically significant difference towards the future use of tobacco (p<0.001) and awareness about the ill effects of passive smoking (p<0.001) among boys and girls. Further a significantly increased knowledge was observed among boys compared to girls about tobacco and oral cancer (p=0.046). Conclusions: The comprehensive school based tobacco control project significantly reduced the tobacco use pattern in the target population. School tobacco projects incorporating frequent follow ups and multiple interventions appear more effective than projects with single intervention.

Women and Tobacco Use: Discrepancy in the Knowledge, Belief and Behavior towards Tobacco Consumption among Urban and Rural Women in Chhattisgarh, Central India

  • Tiwari, Ram Vinod;Gupta, Anjali;Agrawal, Ankush;Gandhi, Aniruddh;Gupta, Manjari;Das, Mayank
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6365-6373
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    • 2015
  • Background: Tobacco consumption has become pandemic, and is estimated to have killed 100 million people in the 20th century worldwide. Some 700,000 out of 5.4 million deaths due to tobacco use were from India. The era of global modernization has led to an increase in the involvement of women in tobacco consumption in the low income and middle-income countries. Tobacco consumption by females is known to have grave consequences. Objectives: To assess: (1) the tobacco use among urban and rural women; (2) the discrepancy in the knowledge, belief and behavior towards tobacco consumption among urban and rural women in Durg-Bhilai Metropolitan, Chhattisgarh, Central India. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 2,000 18-25 year old young women from Durg-Bhilai Metropolitan, Chhattisgarh, Central India, from both urban and rural areas. Data were collected using a pretested, anonymous, extensive face to face interview by a female investigator to assess the tobacco use among women and the discrepancy in the knowledge, belief and behavior towards tobacco consumption among urban and rural individuals. Results: The prevalence of tobacco use was found to be 47.2%. Tobacco consumption among rural women was 54.4% and in urban women was 40%. The majority of the women from urban areas (62.8%) were smokers whilst rural women (77.4%) showed preponderance toward smokeless tobacco use. Urban women had a better knowledge and attitude towards harms from tobacco and its use than the rural women. Women in rural areas had higher odds (1.335) of developing tobacco habit than the urban women. Conclusions: Increased tobacco use by women poses very severe hazards to their health, maternal and child health, and their family health and economic well-being. Due to the remarkably complex Indian picture of female tobacco use, an immediate and compulsory implementation of tobacco control policies laid down by t he WHO FCTC is the need of the hour.

Tobacco Promotion and Availability in School Neighborhoods in India: a Cross-sectional Study of their Impact on Adolescent Tobacco Use

  • Patel, Deepa;Kassim, Saba;Croucher, Ray
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.4173-4176
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    • 2012
  • Background: Adolescent tobacco use is a major public health problem. However, there is little information about the impact of tobacco advertising and availability near schools on adolescent tobacco use in India. Methods: The various tobacco products and brands available in outlets within 100 meters of two high schools in an Indian town were identified. A stratified random sample of 172 participants from these two schools completed a questionnaire on tobacco use and socioeconomic status. Results: Eighteen outlets selling tobacco products were identified. In the two schools the current use of smoked and smokeless tobacco was 9.1% and 17.4% respectively. School location and low socio-economic status of adolescents were associated with tobacco awareness of advertisements (p=0.001) and the receipt of a free sample (p= 0.032). Advertisements on billboards, posters and the receipt of a free tobacco sample were significant factors (p=0.031, p=0.016, p=0.017 respectively) in current tobacco use. Conclusion: In this study a significant proportion of adolescents used tobacco. Tobacco-promotion activities (advertising, the receipt of a free sample), school location and economic status were found to be associated with adolescent tobacco initiation. The local environment should be included in the prevention of adolescent tobacco initiation.

