• Title, Summary, Keyword: Throwing movement

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Biomechanical Analysis of Throw Movement to Second Base in High School Elite Baseball Catchers (고등학교 야구 포수의 2루 송구 동작에 대한 운동역학적 분석)

  • Kim, Sung Yong;Park, Jong Chul;Byun, Kyung Seok;Baek, Hee Young
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.165-172
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative and objective data of throwing movement in baseball catcher through biomechanical analysis. Method: Eight high school baseball catchers (age: 17.3±0.7 yrs, height: 175.3±4.5 cm, weight: 82.5±9.0 kg, Career: 7.4±2.1 yrs) participated and 3-dimentional motion capture system and electromyography (EMG) were used in this study. Results: The maximum center of mass position displacement was observed in forward direction. The linear velocity magnitude of the upper extremity segments were showed as "wrist>elbow>shoulder" which is indicative of kinematic chain. For kinetic EMG data, we also observed the greater muscle activation in the left brachioradial and erector spine muscles muscle that during throwing movement. Conclusion: We expect that biomechanical data from this study will provide important training implications to baseball coaches and trainers in order to effectively train their baseball catchers.

Biomechanical Analysis of Throwing Movement between Skilled and Unskilled High School Students (남자 고등학생 숙련자.비숙련자의 던지기 동작에 대한 운동역학적 비교 분석)

  • Kough, Hyung-Jeek;Ju, Myung-Duck
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.87-98
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to compare biomechanical differences in throwing movement between skilled and unskilled high school students using three-dimensional analysis system with a force platform. The findings indicated that skilled students showed shorter throwing time, faster horizontal speed of (1) the center of mass at heel contact of left foot, (2) the forearm throughout swing phase, (3) the hand after heel contact while unskilled students showed faster horizontal speed of, (1) the center of mass after heel contact and (2) the hand at heel contact of left foot. Skilled students showed greater (1) shoulder angle during throwing, (2) elbow angle after take off of foot, (3) peak vertical ground reaction force during throwing and (4) peak anterior-posterior ground reaction force at heel contact of right foot. While skilled students showed leaning backward of the trunk during throwing, unskilled students showed leaning forward during release phase with leaning backward before release.

The Motion Analysis of the limited Wrist Joint During Dart-Throwing Motion by Using Infrared Camera (적외선카메라를 이용한 다트던지기 운동에서의 제한된 손목관절 움직임 분석)

  • Park, Chan-Soo;Park, Jong-Il;Kim, Kwang Gi;Jang, Ik-Gyu;Kim, Tae-Yun;Lee, Sang lim;Baek, Goo Hyun
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 2013
  • Wrist joints consist of irregularly shaped carpal bones and other complicated structures. Thus, evaluating the motion of a wrist joint is a challenging task. In this study, we used an infrared camera to perform a kinematic analysis of a dart-throwing motion. We measured the difference between the movement of a normal wrist and constrained wrist (wrist with a wrist glove) in the dart-throwing motion with thirty six healthy participants. We measured the ulna flexion - radial extension motion using the attached passive marker and analyzed it using Polygon software and SPSS. The pitch and yaw motions with a glove was bigger than the ones without a glove by 20 and 15 degrees, respectively. On the other hand, the roll motion without a glove was bigger than the one with a glove by 7 degree. Wilcoxon signed rank test (p<0.05) confirmed that there are significant differences between the motion with and without a glove. It was found that the magnitude of the pitch and yaw motion with a constrained wrist joint toward radial extension in dart-throwing motion is smaller than the one with a normal wrist joint. However, a normal wrist joint showed a bigger movement in the roll direction.

The Biomechanical Analysis of Throwing Motion for the Elementary Students - Developmental Approach - (초등학교 학생들의 발달단계에 따른 던지기 동작의 운동역학적 분석)

  • Lee, Dong-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.69-79
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of throwing motion in the elementary school students from the developmental point of view. For the purpose of this, total of nine subjects(each of three students in five, third, and first grades) were participated. They were asked to throw the ball as far as they can and the motions were videotaped with the 30frames/sec and 1/500 shutter speed. The successful motions for each subject were selected for three dimensional analysis. The collected data were analyzed using DV express 1.0 and Kwon3D 3.0 softwares. The results obtained from this study were as follows; 1. Total time for the throwing motion of the first grade was longer than that of the fifth and third grades. 2. The resultant displacement and velocity of COM for the fifth and third grades were greater than that of the frist grade. 3. The first grade tended to flex the trunk forward excessively during the throwing motion. 4. The fifth grade tended to place the upper arm close to the sagital plane and move the forearm and hand freely. 5. Looking at the greater variability of the angular velocity of the hand segment, the fifth grade seemed to have faster and more flexible movement of the wrist. 6. There were somewhat differences in the patterns and magnitudes of ground reaction forces among the different grades.

