• Title, Summary, Keyword: Three-phase Slurry

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Holdup Characteristics of Three Functional Regions in a Slurry Bubble Column (삼상 슬러리 기포탑의 세 기능영역 체류량 특성)

  • Jang, Ji Hwa;Lim, Dae Ho;Kang, Yong;Jun, Ki Won
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.359-364
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    • 2010
  • Three kinds of functional regions such as continuous slurry(${\varepsilon}_f$), bubble(${\varepsilon}_b$) and wake(${\varepsilon}_w$) regions were identified, and the individual phase holdups of each functional region were determined in a three-phase slurry bubble column of 0.152 m ID. The holdups of bubble and wake were measured by adopting the electrical resistivity probe method. Effects of gas velocity and solid concentration in the slurry phase on the individual holdups of functional regions in the column were discussed. The holdup of continuous slurry phase decreased but that of bubble or wake increased, with an increase in the gas velocity in the column. The increase of solid content in the slurry phase could lead to the increase in the holdup of continuous slurry phase but decrease in the bubble or wake holdup. The portion of wake holdup was in the range of 15~40% of the bubble holdup, which decreased with increasing gas velocity or solid content in the slurry phase. The individual holdups of three functional regions were well correlated with operating variables within this experimental conditions.

Application of High-temperature 3-phase Equilibrium Distribution to Dry Scrubber for the Simultaneous Removal of $SO_2$ and Vinyl Chloride (건식세정기에서의 오염물 동시제거를 위한 고온3계평형 모델의 적용과 예비설계에의 응용)

  • 구자공;백경렬
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.85-96
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    • 1990
  • Simultaneous removal efficiencies of hydrophilic and hydrophobic gaseous pollutants are experimentally determined, and the macroscopic removal mechanism of pollutants in a dry scrubber is analyzed using the extended model of three phase equilibrium distribution of pollutant at high temperatures that can describe the different morphological conditions of adsorbent and water at varying relative humidities. For the simplicity, the inside of spray dryer is divided into three regions of ; (1) absorption, (2) three-phase equilibrium, and (3) adsorption, and the removal efficiencies of each pollutants at three regions are observed at different experimental conditions to estimate the effects of important parameters of dry scrubber. The laboratory experiments simulate the three regions of spray dryer with the temperature control and thus evaporation rate of water from the slurry particle. $SO_2$ as a hydrophilic gaseous pollutant and vinyl chloride as a hydrophobic toxic gas are selected for the future field application to soid waste incineration, and the two types of slurry are made of the two sorbents ; 10 wt.% $Ca(OH)_2$, and 10 wt.% NaOH. Result of temperature effect shows the height of absorption plus three-phase region is decreased as the operation temperature is increased, which results in the lower removal efficiency of $SO_2$ but higher removal for vinyl chloride in the adsorption region of dry scrubber. The removal efficiency of $SO_2$ is higher by NaOH slurry than by $Ca(OH)_2$ slurry due to the hygroscopic nature of NaOH, while the removal of vinyl chloride is higher in $Ca(OH)_2$ case. From the analysis of redults using three-phase equilibrium distribution model, the effective two-phase partition coefficients can be obtained, and the possible extention in the application of the three-phase equilibrium model in a dry scrubber design has been demonstrated.

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Formation of a paraffin slurry and its convective heat transfer in a circular pipe (파라핀 슬러리의 생성 및 관내 대류열전달에 관한 연구)

  • Choe, Eun-Su
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.50-60
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    • 1998
  • As a method to develop an enhanced heat transfer fluid, the fine particles of a phase-change material were mixed with a conventional heat transfer fluid. Paraffin, which can be obtained easily in domestic market, was used for the phase-change material and water was used as a carrier fluid. Fine liquid particles of paraffin were formed in water as an emulsion by using an emulsifier, and they were cooled rapidly to become solid particle, resulting in paraffin slurry. The average diameter of produced solid particles was inversely proportional to the amount of the added emulsifier, which was theoretically proved. The produced paraffin slurry was tested thermally in heat transfer test section having a constant-heat-flux boundary condition. The test section was made of a circular stainless-steel pipe, which was directly heated by the power supply having a maximum of 50 Volts-500 Amperes. DSC(Differential scanning calorimeter) tests showed that two kinds of phase change were involved in the melting of paraffin, and it was explained in two different ways. A five- region-melting model was developed by extending the conventional three-region-melting model, and was used to obtain the local bulk mean temperatures of paraffin slurry in the heating test section. The local heat transfer coefficient showed a maximum where the bulk mean temperature of the paraffin slurry reached at the melting temperature of paraffin.

