• Title, Summary, Keyword: Thyroid

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Thyroid dysfunction and subfertility

  • Cho, Moon Kyoung
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.131-135
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    • 2015
  • The thyroid hormones act on nearly every cell in the body. Moreover, the thyroid gland continuously interacts with the ovaries, and the thyroid hormones are involved in almost all phases of reproduction. Thyroid dysfunctions are relatively common among women of reproductive age, and can affect fertility in various ways, resulting in anovulatory cycles, high prolactin levels, and sex hormone imbalances. Undiagnosed and untreated thyroid disease can be a cause of subfertility. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), also known as mild thyroid failure, is diagnosed when peripheral thyroid hormone levels are within the normal reference laboratory range, but serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are mildly elevated. Thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) is characterized by the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies, which include anti-thyroperoxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. SCH and TAI may remain latent, asymptomatic, or even undiagnosed for an extended period. It has also been demonstrated that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation has a significant impact on thyroid function, particularly in women with TAI. In the current review, we describe the interactions between thyroid dysfunctions and subfertility, as well as the proper work-up and management of thyroid dysfunctions in subfertile women.

Quantitative Analysis of Thyroid Blood Flow and Static Imaging in the Differential Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules

  • Song, Li-Ping;Zhang, Wen-Hong;Xiang, Yang;Zhao, Na
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6331-6335
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    • 2013
  • Objective:To evaluate the performance of combined quantitative analysis of thyroid blood flow and static imaging data in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Method: Thyroid blood flow and static imaging were performed in 165 patients with thyroid nodules. Patients were divided into a benign thyroid nodule group (BTN, n=135) and a malignant thyroid nodule group (MTN, n=30) based on the results of post-surgical pathologic examination. Carotid artery thyroid transit times (CTTT), perfusion ratio of thyroid nodule blood/thyroid blood (TNB/TB), and perfusion ratio of thyroid nodule blood/carotid artery blood (TNB/CAB) were measured using thyroid blood flow imaging. The ratios between thyroid nodule and ipsilateral submandibular gland (TN/SG) and thyroid nodule and normal thyroid tissue (TN/T) were measured from thyroid static imaging. The differences between the BTN and MTN groups were compared. Results: 1) CTTT was markedly lower in the MTN group than the BTN group, the difference being statistically significant. 2) TNB/TB and TNB/CAB were both significantly higher in MTN than BTN groups. 3) TN/T was significantly lower in MTN group than BTN group. 4) TN/SG was lower in MTN group than BTN group, but the difference was not statistically significant. 5) Using the combination of CTTT and TN/T, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 93.1%, 95.3% and 94.9% respectively for the diagnosis of MTN. Using the combination of CTTT, TNB/TB and TN/T, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy changed to 89.7%, 100%, and 98.1% respectively. 6) Correlation analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between TN/T and TNB/TB (r=-0.384, P=0.036) and TNB/CAB (r=-0.466, P=0.009) in the MTN group. Conclusion: The combination of quantitative markers from thyroid blood flow and thyroid static imaging had high specificity and accuracy in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules, thus providing an important imaging diagnostic approach.

Soft Tissue Implantation of Thyroid Adenomatous Hyperplasia after Endoscopic Thyroid Surgery:Report of a Case (내시경 갑상선 절제술 후에 발생한 갑상선 선종성 과형성증의 연조직 착상 1예)

  • Lee, Yong-Sang;Yoon, Ji-Sup;Nam, Kee-Hyun;Chung, Woong-Youn;Park, Cheong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.46-49
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    • 2007
  • Soft tissue implantation of thyroid tissue is a very rare event. Needle tract implantation of thyroid carcinoma after fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy has been occasionally reported, but implantation of benign thyroid tumor tissue is extremely rare. Rupture of thyroid tissues during surgery or trauma may cause the thyroid tissue to be implanted and result in multiple palpable nodules in soft tissue of the neck. Several reports have shown the possibility of implantation of normal or hyperplastic thyroid tissues in soft tissue. We herein report a case of implantation of adenomatous hyperplastic tissue in the neck along the trochar and previous operation site after endoscopic thyroid surgery, which was successfully treated by complete excision.

