• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ti

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Tribological Characteristics of TiC, TiN and TiC/TiN Coatings (TiC, TiN과 TiC/TiN 코팅의 트라이볼로지 특성)

  • Jeon, Chan Yeal
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.1253-1258
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    • 2014
  • The tribological properties of TiC, TiN and TiC/TiN coatings on steels prepared by the cathodic-arc (CA) ion plating technique were investigated. Experiments were carried out on a tribo-test machine using a Falex journal V block system. The friction and wear characteristics of the coatings were determined by varying the applied load and sliding speed. The TiC, TiN and TiC/TiN coatings markedly increased the tribological characteristics of the surface. As far as a single layer coating was concerned, TiN goes better results than TiC. However, the TiC/TiN multilayer coating performed better than either single layer coating. The major factor in the improved performance of the multilayer coating was the role of TiC in improving the adhesion between the external TiN layer and the substrate steel.

Rapid Synthesis and Consolidation of Nanostructured Ti-TiC Composites from TiH2 and CNT by Pulsed Current Activated Heating

  • Park, Na-Ra;Shon, In-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.48-53
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    • 2015
  • $TiH_2$ nanopowder was made by high energy ball milling. The milled $TiH_2$ and CNT powders were then simultaneously synthesized and consolidated using pulsed current activated sintering (PCAS) within one minute under an applied pressure of 80 MPa. The milling did not induce any reaction between the constituent powders. Meanwhile, PCAS of the $TiH_2$-CNT mixture produced a Ti-TiC composite according to the reaction ($0.92TiH_2+0.08CNT{\rightarrow}0.84Ti+0.08TiC+0.92H_2$, $0.84TiH_2+0.16CNT{\rightarrow}0.68Ti+0.16TiC+0.84H_2$). Highly dense nanocrystalline Ti-TiC composites with a relative density of up to 99.7% were obtained. The hardness and fracture toughness of the dense Ti-8 mole% TiC and Ti-16 mole% TiC produced by PCAS were also investigated. The hardness of the Ti-8 mole% TiC and Ti-16 mole% TiC composites was higher than that of Ti. The hardness value of the Ti-16 mole% TiC composite was higher than that of the Ti-8 mole% TiC composite without a decrease in fracture toughness.

A Study on the Properties of TiN/${TiSi}_{2}$ Bilayer by a Rapid Thermal Anneal in ${NH}_{3}$ Ambient (${NH}_{3}$ 분위기에서 급속열처리에 의한 TiN/${TiSi}_{2}$ 이중구조막의 특성에 대한 고찰)

  • 이철진;성영권
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.41 no.8
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    • pp.869-874
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    • 1992
  • The physical and electrical properties of TiN/TiSiS12T bilayer were studied. The TiN/TiSiS12T bilayer was formed by rapid thermal anneal in NHS13T ambient after the Ti film was deposited on silicon substrate. The Ti film reacts with NHS13T gas to make a TiN layer at the surface and reacts with silicon to make a TiSiS12T layer at the interface respectively. It was found that the formation of TiN/TiSiS12T bilayer depends on RTA temperature. In this experiment, competitive reaction for TiN/TiSiS12T bilayer occured above $600^{\circ}C$. Ti-rich TiNS1xT layer and Ti-rich TiSiS1xT layer and Ti-rich TiSiS1xT layer were formed at $600^{\circ}C$. stable structure TiN layer TiSiS12T layer which has CS149T phase and CS154T phase were formed at $700^{\circ}C$. Both stable TiN layer and CS154T phase TiSiS12T layer were formed at 80$0^{\circ}C$. The thickness of TiN/TiSiS12T bilayer was increased as the thickness of deposited Ti film increased.

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A Study on the Chemically Vapor Deposited TiC, TiN, and TiC(C, N) on $Si_3N_4$-TiC Ceramic Tools. ($Si_3N_4-TiC$ Ceramic 공구에 화학증착된 TiC, TiN 및 Ti(C, N)에 관한 연구)

