• Title, Summary, Keyword: Thymosin ${\beta}4$

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Analysis of Expression Patterns of Thymosin β4 and CD133 in Normal Stomach (정상 위 조직에서 thymosin β4와 CD133의 발현 양상 분석)

  • Ock, Mee Sun;Cha, Hee-Jae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.10
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    • pp.1415-1419
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    • 2012
  • Thymosin ${\beta}4$ ($T{\beta}4$) has been reported to be overexpressed in CD133-positive colorectal cancer stem cells. We analyzed the relationship between $T{\beta}4$ and CD133-positive stem cells in normal stomach by examining the expression patterns of $T{\beta}4$ and CD133 in normal stomach tissues by immunohistochemical staining; co-localization of $T{\beta}4$ and CD133 was studied by immunofluorescence and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Both $T{\beta}4$ and CD133 were expressed in stomach glands and showed similar expression patterns. Immunofluorescence staining of $T{\beta}4$ and CD133 showed that the expression of $T{\beta}4$ and CD133 was co-localized. In summary, both $T{\beta}4$ and CD133 were expressed in glands of normal stomachs and expression patterns were co-localized. These data suggest that $T{\beta}4$ expression is strongly related to CD133 expression.

A Study on the Expression of Thymosin-β4 and c-Myc mRNA in the Model of liver cirrhosis with fibrosis (섬유화 진행 간경변 조직 모델에서 Thymosin β4와 C-myc mRNA 융합 발현 연구)

  • Kim, Jean-Soo;Park, Un-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 2019
  • The propose of this study has been conducted to examine expression of c-Myc and Thymosin-${\beta}4$ in liver cirrhosis model from liver fibrosis and For the method of study, the experiment was conducted in 2 groups; liver cirrhosis model experiment group due to liver fibrosis and control group with distilled water. This study outcome showed that liver cirrhosis model experiment group had significantly higher expression of c-Myc and Thymosin-${\beta}4$. with changes to hepatic tissue of special staining and electron microscopy. In conclusion, in clinical tests regarding liver function, molecular evaluation of c-Myc and Thymosin-${\beta}4$ and their expression along with serological change and histological assessment can be utilized as a reference for diagnosing liver disease for prevention and diagnosis of the disease, Based on this research in the future, we will carry out an in-depth study by adding the types of experimental groups and related genes.

A study of Expression of TGF-β1, c-Myc, Erb-B2 and Thymosin-β4 Gene in Alcoholic Liver Damage Tissue. (알코올성 간 손상 조직에서 TGF-β1와 c-Myc, Erb-B2, Thymosin-β4 유전자 발현 융합 연구)

  • Kim, Jean-Soo;Choi, Sang-Ki
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.91-97
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    • 2018
  • This study has been conducted to see the expression of $TGF-{\beta}_1$, c-Myc, Erb-B2 and $Thymosin-{\beta}_4$ genes in ethanol - damaged liver tissues. Experimental groups were divided into 2 groups, one where damaged liver was caused by 25% ethanol and normal group administered with purified water. Results of test showed the expression of $TGF-{\beta}_1$, c-Myc, and $Thymosin-{\beta}_4$ genes was higher in the experimental group treated with 25% ethanol than in the normal group. Erb-B2 gene was not expressed clearly. Thus, it is considered that we can expect to utilize $TGF-{\beta}_1$, c-Myc 및 $Thymosin-{\beta}_4$ as auxiliary data and find clinical meanings of diagnosis on hepatic diseases, In addition to serologic and histological examination by convergence examining the gene expression status by molecular diagnostic techniques in liver-related disease prevention and diagnosis through results of this study.

Analysis of Thymosin β4 and Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Factor (VEGF) Expression in Normal Human Tissues Using Tissue Microarray (Tissue microarray를 이용한 사이모신 베타4(Thymosin β4)와 vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF)의 정상 인간 조직 발현 양상 연구)

  • Ock, Mee-Sun;Cha, Hee-Jae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.1777-1786
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    • 2009
  • Thymosin ${\beta}4$, a small protein containing 43 amino acids, has multi-functional roles in cell physiology. It was first identified as a thymic maturation factor and recently has been shown to accelerate wound healing, hair growth, angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. It was also reported to play a key role in developing organs, including the nervous system and heart. Thymosin ${\beta}4$ induces the expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), laminin-5, and other important biologically active genes. Using tissue microarray analysis, we investigated the expression patterns of thymosin ${\beta}4$ and VEGF in various normal human adult tissues. Thymosin ${\beta}4$ was highly expressed in the liver, pancreas, ductal epithelium of the salivary gland, and heart, and moderately expressed in the skin, lung, spleen, lymph node, thymus, ureter, and blood endothelial cells in both the lung and adrenal gland. The expression of VEGF generally co-localized with thymosin ${\beta}4$ and VEGF was highly expressed in the pancreas, ureter, mammary gland, liver, esophagus, and blood endothelial cells in both the lung and adrenal gland. These results suggest that thymosin ${\beta}4$ plays an important role in the function of various organs and since the expression pattern of thymosin ${\beta}4$ co-localized with VEGF, part of that function may be to induce or maintain angiogenesis.