A Case of Ectopic Thyroid with Clinical Evaluation of Fifteen Cases (이소성 갑상선 1례 및 국내 증례의 임상적 고찰)

  • 고중화;안성윤;송정환;박승구
    • Korean Journal of Bronchoesophagology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.55-61
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    • 1999
  • The authors recently experienced a case of ectopic thyroid. A 15-year-old female patient visited to ENT department with the complaint of the submental neck mass. On physical examination, the mass was relatively firm, non tender and 3$\times$2cm in size. Oral cavity examination revealed 0.5$\times$0.5cm sized pink colored mass near the foramen cecum area. Suspecting ectopic thyroid, thyroid function test, thyroid scan, neck computed tomogram scan were performed. Thyroid scan revealed a functioning thyroid on the lingual and submental area without normal uptake in the anterior neck area. Thyroid (unction test was normal. Pre-contrast computed tomogram scan revealed an ectopic thyroid in the lingual and submental area. A review of literature concerning ectopic thyroid was discussed.

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Dual Lingual Thyroid Mimicking Mono-ectopic Thyroid in the Anterior View of Tc-99m Sodium Pertechnetate Thyroid Scan (전면 영상에서 하나로 오인된 두개의 설갑상전종)

  • Chong, A-Ri;Jeong, Shin-Young;Kwon, Seong-Young;Seo, Young-Soon;Ha, Jung-Min;Oh, Jong-Ryool;Bom, Hee-Seung;Song, Ho-Chun;Min, Jung-Joon
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.485-487
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    • 2008
  • Ectopic thyroid is not common disease and double ectopic thyroid is rare. Until January of 2008, dual ectopic thyroid has been reported only 23 cases in international literatures. Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate scan is playing an important role in the diagnosis of ectopic thyroid. In most of the cases, dual lingual thyroid tissues could be detected as two radiotracer uptake foci. We report a case of dual lingual thyroid mimicking mono-lingual thyroid in the anterior view of thyroid scan. Lateral view helped in this case to detect the dual lingual thyroid. With lateral view, the anatomical position and relationship could be examined in more detail.

Anaplastic Transformation of Follicular Thyroid Cancer in the Lung, Liver, Bone, and Adrenal Gland

  • Lee, Wonae;Kim, Dohee
    • International journal of thyroidology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 2017
  • Anaplastic transformation of differentiated thyroid cancer at distant metastatic sites is extremely rare and has a poor prognosis. It usually occurs in the thyroid gland or cervical lymph nodes. Here we report a case of anaplastic transformation arising at multiple distant metastatic sites including the lung, liver, adrenal gland, bone, and lymph nodes in a patient 3 years after total thyroidectomy for follicular thyroid cancer.

A Study on Peripheral T Cell Subsets in Patients with Thyroid Tumors (갑상선 종양에 있어서 말초혈의 T 세포 Subset에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.110-116
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    • 1991
  • To elucidate alteration of peripheral T cell subsets in thyroid tumors, the author enumerated T cell subsets in periphral blood by indirect immunofluorescent method, using monoclonal antibodies (CD3, CD4 and CD8) in 17 cases of thyroid cancer, 12 cases of thyroid adenoma, and 16 cases of adult healthy subjects as controls. Diagnoses were confirmed histopatologically in thyroid cancer and adenoma, and were established on the basis of commonly accepted clinical and biochemical criteria in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The blood was drawn from veins of the patients and control subjects in Pusan National University Hospital during the period of January to October 1990. The results obtained were summarized as follow: 1) The percentage of CD3+ cells was significantly decreased in thyroid cancer as compared with healthy subjects. 2) The percentage of CD4+ cells was not different among thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and control subjects each other. 3) The percentage of CD8+ cells was significantly decreased in thyroid cancer as compared with adult healthy subjects, and tended to be decreased as compared with thyroid adenoma and Ha-shimoto's thyroiditis. 4) The CD/CD8 ratio was significantly increased in thyroid cancer as compared with control subjects, and tended to be increased as compared with thyroid adenoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. On the basis of the results, it can be suggested that the immunodysfunction may be due to decreased soppressor/cytotoxic T cells in thyroid cancer.