Mass Transfer Characteristics in Pressurized Three-phase Slurry Bubble Columns with Variation of Column Diameter (가압 삼상슬러리 기포탑에서 직경변화에 따른 기체-액체 물질전달 특성)

  • Seo, Myung Jae;Lim, Dae Ho;Shin, Ik Sang;Son, Sung Mo;Kang, Yong
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.459-464
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    • 2009
  • Gas-liquid mass transfer characteristics were investigated in pressurized three-phase slurry bubble columns with variation of column diameter. Effects of gas velocity, operating pressure, liquid viscosity, solid content in the slurry phase and column diameter on the gas-liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient($k_La$) were determined. The effects of operating variables on the mass transfer coefficient tended to change with variation of column diameter. The mass transfer coefficient increased with increasing gas velocity or operating pressure but decreased with increasing column diameter, liquid viscosity or solid concentration in the slurry phase. The increase trend of $k_La$ value with increasing gas velocity and the decrease trend of $k_La$ value with increasing liquid viscosity, tended to decrease gradually with increasing column diameter. However, the effects of operating pressure and solid concentration in the slurry phase on the $k_La$ value did not change considerably with variation of column diameter. The values of $k_La$ were well correlated with operating variables with in this experimental conditions as $k_La=0.02D^{-0.26}U_G^{0.28}P^{0.43}{\mu}_L^{-0.04}S_c^{-0.35}$.

Effects of Liquid Surface Tension on the Heat Transfer Coefficient in a Three-Phase Slurry Bubble Column (삼상슬러리 기포탑에서 액상의 표면장력이 열전달 계수에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Ho;Lim, Dae Ho;Jin, Hae-Ryong;Kang, Yong;Jung, Heon
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.499-504
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    • 2012
  • Characteristics of overall heat transfer were investigated in a three-phase slurry bubble column with relatively low surface tension media, which has been frequently encountered in the fields of industry. The heat transfer phenomena was examined in the system which was composed of a coaxial vertical heater and a proper of bubble column. The heat transfer coefficient was estimated from the measured mean value of temperature difference between the heater surface and the column proper at the steady state condition. Effects of gas velocity ($U_G$), solid fraction in the slurry phase ($C_S$) and surface tension (${\sigma}_L$) of continuous liquid media on the overall heat transfer coefficient (h) in the bubble column were determined. The mean value of temperature difference was estimated from the data of temperature difference fluctuations with a variation of time. The amplitude and mean value of temperature difference fluctuations with respect to the elasped time appeared to decrease with decreasing the surface tension of liquid phase. The overall heat transfer coefficient between the immersed heated and the bubble column increased with an increase in the gas velocity or solid fraction in the slurry phase, but it decreased with an increase in the surface tension of continuous liquid media. The overall heat coefficient in the slurry bubble column with relatively low surface tension media was well correlated in term of operating variables and dimensionless groups within this experimental conditions.

Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor

  • Lee, Jae-Young;Kwon, Tae-Soon;Lee, Young-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
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    • v.34 no.9
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    • pp.2418-2422
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    • 2017
  • A two-phase partitioning bioreactor was employed to remediate soil contaminated by a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons consisting of phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene. In this study, the transfer of three PAHs into the water-immiscible liquid phase (silicone oil or paraffine oil) from the soil was investigated during the first 24 h. And then, phenanthrene and anthracene were degraded by approximately 90% and 80%, respectively, compared with initial concentration in soil, but pyrene was not degraded during seven days of operation period. In addition, the feasibility of a soil slurry sequencing batch reactor system in terms of continuously operating a two-phase partitioning bioreactor was investigated. Phenanthrene and anthracene were degraded semi-continuously and repeatedly during two operating cycles. Pyrene was still not degraded and was just transferred into the water-immiscible liquid phase considering its solubility.