Relationship between the Ball Velocity and Upper Extremity Kinematic Variables during an Overarm Throwing Task of Inexperienced Individuals

  • Ozkaya, Gizem;Jung, Hae Ryun;Jeong, In Sub;Choi, Min Ra;Shin, Min Young;Lin, Xue;Heo, Woo Seong;Kim, Mi Sun;Lee, Ki Kwang
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.19-23
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ball velocity and the upper extremity kinematics for both dominant and non-dominant side in inexperienced participants about an overarm throwing task. Method: Seven women who are inexperienced in overarm throwing participated in this study (Age: $25.1{\pm}2.4years$, Height: $160.8{\pm}3.5$; Weight $56.5{\pm}7.8$). Participants visit the laboratory for three days with one day rest between test sessions. Whole body 3-dimensional (3D) motion capture was recorded during the overarm throwing trials with ten cameras Vicon motion analysis system (T-10, T40, Oxford Metrics Ltd, UK). Total 45 overarm throwing were recorded for each side for each test session. Ball speed also was measured 3 meters away behind the subjects and recorded for every trial. Results: Mean ball velocity was higher for dominant hand compared to non-dominant hand (p <.05). Trunk segment variables (maximum angles and angular velocities) showed the most consistent relationship with the ball velocity. Conclusion: The importance of the trunk segment during the throwing activities can be seen in some individuals. But inconsistent results between subjects emphasize the importance of the individuals' movement patterns especially for bilateral sports. The future studies should be conduct about the sequence of segments, kinetic variables and effect of training.

A Kinematic Characteristics of Throwing Performance on Period When Blind's became Sightless (시각장애인의 실명시기에 따른 던지기 동작의 운동학적 특성)

  • Choi, Jung-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.125-139
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze a kinematic characteristics of throwing performance among born visually impaired, postnatal visually impaired and visually correct people through their kinematic characteristics. Another purpose of this study is to prevent injury and improve blind's exercise leadership and physical abilities. Three video cameras were used and each camera's shooting velocity was 60field/sec. Then the longest thrown pose was collected and analyzed by using Kwon 3D ver. 3.1 program. The results obtained from this study were followings; 1. During release, the fastest speed of ball was visually corrected followed by postnatal visually impaired and then born visually impaired. 2. Visually corrected used wrist joint well and had wide body round range with similar motion patterns, however born visually impaired couldn't do this at all. 3. Visually corrected used waist to lead shoulder at Phase 2 while throwing ball, but some of born visually impaired and postnatal visually impaired couldn't use waist to lead shoulder. 4. Visually corrected looked at the way where ball would go, but blinds couldn't look where ball would go. 5. Not like visually corrected who show similar patterns, born visually impaired showed each different patterns and some postnatal visually impaired showed similar patterns with visually corrected. 6. While throwing ball, visually corrected showed flexible weight-movement, postnatal visually impaired were not good as visually corrected, and born visually impaired couldn't do weight-movement at all. Synthetically, this result showed that throwing motions are affected a lot by the time when people became blind.

A comparative analysis of the kinematical characteristics of Forehand & Backhand Flying Disc Throwing (플라잉디스크 포핸드 및 백핸드 던지기 동작의 운동학적 특성 비교)

  • Kim, Mee-Hyang;Park, Jong-Chul;Byun, Kyung-Seok
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.555-563
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    • 2019
  • This study was to provide quantitative basic data on the forehand and backhand throw movements of flying disks. For this purpose, the kinematic variables were calculated using the three-dimensional motion analysis system. A comprehensive analysis of the study variables showed that it is important to throw flying disks accurately as well as far away, so in P2 and P3 it is necessary to control forward movement and concentrate on the rotation of the joints. In addition, rotational force transfer from pelvis to body is considered important for efficient rotational movement. The forehand was found to mainly utilize the movement of the upper extremity joint to perform throwing motion, while the backhand throw was found to be relatively utilized for the rotation of the torso and pelvis. Based on the quantitative data of this study, we hope that it can be used as a basic material for on-site training of Flying Discs.

