• Title, Summary, Keyword: Three-dimensional electrode reactor

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Treatment of ETA wastewater using GAC as particle electrodes in three-dimensional electrode reactor (활성탄 충진 3D 복극전기분해조를 이용한 ETA 처리)

  • Kim, Ran;Kim, Yu-Jin;Shin, Ja-Won;Kim, Jeong-Joo;Park, Joo-Yang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.241-249
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    • 2013
  • Ethanolamine (ETA) is widely used for alkalinization of water in steam cycles of nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactor. When ETA contained wastewater was released, it could increase COD and T-N. The treatment of the COD and T-N from ETA wastewater was investigated using the GAC as particle electrodes in three-dimensional electrode reactor (TDE). This study evaluated the effectiveness of GAC as particle electrode using different packing ratio at 300 V. The results showed that GAC-TDE could reduce ETA much more efficiently than ZVI-TDE at the mass ratio of GAC to insulator, 1:2. Additionally, The effect of applied electric potential to COD and T-N reduction was investigated. The results showed the high COD, T-N reduction and current efficiency at the low electric potential. Using the GAC-TDE will provide a better ETA reduction with reducing electrical potential dissipation.

Effect of Operating Parameters on Electrochemical Degradation of Rhodamine B by Three-dimensional Electrode (3차원 전극을 사용한 Rhodamine B의 전기분해에 미치는 운전인자의 영향)

  • Kim, Dong-Seog;Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.295-303
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    • 2009
  • A simulated wastewater containing the dye Rhodamine B (RhB) was electrolytically treated using a three-dimensional electrode reactor equipped with granular activated carbon (GAC) as particle electrode. The effect of type of packing material (GAC, ACF, Nonwoven fabric fiber coated with activated carbon), amounts of GAC packing (25-100 g), current (0.5-3 A) and electrolyte concentration (0.5-3 g/l) was evaluated. Experimental results showed that performance for RhB decolorization of the 3 three-dimensional electrodes lie in: GAC > Nonwoven fabric fiber > ACF. When considered RhB decolorization, oxidants concentration and electric power, optimum GAC dosage was 50 g. Generated concentration of 3 oxidants ($ClO_2$, free Cl, $H_2O_2$) was increased with increase of applied current, however optimum current for RhB degradation was 2.5 A. The oxidants concentration was increased with increase of NaCl concentration and optimum NaCl dosage for RhB degradation was 1.5 g/l.

Characteristics of Rotating arc Plasma in $CH_4$ Reforming (메탄 개질에서의 회전 아크 플라즈마 특성)

  • Lee, Dae-Hoon;Kim, Kwan-Tae;Cha, Min-Suk;Song, Young-Hoon;Kim, Dong-Hyun
    • 한국연소학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.144-148
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    • 2006
  • Characteristics of a plasma reactor for partial oxidation of methane, especially focused on the role and effectiveness of plasma chemistry, is investigated. Partial oxidation of methane is investigated using a rotating arc which is a three dimensional version of a typical glidingarc. The rotating arc has both the characteristics of equilibrium and non-equilibrium plasma. Non-equilibrium characteristics of the rotating gliding arc can be increased by rotating an elongated arc string attached at both the tip of inner electrode and the edge of outer electrode. In this way, plasma chemistry can be enhanced and hydrogen selectivity can reach almost 100% that is much higher than thermal equilibrium condition. As a result, the present study enables the strategic approach of the plasma reforming process by means of appropriate reactor design to maximize plasma effect and resulting in maximized reaction efficiency.

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Development of an Improved Numerical Methodology for Design and Modification of Large Area Plasma Processing Chamber

  • Kim, Ho-Jun;Lee, Seung-Mu;Won, Je-Hyeong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.221-221
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    • 2014
  • The present work proposes an improved numerical simulator for design and modification of large area capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) processing chamber. CCP, as notoriously well-known, demands the tremendously huge computational cost for carrying out transient analyses in realistic multi-dimensional models, because electron dissociations take place in a much smaller time scale (${\Delta}t{\approx}10-8{\sim}10-10$) than time scale of those happened between neutrals (${\Delta}t{\approx}10-1{\sim}10-3$), due to the rf drive frequencies of external electric field. And also, for spatial discretization of electron flux (Je), exponential scheme such as Scharfetter-Gummel method needs to be used in order to alleviate the numerical stiffness and resolve exponential change of spatial distribution of electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (Ne) in the vicinity of electrodes. Due to such computational intractability, it is prohibited to simulate CCP deposition in a three-dimension within acceptable calculation runtimes (<24 h). Under the situation where process conditions require thickness non-uniformity below 5%, however, detailed flow features of reactive gases induced from three-dimensional geometric effects such as gas distribution through the perforated plates (showerhead) should be considered. Without considering plasma chemistry, we therefore simulated flow, temperature and species fields in three-dimensional geometry first, and then, based on that data, boundary conditions of two-dimensional plasma discharge model are set. In the particular case of SiH4-NH3-N2-He CCP discharge to produce deposition of SiNxHy thin film, a cylindrical showerhead electrode reactor was studied by numerical modeling of mass, momentum and energy transports for charged particles in an axi-symmetric geometry. By solving transport equations of electron and radicals simultaneously, we observed that the way how source gases are consumed in the non-isothermal flow field and such consequences on active species production were outlined as playing the leading parts in the processes. As an example of application of the model for the prediction of the deposited thickness uniformity in a 300 mm wafer plasma processing chamber, the results were compared with the experimentally measured deposition profiles along the radius of the wafer varying inter-electrode gap. The simulation results were in good agreement with experimental data.

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Numerical analysis of particle transport in low-pressure, low-temperature plasma environment

  • Kim, Heon Chang
    • Particle and aerosol research
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.123-131
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    • 2009
  • This paper presents simulation results of particle transport in low-pressure, low-temperature plasma environment. The size dependent transport of particles in the plasma is investigated with a two-dimensional simulation tool developed in-house for plasma chamber analysis and design. The plasma model consists of the first two and three moments of the Boltzmann equation for ion and electron fluids respectively, coupled to Poisson's equation for the self-consistent electric field. The particle transport model takes into account all important factors, such as gravitational, electrostatic, ion drag, neutral drag and Brownian forces, affecting the motion of particles in the plasma environment. The particle transport model coupled with both neutral fluid and plasma models is simulated through a Lagrangian approach tracking the individual trajectory of each particle by taking a force balance on the particle. The size dependant trap locations of particles ranging from a few nm to a few ${\mu}m$ are identified in both electropositive and electronegative plasmas. The simulation results show that particles are trapped at locations where the forces acting on them balance. While fine particles tend to be trapped in the bulk, large particles accumulate near bottom sheath boundaries and around material interfaces, such as wafer and electrode edges where a sudden change in electric field occurs. Overall, small particles form a "dome" shape around the center of the plasma reactor and are also trapped in a "ring" near the radial sheath boundaries, while larger particles accumulate only in the "ring". These simulation results are qualitatively in good agreement with experimental observation.

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