Thymosin Beta4 Regulates Cardiac Valve Formation Via Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transformation in Zebrafish Embryos

  • Shin, Sun-Hye;Lee, Sangkyu;Bae, Jong-Sup;Jee, Jun-Goo;Cha, Hee-Jae;Lee, You Mie
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.330-336
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    • 2014
  • Thymosin beta4 (TB4) has multiple functions in cellular response in processes as diverse as embryonic organ development and the pathogeneses of disease, especially those associated with cardiac coronary vessels. However, the specific roles played by TB4 during heart valve development in vertebrates are largely unknown. Here, we identified a novel function of TB4 in endothelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) in cardiac valve endocardial cushions in zebrafish. The expressions of thymosin family members in developing zebrafish embryos were determined by whole mount in situ hybridization. Of the thymosin family members only zTB4 was expressed in the developing heart region. Cardiac valve development at 48 h post fertilization was defected in zebrafish TB4 (zTB4) morpholino-injected embryos (morphants). In zTB4 morphants, abnormal linear heart tube development was observed. The expressions of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4, notch1b, and hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS) 2 genes were also markedly reduced in atrio-ventricular canal (AVC). Endocardial cells in the AVC region were stained with anti-Zn5 antibody reactive against Dm-grasp (an EMT marker) to observe EMT in developing cardiac valves in zTB4 morphants. EMT marker expression in valve endothelial cells was confirmed after transfection with TB4 siRNA in the presence of transforming growth factor ${\beta}$ ($TGF{\beta}$) by RT-PCR and immunofluorescent assay. Zn5-positive endocardial AVC cells were not observed in zTB4 morphants, and knockdown of TB4 suppressed TGF-${\beta}$-induced EMT in ovine valve endothelial cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TB4 plays a pivotal role in cardiac valve formation by increasing EMT.

Thymosin Beta-4, Actin-Sequestering Protein Regulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression via Hypoxia-Inducible Nitric Oxide Production in HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells

  • Ryu, Yun-Kyoung;Lee, Jae-Wook;Moon, Eun-Yi
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 2015
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important regulator of neovascularization. Hypoxia inducible nitric oxide (NO) enhanced the expression of VEGF and thymosin beta-4 ($T{\beta}4$), actin sequestering protein. Here, we investigated whether NO-mediated VEGF expression could be regulated by $T{\beta}4$ expression in HeLa cervical cancer cells. Hypoxia inducible NO production and VEGF expression were reduced by small interference (si) RNA of $T{\beta}4$. Hypoxia response element (HRE)-luciferase activity and VEGF expression were increased by the treatment with N-(${\beta}$-D-Glucopyranosyl)-N2-acetyl-S-nitroso-D, L-penicillaminamide (SNAP-1), to generate NO, which was inhibited by the inhibition of $T{\beta}4$ expression with $T{\beta}4$-siRNA. In hypoxic condition, HRE-luciferase activity and VEGF expression were inhibited by the treatment with $N^G$-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), an inhibitor to nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is accompanied with a decrease in $T{\beta}4$ expression. VEGF expression inhibited by L-NMMA treatment was restored by the transfection with pCMV-$T{\beta}4$ plasmids for $T{\beta}4$ overexpression. Taken together, these results suggest that $T{\beta}4$ could be a regulator for the expression of VEGF via the maintenance of NOS activity.

Expression of Thymosin β4 in Ameloblasts during Mouse Tooth Development

  • Choi, Baik-Dong;Lee, Seung-Yeon;Nho, Tae-Hee;Jeong, Soon-Jeong;Lim, Do-Seon;Bae, Chun-Sik;Jeong, Moon-Jin
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.58-66
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    • 2016
  • Thymosin ${\beta}4$ ($T{\beta}4$) has been recently reported to play a role in dentinogenesis by regulating the expression of dentin matrix proteins. Based on previous studies, it is hypothesized that $T{\beta}4$ is associated with the formation of the enamel matrix and thus plays an important role in ameloblast. However, there is no report on the function of $T{\beta}4$ during tooth development so far. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of $T{\beta}4$ and its function in ameloblasts during mouse tooth development. $T{\beta}4$ was expressed strongly in the tooth bud at the bud stage and in the dental lamina and oral epithelium at the cap stage. In advanced bell stage at postnatal day 4, large elongated ameloblasts were observed and the expression of the $T{\beta}4$ protein was the highest, with the enamel being was thicker than that in the early bell stage. The length of ameloblasts increased from the presecretory to the secretory stage and decreased from the maturation to the protective stage. These results suggest that $T{\beta}4$ participates not only in the proliferation of oral epithelial cells during the early stage of tooth development but also regulates enamel protein secretion in ameloblasts and enamel mineralization.