  • 김동원;김시범;이준근;천성순
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.36-43
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    • 1988
  • Titanium carbide(TiC) and titanium nitride(TiN) flims were deposited on $Si_3N_4$-TiC composite cutting tools by chemical vapor deposition(CVD) using $TiCl_4-CH_4-H_2$ and $TiCl_4-H_2-N_2$ gas mixtures, respectively. The nonmetal to metal ratio of deposit increases with increasing $m_{C/Ti}$(mole ratio of CH$_4$ to TiCl$_4$ in the input) for TiC coatings and $m_{N/Ti}$(mole ratio of N$_2$ to TiCl$_4$ in the input) for TiN coatings. The nearly stoiahiometric films could be obtained under the deposition condition of $m_{C/Ti}$ between 1.15 and 1.61 for TiC, and that of $m_{N/Ti}$ between 25 and 28 for TiN. Also maximum microhardness of the coatings can be obtained in these ranges. The interfacial region of TiC coatings on $Si_3N_4$-TiC ceramics is wider than that of TiN coatings according to Auger depth profile analysis, which indicates good interfacial bonding for TiC. Experimental results show that TiC coatings have an randomly equiaxed structure and Columnar structure with(220) preferred orientation can be obtained for TiN coatings. And, multilayer coatings have a dense and equiaxed structure.

Effects of Ti or Ti/TiN Underlayers on the Crystallographic Texture and Sheet Resistance of Aluminum Thin Films (Ti 또는 Ti/TiN underlayer가 Al 박막의 배향성 및 면저항에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Won-Jun;Rha, Sa-Kyun
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.90-96
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    • 2000
  • The effects of the type and thickness of underlayers on the crystallographic texture and the sheet resistance of aluminum thin films were studied. Sputtered Ti and Ti/TiN were examined as the underlayer of the aluminum films. The texture and the sheet resistance of the metal thin film stacks were investigated at various thicknesses of Ti or TiN, and the sheet resistance was measured after annealing at $400^{\circ}C$ in an nitrogen ambient. For the Ti underlayer, the minimum thickness to obtain excellent texture of aluminum <111> was 10nm, and the sheet resistance of the metal stack was greatly increased after annealing due to the interdiffusion and reaction of Al and Ti. TiN between Ti and Al could suppress the Al-Ti reaction, while it deteriorated the texture of the aluminum film. For the Ti/TiN underlayer, the minimum Ti thickness to obtain excellent texture of aluminum <111> was 20nm, and the minimum thickness of TiN to function as a diffusion barrier between Ti and Al was 20nm.

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Effects of Ti Thickness on Ti Reactions in Cu/Ti/SiO2/Si System upon Annealing (Cu/Ti/SiO2/Si 구조에서 Ti 층 두께가 Ti 반응에 미치는 효과)

  • Hong, Sung-Jin;Lee, Jae-Gab
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.12 no.11
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    • pp.889-893
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    • 2002
  • The reactions of $Cu/Ti/SiO_2$ structures at temperatures ranging from 200 to $700^{\circ}C$ have been studied for various Ti thicknesses. The reaction products initially formed, at around $300^{\circ}C$, were a series of Cu-Ti intermetallics ($Cu_3$Ti/CuTi) with the oxygen dissolved in the Ti moving from the compounds into the remaining unreacted Ti. At $500^{\circ}C$, the $Cu_3$Ti was converted into Cu-rich intermetallics, $Cu_4$Ti, which grew at the expense of the CuTi due to the increased oxygen content in the Ti. In addition, the outdiffusion of Ti, to the Cu surface, and the $Ti-SiO_2$ reactions, caused an abrupt increase in the oxygen content in the Ti layer, which placed thermodynamic restraints on further Ti reactions. Furthermore, thinner Ti layers showed a higher increasing rate of oxygen accumulation for the same consumption of Ti, which led to significantly reduced Ti consumption. The $SiO_2$ film under the Ti diffusion barrier was more easily destroyed with increasing Ti thickness.