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Patterns of Calcification in Thyroid Nodules; Significance and Malignant Potentiality (갑상선결절내 석회화소견과 갑상선암종과의 연관성)

  • Choi Jong-Ouck;Lee Jae-Yong;Chung Keun;Choi Geun
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.30-34
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    • 1997
  • Objectives: Calcification of the thyroid nodule has been reported to have a close relationship with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, however there are limited studies on the relationship between the calcified thyroid nodule and thyroid malignancy. The authors studied the clinical significance of calcification within the thyroid nodule. Materials and Methods: There were total of 60 patients who underwent surgery for calcified thyroid nodules which were identified from plain neck X-ray, ultrasound and computed tomography during the period January 1991 to June 1996 at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery of Korea University Hospital. Six patients were not included because of recurrence and previous thyroid surgery. Histopathologic and radiologic analysis was done on the remaining 54 patients. Results: Results showed that 25 of 54 cases(46%) to be malignant histopathologically. Of the 25 malignant cases, papillary carcinoma was the most common with 22 cases followed by 2 cases of undifferentiated carcinoma and I case of medullary carcinoma. Statistically high incidence of malignancy was observed when the consistency of calcified thyroid nodule was solid, shape of calcification was irregular and inhomogenous, and adhesion of calcified thyroid nodule to the regional structure was present. Conclusion: The probability that a thyroid nodule is malignant has been reported to be 3­20%. However, about half of the thyroid nodules with calcification found to be malignant on this study, calcification of the thyroid nodule can be used as a guideline for detecting thyroid malignancy.

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Thyroid Hemiagenesis Associated with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma : Report of a Case and Review of the Literature (갑상선 편측형성부전에 동반된 유두 갑상선암 1예)

  • Lee, Yong-Sang;Yun, Ji-Sup;Jeong, Jong-Ju;Nam, Kee-Hyun;Chung, Woong-Youn;Park, Cheong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.161-164
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    • 2007
  • Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare anomaly, which is the result of failure of embryologic development of a lobe of thyroid gland. It is more frequently found in the left lobe and in female patients. We, herein, report an extremely rare case of thyroid hemiagenesis associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma. A 69-year-old female presented with an incidentally discovered thyroid nodule in the right thyroid during a routine medical check-up. Ultrasonography(US) and computed tomography(CT) disclosed $0.7{\times}0.5cm\;and\;2.8{\times}2.2cm$ sized nodules in the right thyroid. The left thyroid, however, was not seen in the imaging studies of US and CT. Fine-needle aspiration of the small and large nodules showed papillary thyroid carcinoma and adenomatous hyperplasia, respectively. The patient underwent a right total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection. The operative findings and histologic examination confirmed the absence of the left thyroid associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and ademonatous hyperplasia of the right thyroid.

Determination of Thyroid Secretion Rate in Rabbit (토끼의 갑상선 측정)

  • 이종진;윤세중
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.19-23
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    • 1960
  • A method for determination of thyroid secretion rate in rabbit by means of radioactive iodine presented. After injection of radioactive iodine, in vivo determination so f radioactivity in thyroid gland were made during a 19 day-experimental period. In the same period blood samples were drawn and analyzed for protein-bound iodine (PBI) and for protein-bound radioactive iodine(PBI181). A rate constant for secretion of thyroid hormone was calculated from the disappearance rate of radioactive iodine in thyroid gland. The secretion rate of radioactive hormone iodine was calculated by multiplying this rate constant by the amount of radioactive iodine present in thyroid gland. Assuming that the specific radioactiveness of the circulating thyroid hormone and of the hormone just secreted were identical , thyroid secretion rate was calculated by the equation. {{{{ { Secreted hormone-iodine , gamma /hr} over { Secreted hormone-I^131, % dose/hr }= { PBI, ${\gamma}$/ml.Serum} over { PBI^131 , % dose/ml . Serum } }} The method presented consisted of measurements for series of independent criteria on thyroid function, and the resulting thyroid secretion rate was calculated by combination of those.

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