• Title, Summary, Keyword: Three-phase Slurry

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The Effect of Binder Content for the Pore Properties of Fe Foam Fabricated by Slurry Coating Process (슬러리 코팅 공정으로 제조된 Fe 폼의 기공 특성에 미치는 바인더 함량의 영향)

  • Choi, Jin Ho;Yang, Sangsun;Kim, Yang-Do;Yun, Jung-Yeul
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.439-444
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    • 2013
  • Fe foam with above 90% porosity and 2 millimeter pore size was successfully fabricated by a slurry coating process. In this study, the binder contents were controlled to produce the Fe foam with different pore size, strut thickness and porosity. Firstly, the slurry was prepared by uniform mixing with Fe powders, distilled water and polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) as initial materials. After slurry coating on the polyurethane(PU) foam the sample was dried at $80^{\circ}C$. The PVA and PU foams were then removed by heating at $700^{\circ}C$ for 3 hours. The debinded samples were subsequently sintered at $1250^{\circ}C$ with holding time of 3 hours under hydrogen atmosphere. The three dimensional geometries of the obtained Fe foams with open cell structure were investigated using X-ray micro CT(computed tomography) as well as the pore morphology, size and phase.

The Characteristics of SBR Treatment with Different Types of Piggery Wastewater (축산폐수성상에 따른 SBR 처리특성)

  • Jun, Byong-Hee;Poo, Kyung-Min;Kim, Yang-Hoon;Im, Jeong-Hoon;Kim, Chang-Won
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.435-440
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    • 2002
  • A pilot scale SBR (effective volume, $20m^3$) for the treatment of piggery wastewater treatment was performed with three different kinds of wastewater; fermenter effluent, scraper type and slurry type. The react phase in SBR was performed by sub-cycle operation consisting of repeated short cycle of anoxic-aerobic step. The fermenter effluent was characterized by the rapid nitrification and $NO_X-N$ accumulation due to depletion of organic matter in wastewater. The scraper type wastewater showed appropriate nitrogen removal efficiency, however, a poor response capacity for high loading rate often resulted in increased nitrogen concentration in effluent. Moreover, severe P release was the most serious problem in scraper type wastewater. SBR treated slurry type wastewater with high nitrogen removal efficiency to satisfy effluent quality requirement. It was thought that high concentration of organic matter in slurry made it possible to uptake P during SBR operation, where P concentration of 140mgP/l was decreased to 8mgP/l. As results, SBR was suitable to treat slurry type wastewater which has been discharged to the ocean till now.

New insights about ice friction obtained from crushing-friction tests on smooth and high-roughness surfaces

  • Gagnon, Robert E.
    • International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.361-366
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    • 2018
  • Ice crushing occurs in many situations that involve a sliding frictional component such as sports involving ice-contact, ice interaction with ship hulls, and ice-on-ice sliding/crushing within glaciers and between interacting sea ice floes. Ice crushing-friction tests were conducted in the lab at $-10^{\circ}C$ using a set of acrylic ice-crushing platens that included a flat smooth surface and a variety of high-roughness surfaces with regular arrays of small prominences. The experiments were part of Phase II tests of the Blade Runners technology for reducing ice-induced vibration. Ice was crushed against the platens where the ice movement had both a vertical and a horizontal component. High-speed imaging through the platens was used to observe the ice contact zone as it evolved during the tests. Vertical crushing rates were in the range 10-30 mm/s and the horizontal sliding rates were in the range 4.14-30 mm/s. Three types of freshwater ice were used. Friction coefficients were extraordinarily low and were proportional to the ratio of the tangential sliding rate and the normal crushing rate. For the rough surfaces all of the friction coefficient variation was determined by the fluid dynamics of a slurry that flowed through channels that developed between leeward-facing facets of the prominences and the moving ice. The slurry originated from a highly-lubricating self-generating squeeze film of ice particles and melt located between the encroaching intact ice and the surfaces.

이액상계를 이용한 토양슬러리 반응기에서의 PAH 거동 특성

  • 이재영;백기태;조현정;양지원
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.144-147
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    • 2003
  • In this study, the mass transfer behaviors of phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene in soil slurry reactor (SSR) using two-liquid phase (TLP) system were investigated. The mass transfer ratio and rate of PAH in the TLP system using light paraffine oil, which has the highest solubility of PAH, were influenced by the amount of light paraffine oil and mixing speed. When the amount of light paraffine oil decreased from 15 % to 2.5 % (v/v), the mass transfer ratio of anthracene decreased significantly compared with that of phenanthrene and pyrene. As mixing speed increased, the initial mass transfer rate of PAH within 1 day was enhanced. However, each final mass transfer ratio of three PAHs after 5 day was similar irrespective of mixing speed.