Angiogenic Induction by Trichinella spiralis Infection through Thymosin β4 (티모신베타4에의한 선모충(Trichinella spiralis) 감염의 혈관신생 유도 기작)

  • Ock, Mee Sun;Cha, Hee-Jae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.9
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    • pp.1177-1182
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    • 2013
  • Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) has been reported to induce angiogenesis and a supply of nutrients and to act as a reliable waste disposal system by induction of the expression of the angiogenic molecule vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) during nurse cell formation. However, the mechanism underlying the induction of VEGF in nurse cells by T. spiralis has not yet been defined. Some research has pointed to the possibility of hypoxia in nurse cells, but whether hypoxia occurs in infected muscle or nurse cells has not been studied. It is also a matter of debate whether hypoxia induces the expression of VEGF and subsequent angiogenesis in infected muscle. Recent studies showed that thymosin ${\beta}4$, a potent VEGF-inducing protein, was expressed at a very early stage of muscle infection by T. spiralis, suggesting that VEGF is induced at an early stage in nurse cells. Furthermore, hypoxia was not detected in any nurse cell stage but was detected in inflammatory cells. The findings suggest that induction of angiogenesis by VEGF in T. spiralis-infected nurse cells is mediated by thymosin ${\beta}4$ and unrelated to hypoxia.

Analysis of the Expression Patterns of Thymosin β4, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α in Various Tumors Using Tissue Microarray (Tissue microarray를 이용한 여러 암에서의 thymosin β4, vascular endothelial growth factor, 및 hypoxia-inducible factor-1α 발현양상 연구)

  • Lee, Bo-Young;Lee, Seung-Hyun;Ahn, Byung-Kwon;Ock, Mee-Sun;Cha, Hee-Jae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.417-423
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    • 2011
  • Thymosin ${\beta}4$ (TB-4) has been reported to play a key role in tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis. In addition, TB-4 induced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stabilized the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-$1{\alpha}$ in melanoma cells. Although the importance of thymosin ${\beta}4$ in angiogenesis and metastasis has been proven, there are few studies that show the expression patterns of TB-4, VEGF and HIF-$1{\alpha}$. This study was conducted to analyze the relationship among these proteins in various tumors. Using tissue microarray analysis, we investigated the expression patterns of TB-4, VEGF and HIF-$1{\alpha}$ in various tumors to identify the expression patterns and relationships of these proteins in certain tumors. TB-4 was highly expressed in osteosarcoma, colon adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, kidney and urinary bladder transitional carcinoma, lung cancer, and liver cancer. HIF-$1{\alpha}$ was highly expressed in nasal cavity inverted papilloma, lung cancer, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The expression patterns of TB-4 and HIF-$1{\alpha}$ were almost similar and co-localized. VEGF expression was high in the blood vessels in tumors, but usually not high in the tumors themselves. VEGF was moderately expressed in stomach cancer, liver angiosarcoma, gall bladder adenocarcinoma, and uterus endometrial adenocarcinoma. The expression patterns of VEGF shows similarities in certain tumors including stomach cancer, osteosarcoma, liposarcoma, lung cancer, liver cancer, gall bladder adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, stomach cancer, colorectal carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma. These results suggest that the expression patterns of TB-4, HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and VEGF were co-localized and related to tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of certain tumors.

Gene Expression Analysis of Megakaryocytes Derived from Human Umbilical Cord $CD34^+$ Cells by Thrombopoietin

  • Kim, Jeong-Ah;Kim, Hyung-Lae
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 2005
  • Although much is known about the molecular biology of platelets, the megakaryocytes' (MKs) molecular biology was not understood so well because of their rareness. By the cloning and characterization of thrombopoietin (TPO), which is the principal regulator of the growth and development of the MKs, researches on the MKs have been growing rapidly. To understand megakaryocytopoiesis, we investigated the gene expression profile of the MKs using oligonucleotide microarray where 10,108 unique genes were spotted. Comparing the fluorescence intensities of which ratio is $\ge$ ${\mid}2{\mid}$, 372 genes were up-regulated and 541 genes were down-regulated in MKs. For confirmatory expression, RNase protection assay (RPA) establishing abundant apoptotic gene expression was carried out. In MKs, many of the known genes, including several platelet related genes, GATA binding protein were highly expressed. Particularly, TGF beta, clusterin (complement lysis inhibitor), and thymosin beta 4 (actin-sequestering molecules) were expressed highly in MKs. As MKs specific expressed genes may regulate normal and pathologic platelet (and/or MK) functions, the transcript profiling using microarray was useful on molecular understanding of MKs,