Factors Associated with Tobacco Use in Students Attending Local Government Schools in Mumbai, India

  • Chatterjee, Nilesh;Todankar, Priyamvada;Mandal, Gauri;Gupte, Himanshu;Thawal, Vaibhav;Bhutia, Tshering;Choudhuri, Leni
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.5075-5080
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Factors associated with ever-use and differences between ever-users and non-users of tobacco among adolescent school students from low income families in Mumbai were assessed. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire, completed by 1918 students from grades 7, 8 and 9 in 12 schools managed by the city municipal corporation in July 2015, gathered data on socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco use and tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Results: Although only 1% of respondents thought tobacco was cool, nearly 35% were unaware of associations between tobacco use and health problems. Male students were almost twice as likely (OR=2.5, P <= 0.05) to have ever used tobacco compared to females and Supari (areca nut) users were eight times more likely (OR=8.99, P < 0.001) than Supari non -users. Tobacco-users were more likely to agree with statements: 'People who use tobacco have more friends' (OR=2.8, P = 0.004), 'Smoking relieves stress' (OR=5.6, P = 0.002) and 'It is possible to purchase any tobacco product within 100 yards of school' (OR=10.8, P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study highlights the gains made by tobacco prevention campaigns in that almost all students did not consider tobacco as cool or a stress reliever. However, they still need education about health consequences of tobacco-use. In addition, Supari use has to be addressed in school-based tobacco prevention and cessation initiatives. Furthermore, programs must also address perceptions and norms related to peers and tobacco use and ensure active implementation of existing laws. Such integrated measures will help ensure tobacco-free spaces around schools.

Predictors of Tobacco Use among Youth in India: GATS 2009-2010 Survey

  • Sharma, Shailja;Singh, Mitasha;Lal, Pranay;Goel, Sonu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.7535-7540
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    • 2015
  • Background: Early initiation of smoking and chewing of diverse forms of tobacco among youth in India is a significant driver for tobacco epidemic in India. Several socio-demographic factors are predictors of tobacco use in populations, especially among youth. Interventions which address these socio-demographic factors can help policy makers to curb new initiations and avert morbidity and mortality due to tobacco use. Objective: To study the various sociodemographic variables associated with tobacco use among youth in India. Materials and Methods: Secondary analysis of data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey-India 2009-10 for the age group of 15-24 years was performed and predictors of smoking and smokeless tobacco were analyzed using data on occupation, education, and other sociodemographic factors. Results: In India there are a total of 51.3 million (22.1%) youth (15-24 years) tobacco users. Of these 35.1 million consumes chewable tobacco (15.1%), 16.2 million smoke (7%) and 1.6 million are dual users (3.1%). Males, urban, less educated, un-employed and those belonging to middle class preferred smoking over chewing; whereas, females, rural, students and those belonging to low socio-economic class are predictors of smokeless tobacco use. The major determinants of dual users are male sex, poor socio-economic strata and student class. The overall tobacco use was higher among males, rural populations, lower socioeconomic strata and un-employed class. Conclusions: India's youth is more susceptible to the tobacco addiction, especially of smokeless tobacco. Youth from rural India especially students, girls and those from poor socio-economic strata prefer to use smokeless tobacco products whereas urban, male and those less educated prefer smoking tobacco products. More population-based and region-focused research is needed to understand initiation patterns into tobacco use among youth so as to inform policymakers to devise new policy measures to curb the growing epidemic.

Global School Personnel Survey Among 5200 School Personnel in India: Comparison of the Results for the Years 2009 and 2006

  • Gajalakshmi, V.;Kanimozhi, C.V.;Sinha, D.N.;Rahman, K.;Warren, C.W.;Asma, S.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.539-543
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    • 2012
  • Background: The results of the Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS) conducted in India in 2009 are compared with 2006 GSPS to assess any change in 2009 on tobacco use and knowledge and attitudes to tobacco use, training and availability of tobacco control teaching material in schools and the existence of school tobacco control policies. Methods: GSPS is a cross sectional survey conducted twice (2006 and 2009) in entire India. A total of 180 schools were surveyed each time. Results: Of the participating school personnel, 2660 in 2006 and 2575 in 2009, about 95% were teachers and the balance administrators. In 2009, compared to 2006 the prevalence of current smoking of cigarettes (19.6% in 2006 and 10.3% in 2009) and bidis (21.5% in 2006 and 13.9% in 2009) was found to be significantly lower; the percentage of teachers receiving training on preventing youth tobacco use has significantly reduced (16.7% in 2006 and 10.1% in 2009); access of teachers to educational materials on tobacco use and how to prevent its use among youth had not increased (34.6% in 2006 and 37.8% in 2009); there was no change in policy prohibiting tobacco use among students and school personnel; however, ever use of any tobacco on school premises was significantly lower (15.6% in 2006 and 9.6% in 2009). Conclusions: The prevalence of current smoking (cigarettes/bidis) among school personnel and use of any tobacco on school premises were significantly decreased in 2009 as compared to 2006. Necessary action should be planned to increase the number of teachers trained and the availability of teaching materials on preventing youth tobacco use in order to have effective prevention of tobacco use among students.

