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A Study on Performance and Achievement of Village Health Workers in Rural Primary Health Care Program (농촌 일차 보건사업에 있어서 마을건강원 업무량 및 업적에 관한 연구)

  • Hur, Dal-Young;Lee, Myoung-Sook;Yum, Yong-Tae;Kim, Soon-Duck
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.36-53
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    • 1987
  • It is utmostly important to establish the efficient fitable way of peoples' active participation in primary health care especially in the areas where the public or governmental service input for the basic health care is insufficient like as in rural areas of Korea. In light of above reason, this study focused mainly on the evaluation of roles and activities of village health workers (VHWs) who were selected from grass- root level of village people in order to derive further motivation for active participation. This is believed to be a sort of feedback mechanisms. Actually, the authors collected the activity reports of VHWs who had been devoting themselves in the primary health care services of Jeomdong Area, of Yeoju Gun one of Korea University Community Health Action Programmes and survey record on the VHWs activity from correspondent people. 1 hose data were analyzed through computer programmed package. The activities performed by VHWs were limited to the performance in 1985 for conveniance. The summarized results were as follows; 1) General characteristics of VHWs. Among a total of 28 VHWs in the area, about 39.3g of them have been replaced up to the date since the implementation in 1983, because of moving out, occupational employment and of others. The age of majority (75.0%) lied between the range of 30-50, and educational background of 67.9% belonged to category of primary school graduation, about 50% of them experienced to be or were also entiled "chief of women club" of corresponding villages. 2) Work-load of VHWs. Each VHW was assigned for tasks of health care for average 55 households of 248 persons. They shared approximately 6 days a month for the activity in average and it covered 17 cases of basic health care in a month. A half of the VHWs performed home visits irregularly without solidified schedule. 3) Work performance analysis. Informations collected through VHWs were compared with data from official vital registration at local administration center "Myon Office" in 1985. VHWs collected 100.8 of new born, 116.2 of death, 58.3 of move in and 74.8 of move out in comparison with 100.0 of official registration each. Pregnant women of 79.8% of mothers among the total pregnancy of 94 which were confirmed as normally delivered or aborted cases by all means afterwards had been detected by VHWs as being pregnant and all of them received some of antenatal cares by VHWs. All(100%) of delivered women were detected by VHWs through home visits and they were cared postnatally. Whereas, according to the records of birth registration, the places of delivery were clinic in 33.7%, and mother's home in 66.3%, VHWs reported them to be clinic in 48.9%, midwifery in 20.2%. It was cleared that most of misinformation was caused by uncautious filling of birth registration at notification. Among the total of 717 eligible women under age 44 years, family planning status of 92.6% was reported by VHWs confirming practice of control to be 70.8% of reported fertile women. 4) Attitude of VHW on the roles and functions. Although 92.0% of VHWs expressed VHWs to be worthwhile, only 52.0% of them had dignity and satisfaction in their activity and 44.0% of them had passive attitude of working saying they followed direction regardlessly. Concerning difficulties in performance as a VHW, 60.7% of them pointed out lacking of medical and health related knowledge by themselves. Still, 64.0% of them thought visiting unfamilier house to be awful and 40.0% complained forms of activity to be difficult and hard. It was also revealed that 56.6% confessed lack of interest on community health service itself. Most of VHWs needed more educational training especially on clinical fields such as cares of gynecological diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and other chronic diseaes of the aged. Regular on-the-job basic trainings were said to be needed twice a year.

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Participant Characteristic and Educational Effects for Cyber Agricultural Technology Training Courses (사이버농업기술교육 참가자의 특성과 교육효과)