Analysis of Hydrodynamic Similarity of Pressurized Three-Phase Slurry Bubble Column for its Design and Scale-up (가압 삼상슬러리 기포탑의 설계 및 Scale-up을 위한 수력학적 Similarity 해석)

  • Seo, Myung Jae;Lim, Dae Ho;Jin, Hae Ryong;Kang, Yong;Jung, Heon;Lee, Ho Tae
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.720-726
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    • 2009
  • Hydrodynamic similarity was investigated in pressurized three-phase slurry bubble columns by selecting the bubble holdup and pressure drop as objective functions, for the effective design and scale-up of it. In addition, effects of operating variables on the bubble holdup with variation of column diameter were also analyzed. Gas velocity($U_G$), viscosity(${\mu}_{SL,eff}$) and surface tension(${\rho}_{SL}$) of slurry phase, density difference between the slurry and gas phases(${\rho}_{SL}-{\rho}_G$) depending on the operating pressure, pressure drop per unit length(${\Delta}P/L$), column diameter(D) and gravitational acceleration(g) were chosen as governing parameters in determining the bubble holdup and pressure drop in the column. From the dimensional analysis, four kinds of dimensionless groups were derived from the 7 parameters and 4 fundamental dimensions. Effects of dimensionless groups such as Reynolds, Froude and Weber numbers on the bubble holdup in the column were discussed. The pressure drop and bubble holdup could be predicted from the correlation of dimensionless groups effectively, which could be used as useful information for the design and scale-up of pressurized slurry bubble columns.

Scaling of Gas-Slurry Mass transfer in Three-phase Bubble Column Reactors (삼상슬러리 기포탑 반응기에서 기체-슬러리 물질전달의 Scaling)

  • Lim, Hyunoh;Seo, Myungjae;Kang, Yong;Jung, Heon;Lee, Hotae;Kim, Sangdon
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.111.2-111.2
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    • 2010
  • 삼상슬러리 기포탑 반응기의 설계 및 Scale-up을 위하여 기포탑의 직경변화에 따른 기체-슬러리 계면에서의 물질전달 현상의 Similarity를 검토하고, 기체-슬러리 계면에서의 물질전달 현상과 슬러리 기포탑 반응기의 운전변수 및 반응물들의 물성들과의 연관성을 고찰하기 위하여 삼상슬러리 기포탑의 물질전달계(System)에서 주요 파라메타를 도출하였으며, 이들 파라메터들을 이용하여 슬러리 기포탑반응기의 물질전달 Scaling을 검토하였다. 물질전달계의 주요제어인자로는 기체-액체 부피물질전달계수($k_La$), 슬러리상의 확산도($D_{SL}$), 기포탑의 직경(D), 기포탑 반응기에 유입되는 기체의 유입속도($U_G$), 기포탑 반응기 내부의 연속상인 슬러리상의 표면장력(${\sigma}_{SL}$), 슬러리상과 기체상간의 밀도차(${\rho}_{SL}-{\rho}_G$) 그리고 슬러리상의 점도(${\mu}_{SL}$)등 슬러리 상의 물성을 선정하였으며 중력가속도(g)를 선정하였다. 물질전달계의 Scling을 검토하기위하여 이를 재구성하였으며 기포탑 반응기의 구조와 직경이 변화함에 따라 이들 무차원군의 변화양상을 고찰하였다. 실험적으로 측정된 물질전달계수와 Scaling에 의해 예측된 물질전달계수를 비교 검토함으로써 본 연구의 Correlation의 적용범위를 제시하였다.

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Toxicity Estimation of Nonionic Surfactants and Their Effect on the Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) (비이온계 계면활성제의 독성 평가 및 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs) 생분해에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jong-Sup;Kim, In S.;Choi, Heechul
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.2107-2113
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    • 2000
  • Toxicity estimation of three nonionic surfactants (Brij 30, Tween 80, Triton X-lOO) and their effect on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aqueous phase and soil slurry phase were investigated. Brij 30 was found to be the most biodegradable among the surfactants tested, and showed no substrate inhibition up to a concentration of 1.5 g/L. It was definitely utilized as a carbon source by the microorganisms. Naphthalene and phenanthrene in the aqueous phase were completely degraded by phenanthrene-acclimated cultures within 60 hours, but a substantial amount of naphthalene was lost due to the volatilization. The limiting step in the soil slurry bioremediation was bioavailablity by the microorganisms in the sand slurry and mass transfer from a solid to aqueous phase in the clay slurry. TOC analysis revealed that most of substrates including surfactant in the reactor were degraded. pH transition indicated that phenanthrene was metabolized into intermediates containing acid function.

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