Tobacco Use and Quit Behaviour Assessment in the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS): Invalid Responses and Implications

  • Jena, Pratap Kumar;Kishore, Jugal;Pati, Sanghamitra;Sarkar, Bidyut Kanti;Das, Sagarika
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6563-6568
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    • 2013
  • Background: Tobacco use and quit attempts are two key indicators of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) that assess quit attempts among current as well as former tobacco users. The relevant data have inherent policy implications for tobacco cessation programme evaluation. This study aimed to review the concepts of quit attempt assessment and quantifying invalid responses considering GATS-India data. Materials and Methods: GATS assessment of tobacco use and quit attempts were examined in the current literature. Two categories of invalid responses were identified by stratified analysis of the duration of last quit attempt among current users and duration of abstinence among former users. Category A included absolute invalid responses when time-frame of assessment of current tobacco use and less than former tobacco use were violated. Category B included responses that violated the unit of measurement of time. Results: Current daily use, current less than daily use and former use in GATS were imprecisely defined with overlapping of time-frame of assessment. Overall responses of 3,102 current smokers, 4,036 current smokeless users, 1,904 former smokers and 1,343 former smokeless users were analyzed to quantify invalid responses. Analysis indicated overall 21.2% (category A: 7.32%; category B: 17.7%) and 22.7% (category A: 8.05%; category B: 18.1%) invalid responses among current smokers and smokeless users respectively regarding their duration of last quit attempt. Similarly overall 6.62% (category A: 4.7%; category B: 2.3%) and 10.6% (category A: 8.6%; category B: 3.5%) invalid responses were identified among former smokers and smokeless users respectively regarding their duration of abstinence. Conclusions: High invalid responses for a single assessment are due to the imprecise definition of current use, former use and quit attempt; and failure to utilize opportunity of direct data entry interface use during the survey to validate responses instantly. Redefining tobacco use and quit attempts considering an appropriate timeframe would reduce invalid responses.

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Tobacco Use and Its Impact on Oral Health Status of 12 and 15 Year-Old School Children of Chhattisgarh, India

  • Tiwari, Ram Vinod;Megalamanegowdru, Jayachandra;Gupta, Anjali;Agrawal, Ankush;Parakh, Abhinav;Pagaria, Sulabh;Sahu, Abhishek
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10129-10135
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    • 2015
  • Background: Tobacco is a leading preventable cause of deaths worldwide; the situation is particularly serious in the developing countries. Tobacco use amongst the children and adolescents is already a pandemic and they are vulnerable targets of tobacco industry. This is also the case in India. Objectives: 1) Document and monitor the prevalence of tobacco use including smoked, smokeless and other forms of tobacco; 2) Understand student knowledge and attitudes related to tobacco use and its health impact; 3) Assess the impact of tobacco on the oral health status of school-going children in India. Materials and Methods: The sample was 1,500 school children of the age group 12-15 years age. A pretested, close ended questionnaire was administered in the form of extensive face to face interview to understand student knowledge, attitudes and behavior related to tobacco use and its health impact and to assess the prevalence of tobacco use including smoked, smokeless and other forms of tobacco. Oral health status was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Frequency distribution, Chi-square tests and Odd's ratio was calculated. Results: Prevalence of tobacco usage amongst the prevalence was 20.4%: 9.2% reported smoking, 15.8% used tobacco in the chewable form and 25.3% children were involved in consuming betel nut/areca nuts. The OR (Odd's ratio) for calculus formation was highest for guthka chewers (OR=14.322), paan masala chewers had the highest odds of developing bleeding on probing when compared to the others. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to launch school-based tobacco prevention programs for community awareness of children and the public, as preventing the initiation of a habit is far easier than stopping it.