Designing an Efficient Reward Function for Robot Reinforcement Learning of The Water Bottle Flipping Task (보틀플리핑의 로봇 강화학습을 위한 효과적인 보상 함수의 설계)

  • Yang, Young-Ha;Lee, Sang-Hyeok;Lee, Cheol-Soo
    • The Journal of Korea Robotics Society
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2019
  • Robots are used in various industrial sites, but traditional methods of operating a robot are limited at some kind of tasks. In order for a robot to accomplish a task, it is needed to find and solve accurate formula between a robot and environment and that is complicated work. Accordingly, reinforcement learning of robots is actively studied to overcome this difficulties. This study describes the process and results of learning and solving which applied reinforcement learning. The mission that the robot is going to learn is bottle flipping. Bottle flipping is an activity that involves throwing a plastic bottle in an attempt to land it upright on its bottom. Complexity of movement of liquid in the bottle when it thrown in the air, makes this task difficult to solve in traditional ways. Reinforcement learning process makes it easier. After 3-DOF robotic arm being instructed how to throwing the bottle, the robot find the better motion that make successful with the task. Two reward functions are designed and compared the result of learning. Finite difference method is used to obtain policy gradient. This paper focuses on the process of designing an efficient reward function to improve bottle flipping motion.

An Introduction of Myo Armband and Its Comparison with Motion Capture Systems

  • Cho, Junghun;Lee, Jang Hyung;Kim, Kwang Gi
    • Journal of Multimedia Information System
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 2018
  • Recently, ways for accurately measuring the three dimensional movements of hand are actively researched so as to utilize the measurement data for therapeutic and rehabilitation programs. This research paper aims to introduce a product called Myo Armband, a wearable device comprised of a 3-axis accelerometer, a 3 axis gyroscope, and electromyographic sensors. We compare Armband's performance with that of the Motion Capture System, which is known as a device for providing fairly accurate measurements for angular movements of objects. Dart throwing and wrist winding motions comprised movement scenarios. This paper also discusses one of Armband's advantages - portability, and suggests its potential as a substitute for previously used devices. Decent levels of measurement accuracy were obtained which were comparable to that of three dimensional measurement device.

Kinematical Analysis of Woman Javelin Throwing (창던지기 동작의 kinematic적 특성분석)

  • Lee, Jong-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.345-359
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of the study was to provide the fundamental data to instruct athletes through the analysis athletes' movement in javelin. Three athletes in the level of national representative were participated in this study. The study analyzed kinematic variables(lead foot and releasing javelin) through 3-D analysis and obtained the following results. 1. During withdrawal, it is important to maintain of running horizontal velocity. 2. It was showed that throng average height was $84{\pm}3.3%$ and javelin adequative degree, Among the athletes, $S_2$ who had the best record was released the javelin with the fast velocity, but throw the javelin with the less releasing velocity. 3. $S_2$ released after lead foot were completely landed and therefore it is no problem in a kinematic aspect. However, $S_1$ angle was too small. it caused increase of release velocity to be prevented. 4. $S_2$ showing the best result indicated shorter in duration time. Generally, the shorter duration time in release phase showed the longer release distance. Especially $S_1$ and $S_3$ showing the worse result indicated the longer duration time in preparatory phase, causing the breakup of force. Therefore to improve the record, it should be decreased the duration time in preparatory phase. 5. Compared with $S_1$ and $S_3$, $S_2$ showing the best record indicated the higher velocity in center of mass, trunk, upper arm, lower arm and hand That is the higher velocity of upper arm at release leaded the better velocity transfer from upper arm to following lower arm and hand, these action should be considered to be helpful of better record. According to the above conclusion, when the athletic leaders cauch athletes, they should focus on maintaining knee angle, upper body and hip angle in a previous stage of release and throwing angle, throwing height, throwing velocity in a release stage.