• Title, Summary, Keyword: Thunderstorm

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Characteristics of Atmospheric Stability Index of Airmass thunderstorm day at Busan (부산지역 기단성 뇌우 발생일의 대기안정도지수 특성)

  • Jeon, Byung Il
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.29-40
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    • 2003
  • This study was performed to research the relation between airmass thunderstorm and stability index with 12 years meteorological data(1990~2001) at Busan. Also We used the analysed stability indices from University of Wyoming to consider airmass thunderstorm. The frequency of thunderstorm occurrence during 12 years was 156 days(annual mean 13days). The airmass thunderstorm frequency was 14 days, most of those occurrence were summertime(59%). And occurrence hour of airmass thunderstorm was distributed from 1300LST to 2100LST broadly. The highest forecast index for airmass thunderstorm at Busan was K index, the lowest forecast index was SWEAT index. The forecasting of thunderstorms is based primary on the concepts of conditional instability, convective instability, and forced lifting of air near the surface. Instability is a critical factor in severe weather development. Severe weather stability indices can be a useful tool when applied correctly to a given convective weather situation.

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Characteristics of the surface ozone concentration on the occurrence of air mass thunderstorm (기단성 뇌우 발생시 지표오존농도의 변화 특성)

  • 전병일
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.419-426
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    • 2003
  • This study was performed to research ozone concentration related to airmass thunderstorm using 12 years meteorological data(1990~2001) at Busan. The occurrence frequency of thunderstorm during 12 years was 156 days(annual mean 13days). The airmass thunderstorm frequency was 14 days, most of those occurrence at summertime(59%). In case August 4, 1996, increase of ozone concentration was simultaneous with the decrease of temperature and increase of relative humidity, In case July 23, 1997, ozone concentration of western site at Busan increased, while its of eastern site decreased as airmass thunderstorm occurred(about 1500LST). It is supposed that these ozone increases are the effect of ozone rich air that is brought down by cumulus downdrafts from height levels where the ozone mixing ratio is larger. Thunderstorms can cause downward transport of ozone from the reservoir layer in the upper troposphere into planeta교 boundary layer(PBL). This complex interaction of source and sink processes can result in large variability fer vertical and horizontal ozone distributions. Thus a variety of meteorological precesses can act to enhance vertical mixing between the earth's surface and the atmospheric in the manner described fer thunderstorm.

A Study on the Gust with Thunderstorm in Honam Area (호남지역에서 뇌우에 의한 돌풍사례 분석)

  • Cho, Eun-Hee
    • Journal of the Chosun Natural Science
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.101-130
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    • 2009
  • In recent years, South Korea has often witnessed damages by gusts caused by thunderstorms in summer. The Korea Meteorological Administration defines that a gust happens when the maximum instantaneous wind velocity is 10m/s or more and draws up hourly observation reports. When a cumulonimbus develops due to an ascending current and reaches the height of 12~16 km, the temperature of the cloud top drops and a lightening happens, which causes a gust accompanied by a thunderstorm and further regional meteorological damage. It's difficult to predict a regional gust with the mesoscale prediction model at the administration. Thus this study set out to analyze the damage cases by a gust accompanied by a thunderstorm and to make a contribution to the prediction and understanding of a gust by a thunderstorm. A gust by a thunderstorm happens where potential equivalent temperature converges or is higher than the surrounding areas. The convergence area of potential equivalent temperature matches the track of thunderstorm cells. The Kimje gust took place where high potential equivalent temperature converged, and the Jangsu gust did as the area of high potential equivalent temperature approached. There should be a good amount of vapor supply with the moisture flux converging at the bottom layer in order to bring instability. In addition, it should collide into a dry and cold atmosphere at 700 hPa. The moving track at the center of the low dew point spread corresponds to that of a gust.

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The Study on the Frontal Thunderstorm during Winter Time in the Korean Peninsula (우리나라 동계 전선성 뇌우에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Seok;Park, Sang Hwan;Ham, Sook Jung;Ban, Ki-Song;Choi, Young Jean;Chang, Dong-Eon;Chung, Hyo-Sang
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.351-358
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    • 2006
  • The structure of frontal thunderstorm in winter time is different from that of in summer time over the Korean peninsula, due to dry tongue and upward motion. The dry tongue, that is propagation of dry zone from upper level to lower level, was formed after front passage and the upward motion is intensified by the strengthened low level jet. Since this mechanism makes the structure more unstable, thunderstorm occurs at relatively low cloud top height. This study suggests a forecast guidance of winter time frontal thunderstorm that thunderstorms develop when one of the following conditions are satisfied: 1) total totals (TT) >40, 2) K index >-10, 3) mixing ratio ${\geq}$ 3.5 g/kg.