  • Kang, Dae-Koo
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.35-82
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    • 2014
  • It was main objectives to find the learners characteristics and educational effects of cyber agricultural technology courses in RDA. For the research, it was followed by literature reviews and internet based survey methods. In internet based survey, two staged stratified sampling method was adopted from cyber training members database in RDA along with some key word as open course or certificate course, and enrollment years. Instrument was composed through literature reviews about cyber education effects and educational effect factors. And learner characteristics items were added in survey documents. It was sent to sampled persons by e-mail and 316 data was returned via google survey systems. Through the data cleaning, 303 data were analysed by chi-square, t-test and F-test. It's significance level was .05. The results of the research were as followed; First, the respondent was composed of mainly man(77.9%), and monthly income group was mainly 2,000,000 or 3,000,000 won(24%), bachelor degree(48%), fifty or forty age group was shared to 75%, and their job was changed after learning(12.2%). So major respondents' job was not changed. Their major was not mainly agriculture. Learners' learning style were composed of two or more types as concrete-sequential, mixing, abstract-random, so e-learning course should be developed for the students' type. Second, it was attended at 3.2 days a week, 53.53 minutes a class, totally 172.63 minutes a week. They were very eager or generally eager to study, and attended two or more subjects. The cyber education motives was for farming knowledge, personal competency development, job performance enlarging. They selected subjects along with their interest. A subject person couldn't choose more subjects for little time, others, non interesting subject, but more subject persons were for job performance benefits and previous subjects effectiveness. Most learner was finished their subject, but a fourth was not finished for busy (26.7%). And their entrying behavior was not enough to learn e-course and computer or internet using ability was middle level as software using. And they thought RDA cyber course was comfort in non time or space limit, knowledge acquisition, and personal competency development. Cyber learning group was composed of open course only (12.5%), certificate only(25.7%), both(36.3%). Third, satisfaction and academic achievement of e-learning learners were good, and educational service offering for doing job in learning application category was good, but effect of cyber education was not good, especially, agricultural income increasing was not good because major learner group was not farmer, so they couldn't apply their knowledge to farming. And content structure and design, content comprehension, content amount were good. The more learning subject group responded to good in effects, and both open course and certificate course group satisfied more than open course only group. Based on the results, recommendation was offered as cyber course specialization before main course in RDA training system, support staff and faculty enlargement, building blended learning system with local RDA office, introducing cyber tutor system.

The Development and Features of Discussion about Community Design (커뮤니티디자인의 전개와 논의의 특징)

  • Kim, Yun-Geum;Reigh, Young-Bum
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.22-31
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    • 2012
  • This study was prompted by the recognition that the tenn "Community design" has recently been used in diverse practical fields without prior discussion about its underpinnings, a potentially problematic state of affairs. Based on these problems, this study studied the special quality about the concept of community design. Community design can be discussed from two perspectives. The first views community design as a design that concerns the community, an inhabited area populated with people who have common interests, at least in part because of geographic proximity to each other. The second sees community design as a movement that started in the 1960s and places a great importance on democratic decision making, communication, and collaboration. This study will focus on the latter. This branch of community design encompasses an advocacy planning approach, in which design professionals represent deprived communities in their resistance against comprehensive redevelopment. This was associated to the wider social protest movements of the mid and late 1960s. In the 1970s, this branch of community design was developed alongside community design centers, which provided local-level technical assistance to the communities on a number of issues, such as design and planning. The discussion about community design started in earnest from the early 1980s. A review of the literature m community design reveals several characteristics. First, community design deals with the relationship between the physical environment and several aspects of a region, including the social and cultural. Second, it involves community participation, which many scholars believe is the core of community design. Specifically, community design has been characterized by increased participation and democratic debate and decision making. The Third is about communication methods. Since the 1960s, diverse methods had been developed to promote communication effectively. Finally, community design must consider the relationship between designers, who typically value aesthetics and efficiency of form, and the needs of the community with which they are working. Indeed, some scholars believe that this relationship is generally contentious, although the designer can also be thought of as the facilitator of the community's needs. As community design practice becomes more prevalent, a review of the foundation of institution and policy and the role of experts is also needed. The community design movement bas been theorized ex post facto through diverse discussion that has sought to ascribe meaning and direction to its practice. In other words, the relationship between this theory and practice is cyclical. Therefore, this study can contribute to the virtuous circle.