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The Effect of Fe and Fe2O3 Powder Mixing Ratios on the Pore Properties of Fe Foam Fabricated by a Slurry Coating Process (슬러리 코팅 공정으로 제조된 Fe 폼의 기공 특성에 미치는 Fe 및 Fe2O3 분말의 혼합 비율의 영향)

  • Choi, Jin Ho;Jeong, Eun-Mi;Park, Dahee;Yang, Sangsun;Hahn, Yoo-Dong;Yun, Jung-Yeul
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.266-270
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    • 2014
  • Metal foams have a cellular structure consisting of a solid metal containing a large volume fraction of pores. In particular, open, penetrating pores are necessary for industrial applications such as in high temperature filters and as a support for catalysts. In this study, Fe foam with above 90% porosity and 2 millimeter pore size was successfully fabricated by a slurry coating process and the pore properties were characterized. The Fe and $Fe_2O_3$ powder mixing ratios were controlled to produce Fe foams with different pore size and porosity. First, the slurry was prepared by uniform mixing with powders, distilled water and polyvinyl alcohol(PVA). After slurry coating on the polyurethane(PU) foam, the sample was dried at $80^{\circ}C$. The PVA and PU foams were then removed by heating at $700^{\circ}C$ for 3 hours. The debinded samples were subsequently sintered at $1250^{\circ}C$ with a holding time of 3 hours under hydrogen atmosphere. The three dimensional geometries of the obtained Fe foams with an open cell structure were investigated using X-ray micro CT(computed tomography) as well as the pore morphology, size and phase. The coated amount of slurry on the PU foam were increased with $Fe_2O_3$ mixing powder ratio but the shrinkage and porosity of Fe foams were decreased with $Fe_2O_3$ mixing powder ratio.

Evaluation of Hydration Heat of Mass Concrete with Capsulated Slurry PCM and FEM Study for Analyzing Thermal Crack (캡슐형 슬러리 PCM을 혼입한 매스콘크리트의 수화열 평가 및 온도균열 FEM 해석에 관한 연구)

  • Park, ChangGun;Kim, Bo-Hyun;Lee, Han-Seung
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Building Construction
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.379-388
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of capsulated slurry phase change material (PCM) on the thermal crack in mass concrete by experimental work and FEM analysis. In this study, three conditions of samples were prepared for evaluating the level of hydration heat, i.e., a material condition, a cement paste condition and a concrete condition. Also, a compressive strength test was conducted for FEM inverse analysis. Based on the results of the experiment, exothermic function coefficients of concrete with encapsulated slurry PCM were deducted by the inverse analysis. After that, they applied to FEM analysis of the mass scale concrete structures. From the results of this experiment, $31^{\circ}C$ capsulated slurry PCM had no super cooling phenomenon in the material condition. In the cement condition, hydration heat decreased by 34.61J when PCM of 1g was mixed. In the concrete condition, PCM of 6% was deducted as the best level in hydration heat absorption. In FEM inverse analysis, rate coefficient of reaction gradually decreased when PCM mixing ratio increased. But, temperature-rise coefficient increased when PCM mixing ratio exceeded 6%. For the inversed exothermic function coefficients applying to large scale concrete structures, a thermal cracking index increased by 0.05 when PCM of 1% was mixed.

Thermal Storage and Thermodynamic Characteristics of Phase Change Materials Slurries

  • Kwon, Ki-Hyun;Jeong, Jin-Woong;Kim, Jong-Hoon;Kim, Yong-Joo;Choi, Chang-Hyun
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.1392-1397
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    • 2009
  • This study was aimed at developing a low cost cold storage system for agricultural products. Three kinds of slurries: $K_1$, $K_2$, and $K_3$ slurries were developed using phase change materials (PCMs) such as tetradecane, octadecane, and sodium polyacrylate to maintain the desired temperature ranges. The slurries were manufactured by in-situ polymerization. Tetradecane and octadecane were capsulated in a core with melamine at the surface. The thermodynamic characteristics of the slurries were measured and analyzed. The latent heats of the $K_1$, $K_2$, and $K_3$ slurries at the melting points were 206.41, 186.88, and 147.91 kJ/kg, respectively. A transportable cold storage container was built to investigate the performance of the slurries as thermal storage media. The temperatures at the insides of the container could be maintained in the ranges of 0-5, 5-10, and $10-15^{\circ}C$ for more than 23, 27, and 60 hr with the $K_1$, $K_2$, and $K_3$ slurries, respectively.