Extreme wind speeds from multiple wind hazards excluding tropical cyclones

  • Lombardo, Franklin T.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.467-480
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    • 2014
  • The estimation of wind speed values used in codes and standards is an integral part of the wind load evaluation process. In a number of codes and standards, wind speeds outside of tropical cyclone prone regions are estimated using a single probability distribution developed from observed wind speed data, with no distinction made between the types of causal wind hazard (e.g., thunderstorm). Non-tropical cyclone wind hazards (i.e., thunderstorm, non-thunderstorm) have been shown to possess different probability distributions and estimation of non-tropical cyclone wind speeds based on a single probability distribution has been shown to underestimate wind speeds. Current treatment of non-tropical cyclone wind hazards in worldwide codes and standards is touched upon in this work. Meteorological data is available at a considerable number of United States (U.S.) stations that have information on wind speed as well as the type of causal wind hazard. In this paper, probability distributions are fit to distinct storm types (i.e., thunderstorm and non-thunderstorm) and the results of these distributions are compared to fitting a single probability distribution to all data regardless of storm type (i.e., co-mingled). Distributions fitted to data separated by storm type and co-mingled data will also be compared to a derived (i.e., "mixed") probability distribution considering multiple storm types independently. This paper will analyze two extreme value distributions (e.g., Gumbel, generalized Pareto). It is shown that mixed probability distribution, on average, is a more conservative measure for extreme wind speed estimation. Using a mixed distribution is especially conservative in situations where a given wind speed value for either storm type has a similar probability of occurrence, and/or when a less frequent storm type produces the highest overall wind speeds. U.S. areas prone to multiple non-tropical cyclone wind hazards are identified.

Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Thunderstorm Wind Gust (뇌우 동반 돌풍의 시공간분포 분석)

  • Lee, Sung Su;Kim, Jun Yeong
    • Spatial Information Research
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2013
  • This study presents the analysis of temporal and spatial distribution of occurrences of wind gust over Korea from 2002 to 2009. The events during typhoons are excluded and the topographical effects on the wind speed are also corrected using KBC (2005). As the results, the frequency of the occurrences is as high as 286 and the higher occurrences appear mainly along the coastal area. This study also shows that the uncertainty of the appearance of wind gust during thunderstorm is much higher than in synoptic wind by comparing wind speed records for both events. This study also found that the spatial distribution of cumulative cloud quotient is closely correlated to that of occurrences of thunderstorm wind gust, which suggests the possible utilization of the cloud quotient as weighting factors in assessing wind gust risk.

Surface measurements of the 5 June 2013 damaging thunderstorm wind event near Pep, Texas

  • Gunter, W. Scott;Schroeder, John L.;Weiss, Christopher C.;Bruning, Eric C.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.185-204
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    • 2017
  • High-resolution wind measurements at 2.25 m in height were used to investigate the mean and turbulence properties of an extreme thunderstorm wind event in West Texas. These data were combined with single Doppler scans from the Texas Tech University Ka-band mobile Doppler radars systems (TTUKa) to provide meteorological context over the surface measurement stations for portions of the outflow. Several features characteristic of a severe wind event were noted in the radar data, including a bowing portion of the thunderstorm complex and a small circulation on the leading edge. These features were reflected in the surface wind time histories and provided natural separation between various regions of the outflow. These features also contributed to the peak 1-s gust at all measurement stations. The turbulence characteristics of each outflow region were also investigated and compared. Reduced values of running turbulence intensity and elevated values of longitudinal integral scales were noted during the period of peak wind speed. Larger scales of turbulence within the outflow were also suggested via spectral analysis.

A proposed model of the pressure field in a downburst

  • Tang, Z.;Lu, L.Y.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.123-133
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    • 2013
  • Pressure field and velocity profiles in a thunderstorm downburst are significantly different from that of an atmospheric boundary layer wind. A model of the pressure field in a downburst is presented in accordance with the experimental and numerical results. Large eddy simulation method is employed to investigate transient pressure field on impingement ground of a downburst. In addition, velocity profiles of the downburst are studied, and good agreement is achieved between the present results and the data obtained from empirical models.

Wind structure and codification

  • Holmes, J.D.;Baker, C.J.;English, E.C.;Choi, E.C.C.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.235-250
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    • 2005
  • The paper describes the work of the Working Group on Wind Structure, one of the International Codification Working Groups set up by the International Association of Wind Engineering in 1999. The topics of terrain and exposure, shielding and shelter, topographic effects, tropical cyclone and hurricane wind structure, and thunderstorm wind structure, are described with emphasis on their codification in wind loading codes and standards. Recommendations from the working group are given.

Wind pressure on a solar updraft tower in a simulated stationary thunderstorm downburst

  • Zhou, Xinping;Wang, Fang;Liu, Chi
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.331-343
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    • 2012
  • Thunderstorm downbursts are responsible for numerous structural failures around the world. The wind characteristics in thunderstorm downbursts containing vortex rings differ with those in 'traditional' boundary layer winds (BLW). This paper initially performs an unsteady-state simulation of the flow structure in a downburst (modelled as a impinging jet with its diameter being $D_{jet}$) using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, and then analyses the pressure distribution on a solar updraft tower (SUT) in the downburst. The pressure field shows agreement with other previous studies. An additional pair of low-pressure region and high-pressure region is observed due to a second vortex ring, besides a foregoing pair caused by a primary vortex ring. The evolutions of pressure coefficients at five orientations of two representative heights of the SUT in the downburst with time are investigated. Results show that pressure distribution changes over a wide range when the vortices are close to the SUT. Furthermore, the fluctuations of external static pressure distribution for the SUT case 1 (i.e., radial distance from a location to jet center x=$D_{jet}$) with height are more intense due to the down striking of the vortex flow compared to those for the SUT case 2 (x=$2D_{jet}$). The static wind loads at heights z/H higher than 0.3 will be negligible when the vortex ring is far away from the SUT. The inverted wind load cases will occur when vortex is passing through the SUT except on the side faces. This can induce complex dynamic response of the SUT.