Geographic Conditions and Garden Designs of Byeol-seo Scenic Site of Gimcheon Bangcho-Pavilion and Mrs Choi's Pond (별서 명승 김천 방초정(芳草亭)과 최씨담(崔氏潭)의 입지 및 조영 특성)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Lee, Hyun-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.71-82
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    • 2016
  • Through literature review and on-site survey of Gimcheon Bangcho pavilion(芳草亭), the features of garden design(庭園意匠) including geographic conditions, landscape modeling of Nujeong(樓亭) and Jidang(池塘, Pond), and scenic interpretations in Nujeong Jeiyoung poetry(樓亭題詠詩) have been carefully researched and the findings are presented below. Bangcho pavilion is located in a village called Wonteomaeul, which belongs to the feng shui state of golden hairpin and floating lotus. It has long been the cultural hub of communication and social interactions among the villagers. The Head House of Jeongyanggong(靖襄公宗宅), the main house(本第) of the Yeonan Yi Clan(延安李氏), is about 150m away from Bangcho pavilion, an artistic space whose landscape modeling is of the form called Nujeong. The name 'Bangcho' reflects the noble man(君子)'s determination: "I yearn for the place where honey parrots fly and the fragrant grass grow." From the two story structure of the pavilion where there is an additional floor installed to the central ondol room by a four-sided subdivision door, one can detect the aspiration of the men for pursuing an open view. One can also observe the efforts in designing the room to be used for multiple purposes from a private place to an office for periodic publication of a family lineage document called "Garyejunghae(家禮增解)". Bangcho pavilion's main sight of interest is Mrs Choi's Pond(崔氏潭), the one and only garden structure that comprises the twin round island of square pond(方池雙圓島) among the existing Jidangs in Korea. In this special Jidang, there are two coexisting islands that represent a well thought out garden facility for symbolizing conjugal affection and unyielding fidelity between master and servent(主從). In addition, the three inflows and one outflow facing the Ramcheon valley is regarded as an ideal garden design optimized for performing the function of a village bangjuk which is the site for undercurrent creation and ecological reprocessing. At present, Giant pussy willow is the only circular vegetation identified in the area of Bangcho pavilion, although this plant species is about to wither away judging from the signs of decrepitude that seems to persist for two out of three weeks. The old pine tree that appears in the 1872 Jeiyoung poetry of Byeongseon Song(宋秉璿) no longer exists. Anjae(安齋) Jang Yoo(張瑠)'s "Eight Scenary on Bangcho pavilion(芳草亭八詠)" and its expansive reproduction "Ten Scenary on Bangcho pavilion(芳草亭十景)" from Gwagang(守岡) Lee Manyoung(李晩永) depict vividly the pastoric scenery of an idyll(田園景) that stretches throughout the natural and cultural landscape of the province of Gimcheon and Guseong surrounding the Bangcho pavilion. The Bangcho pavilion sutra aims to establish Bangcho pavilion and the village of Wonteomaeul as the centre of microcosmos by dividing and allocating its scenic features according to the four seasons and times(四季四時), the eight courses(八方) and the meteorological phenomena, and it is the incarnation(顯現) of landscape perception upon the Byeol-seo Scenic site of Bangcho pavilion, the cultural hub of the region.

Analysis of PM2.5 Distribution Contribution using GIS Spatial Interpolation - Focused on Changwon-si Urban Area - (GIS 공간내삽법을 활용한 PM2.5 분포 특성 분석 - 창원시 도시지역을 대상으로 -)

  • MUN, Han-Sol;SONG, Bong-Geun;SEO, Kyeong-Ho;KIM, Tae-Hyeung;PARK, Kyung-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.1-20
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the distribution characteristics of spatial and temporal PM2.5 in urban areas of Changwon-si, and to identify the causes of PM2.5 by comparing the characteristics of land-use, and to suggest the direction of reduction measures. As the basic data, the every hour average from September 2017 to August 2018 of Airpro data, which has measurement points in kindergartens, elementary schools, and some middle and high schools in Changwon-si was used. Also, by using IDW method among spatial interpolation methods of GIS, monthly and time-slot distribution maps were constructed, and based on this, spatial and temporal PM2.5 distribution characteristics were confirmed. First, to verify the accuracy of the Airpro data, the correlation with AirKorea data managed by the Ministry of Environment was confirmed. As a result of the analysis, R2 was 0.75~0.86, showing a very high correlation and the data was judged that it was suitable for the study. In the monthly analysis, January was the highest year, and August was the lowest. As a result of analysis by time-slot, The clock-in time at 06-09 was the highest, and the activity time at 09-18 was the lowest. By administrative district, Sangnam-dong, Happo-dong, and Myeonggok-dong were the most severe regions of PM2.5 and Hoeseong-dong was the lowest. As a result of analyzing the land-use characteristics by administrative area, it was confirmed that the ratio of traffic area and commercial area is high in the serious area of PM2.5. In conclusion, the results of this study will be used as basic data to grasp the characteristics of PM2.5 distribution in Changwon-si. Also, it is thought that the severe regions and the direction of establishing reduction measures derived from this study can be used to prepare more effective policies than before.