Degradation of Phenolic Compounds in a Slurry Reactor (슬러리 반응기를 이용한 페놀류 화합물의 분해거동)

  • Lee, Jamyoung;Jung, Yonkyu;Lee, Taejin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.949-957
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    • 2000
  • This study investigates the remediation of the phenol or PNP(p-Nitrophenol) contaminated soils in a slurry reactor by a pure culture, P-99. The application of a pure culture for the phenol decontamination make the degradation rate three times faster than that of the mixed activated sludge. The destruction of 300 mg/L phenol was completed in 26 hours. As 1 mg of phenol was added, 0.1457 mg of microorganism was grown in the medium. The pure culture could not utilizes PNP, one of the xenobiotics, as a growth substrate. When the bacteria was induced by phenol enrichment medium. PNP could be effectively transformed with cometabolic process. The induction of the bacteria requires 1 mg of phenol for the destruction of 0.027 mg PNP. When PNP concentration in the medium contained phenol and PNP increased. the degradation rate of phenol was decreased. The degradation rate of phenol and PNP in the slurry reactor was about two times faster than in the reactor without slurry because of higher dissolved oxygen supply in the aqueous phase and adsorption on the surface of the soil.

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Characterization of (La,Sr))$MnO_3/Gd_{0.2}Ce_{0.8}O_{1.9}$ Interface with Citric Acid Contents and Sintering Temperature (시트르산의 양과 소결온도에 따른 (La,Sr)$MnO_3/Gd_{0.2}Ce_{0.8}O_{1.9}$ 계면특성)

  • 윤일영;윤희성;김병호
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 1998
  • G $d_{0.2}$C $e_{0.8}$ $O_{1.9}$(CGO) for electrolyte and L $a_{0.5}$S $r_{0.5}$Mn $O_3$(LSM50) for cathode in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells(SOFC) were synthesized by citrate process. Specimens were prepared with sintering temperatures at 110$0^{\circ}C$, 120$0^{\circ}C$ and 130$0^{\circ}C$, which were fabricated by slurry coating with citric acid contents. Interfacial resistance was measured between cathode and electrolyte using AC-impedance analyzer. With various citric acid content, the degree of agglomeration for the initial particles changed. Also sintering temperature changed the particle size and the degree of densification of cathode. Factors affecting the interfacial resistance were adherent degree of the electrolyte and cathode, distribution of TPB(three phase boundaries, TPB i.e., electrolyte/electrode/gas phase area) and porosity of cathode. By increasing the sintering temperature, particle size and densification of the cathode were increased. And then, TPB area which occurs catalytic reaction was reduced and so interfacial resistance was increased.sed.sed.d.

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Effects of Residual Hypochlorite Ion on Methane Production during the Initial Anaerobic Digestion Stage of Pig Slurry

  • Yoon, Young-Man;Kim, Hyun-Cheol;So, Kyu-Ho;Kim, Chang-Hyun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.122-127
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    • 2013
  • The hypochlorite ion ($OCl^-$) is a widely used disinfecting agent in pig rearing in Korea, but its residual effect on $CH_4$ production from pig slurry is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibition effects of residual $OCl^-$ on $CH_4$ production during the initial anaerobic digestion stage of pig slurry. Three organic concentrations (9.9, 26.2 and 43.7 g/L) of volatile solids (VS) were tested with the addition of 52.3 mg/L $OCl^-$, ten times of the typical concentration used in Korea, or without $OCl^-$ (Control) in anaerobic batch culture. The culture was run under mesophilic ($38^{\circ}C$) conditions for 20 d. At the lowest organic concentration with $OCl^-$, the VS degradation was 10.3% lower (p<0.05) than Control, while at the higher organic concentration with $OCl^-$, it did not differ from Control. $CH_4$ yields were higher in the control treatments than their $OCl^-$ counterpart cultures, and $CH_4$ yields of Control and $OCl^-$ treatments at the organic concentrations of 9.9, 26.2 and 43.7 g/L differed in the probability level (p) of 0.31, 0.04, and 0.06, respectively. Additionally, $CH_4$ concentration increased steeply and reached 70.0% within 4 d in the absence $OCl^-$, but a gradual increase up to 60.0% was observed in 6 d in the $OCl^-$ treated cultures. The $R_m$ (the maximum specific $CH_4$ production rate) and ${\lambda}$ (lag phase time) of 9.9 g/L with $OCl^-$ were 8.1 ml/d and 25.6 d, while the $R_m$ was increased to 15.1 ml/d, and ${\lambda}$ was reduced to 11.4 d in PS-III (higher organic concentration) with $OCl^-$. The results suggest that a prolonged fermentation time was necessary for the methanogens to overcome the initial $OCl^-$ inhibitory effect, and an anaerobic reactor operated with high organic loadings was more advantageous to mitigate the inhibitory effect of residual hypochlorite ion.