고집적회로에서 TiN/Ti Diffusion Barrier의 열처리에 따른 계면반응 및 구조변화에 대한 연구

  • Yu, Seong-Yong;Choi, Jin-Seog;Paek, Su-Hyon;Oh, Jae-Eung
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.58-69
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    • 1991
  • 고집적회로에서 A1 금속공정의 diffusion barrier로 널리 사용되는 titanium nitride의 성질을 조사하였다. 실제 회로 구조의 열적 안정성을 관찰하기 위하여 준비된 TiN/Ti다층 barrier를 $600^{\circ}C$까지 열처리하여 x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy(XTEM) 등으로 분석하였다. 열처리 온도가 증가됨에 따라 oxygen은 TiN 층의 표면과 pure-Ti 층에 pile up 된다. TiN 층의 표면에서는 $600^{\circ}C$열처리시 TiN이 분해되어 완전히 $TiO_2$가 형성되며, TiN 층 내에서는 oxygen 함량은 열처리 온도의 증가에 따라 커지고 이때 형성되는 Ti-oxide는 $TiO_2$ 보다 TiO, $Ti_2$$O_3$ 상태로 존재하게 된다. Pure-Ti 층은 열처리시 두개의 층으로 나누어 지는 데, 표면에서 침투하는 oxygen과 pure-Ti이 반응하여 Ti-oxide 층이 생기며 실리콘 기판과의 반응으로 Ti-silicide를 형성한다. $600^{\circ}C$에서 모든 Ti 층이 반응으로 소모되고 열적 stress, Ti-silicide의 grain growth, oxygen의 침입으로 TiN 층에 blistering이 발생한다.

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Prediction of the optical properties of $TiO_2$/Ag/$TiO_2$ films using transfer matrix and comparisions with real transmittance measured on the sputter-deposited films (Transfer Matrix를 사용하여 예측한 $TiO_2$/Ag/$TiO_2$ 박막의 광학적 성질 및 스퍼터 증착된 박막과의 특성 비교)

  • Kim, Jin-Il;Kim, Jin-Hyeon;Kim, Yeong-Hwan;O, Tae-Seong
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.140-148
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    • 1995
  • Optical properties of $TiO_{2}$. Ag filrns and $TiO_{2}/Ag/TiO_{2}$ multilayer filrns with different thickness were predicted using the transfer matrix, and these results were compared with real transmittance curves of the sputterdeposited films. With the complex refractive indices, it was possible to predict transmittance characteristics which were close to real data for $TiO_{2}$ and Ag films. Due to the diffusion and agglomeration of Ag during $TiO_{2}$ deposition, optical properties of the sputterdeposited $TiO_{2}/Ag/TiO_{2}$ films were found to be very different from the transmittance curves predicted using the transfer matrix. Using deposition of 4nm-thick or 6nm-thick TI layers as a diffusion barrier, however, the transmittance curves of $TiO_{2}/Ti/Ag/Ti/TiO_{2}$ five-layer films became similar to ones predicted for $TiO_{2}/Ag/TiO_{2}$ threeiayer films.

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Interface Reactions and Diffusion of Si3N4/Ti and Si3N4/TiAl Alloys (Si3N4/Ti와 Si3N4/TiAl합금의 계면반응 및 확산 거동)

  • Choi, Kwang Su;Kim, Sun Jin;Lee, Ji Eun;Park, Joon Sik;Lee, Jong Won
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.603-608
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    • 2017
  • $Si_3N_4$ is a ceramic material attracting attention in many fields because of its excellent abrasion resistance. In addition, Ti and TiAl alloys are metals used in a variety of high temperature environments, and have attracted much attention because of their high strength and high melting points. Therefore, study of the interface reaction between $Si_3N_4/Ti$ and $Si_3N_4/TiAl$ can be a useful practice to identify phase selection and diffusion control. In this study, $Si_3N_4/Ti_5Si_3+TiN/TiN/Ti$ diffusing pairs were formed in the $Si_3N_4/Ti$ interfacial reaction and $Si_3N_4/TiN(Al)/Ti_3Al/TiAl$ diffusion pathway was identified in the $Si_3N_4/TiAl$ interfacial reaction. The diffusion layers of the interface reactions were identified and, to investigate the kinetics of the diffusion layer, the integrated diffusion coefficients were estimated.

High Temperature Oxidation of TiN, Ti(C,N), TiAlSiN, TiZrAlN, TiAlCrSiN Thin Films (TiN, Ti(C,N), TiAlSiN, TiZrAlN, TiAlCrSiN 박막의 고온산화)

  • Kim, Min-Jeong;Park, Sun-Yong;Lee, Dong-Bok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.192-192
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    • 2014
  • TiN, Ti(C,N), TiAlSiN, TiZrAlN, TiAlCrSiN 박막을 제조한 후, 이 들의 고온산화 특성을 SEM, EPMA, TGA, TEM, AES 등을 이용하여 조사하고, 산화기구를 제안하였다. 산화속도, 생성되는 산화물의 종류와 분포는 박막의 조성, 산화온도, 산화시간에 따라 변하였다.

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