A Study on the Current Fire Insurance Subscription and Solutions for Ensuring the Safety of the Traditional Market (전통시장 안전성 확보를 위한 개선방안: 화재보험 가입실태를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Yoo-Oh;Byun, Chung-Gyu;Ryu, Tae-Chang
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 2011
  • Concerning the risk factors of the outbreak of a fire in a traditional market, most of those markets are located in downtown areas or residential areas; thus, although their location may be favorable in terms of marketability, they face a potential risk in that a fire may develop into a large blaze owing to poor environment or the absence of facilities prepared for disaster during a fire. Moreover, as many people are densely poised in the markets, it is very probable that a fire may occur owing to the excessive use of heaters in the winter as well as the reckless use of electric and gas facilities. It seems that traditional markets encounter difficulty being insured against fire, because of their vulnerability and that the vast majority of small-scale sellers are likely to suffer mental anguish and tremendous physical injury in case of a fire. However, most of those sellers in the traditional markets are hand-to-mouth sellers, and they lack awareness of safety concerns and have insufficient experience in safe facility management. As small-scale sellers constitute the majority in the traditional market, the subscription rate of fire insurance in most of the traditional markets is low for the reasons of their needy circumstances and their financial burden. Statistically, the subscription by street vendors is non-existent; therefore, these vendors have a fairly limited access to indemnification after fire damage. Because of these problems, this study's purpose is to identify the current level of insurance subscription by these markets, which are exposed to poor facilities and vulnerability to fire. In order to fix this, it appears that shop owners and consumers will have to band together. For this study, we executed a fire policyholder fact-finding mission at traditional markets with approximately 108 and 981 stores. The research method was executed by an investigation using one-on-one individual interviews using a questionnaire. The contents investigated current insurance subscriptions. The method of analysis looked at the difference of insured amount according to volume size through cross-tabulation of the difference of insured amount by possession form, difference of insured amount by market form, difference of insured amount by category of business, difference of insured amount by market size, etc. Furthermore, the study should be used to propose solutions for problems through theoretical review with the use of a literature research, because the field case study was through interviews with the persons concerned, and the survey of the current insurance subscriptions by traditional market shopkeepers. The traditional market would generally have difficulty affording fire insurance. Fire insurance subscription rates of most of the market proved to be inactive, because of the economic burden of payment. Lack of funds is thought to be the main factor that causes a lack of realization about the necessity of fire insurance. In addition to expensive insurance premiums, sometimes, the companies' valuation of the businesses is lower than their actual valuations, and they do not pay out enough during a claim. The research presents an improvement plan that, when presented at the traditional markets, may strengthen their ability to procure fire insurance through the help of the central government. Researchers connected with the traditional market mainly accomplish the initial research. However, although this research has its limitations, it offers considerable benefits. For future researchers, I would suggest looking at several regions for comparison.

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Interpreting Bounded Rationality in Business and Industrial Marketing Contexts: Executive Training Case Studies (집행관배훈안례연구(阐述工商业背景下的有限合理性):집행관배훈안례연구(执行官培训案例研究))

  • Woodside, Arch G.;Lai, Wen-Hsiang;Kim, Kyung-Hoon;Jung, Deuk-Keyo
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.49-61
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    • 2009
  • This article provides training exercises for executives into interpreting subroutine maps of executives' thinking in processing business and industrial marketing problems and opportunities. This study builds on premises that Schank proposes about learning and teaching including (1) learning occurs by experiencing and the best instruction offers learners opportunities to distill their knowledge and skills from interactive stories in the form of goal.based scenarios, team projects, and understanding stories from experts. Also, (2) telling does not lead to learning because learning requires action-training environments should emphasize active engagement with stories, cases, and projects. Each training case study includes executive exposure to decision system analysis (DSA). The training case requires the executive to write a "Briefing Report" of a DSA map. Instructions to the executive trainee in writing the briefing report include coverage in the briefing report of (1) details of the essence of the DSA map and (2) a statement of warnings and opportunities that the executive map reader interprets within the DSA map. The length maximum for a briefing report is 500 words-an arbitrary rule that works well in executive training programs. Following this introduction, section two of the article briefly summarizes relevant literature on how humans think within contexts in response to problems and opportunities. Section three illustrates the creation and interpreting of DSA maps using a training exercise in pricing a chemical product to different OEM (original equipment manufacturer) customers. Section four presents a training exercise in pricing decisions by a petroleum manufacturing firm. Section five presents a training exercise in marketing strategies by an office furniture distributer along with buying strategies by business customers. Each of the three training exercises is based on research into information processing and decision making of executives operating in marketing contexts. Section six concludes the article with suggestions for use of this training case and for developing additional training cases for honing executives' decision-making skills. Todd and Gigerenzer propose that humans use simple heuristics because they enable adaptive behavior by exploiting the structure of information in natural decision environments. "Simplicity is a virtue, rather than a curse". Bounded rationality theorists emphasize the centrality of Simon's proposition, "Human rational behavior is shaped by a scissors whose blades are the structure of the task environments and the computational capabilities of the actor". Gigerenzer's view is relevant to Simon's environmental blade and to the environmental structures in the three cases in this article, "The term environment, here, does not refer to a description of the total physical and biological environment, but only to that part important to an organism, given its needs and goals." The present article directs attention to research that combines reports on the structure of task environments with the use of adaptive toolbox heuristics of actors. The DSA mapping approach here concerns the match between strategy and an environment-the development and understanding of ecological rationality theory. Aspiration adaptation theory is central to this approach. Aspiration adaptation theory models decision making as a multi-goal problem without aggregation of the goals into a complete preference order over all decision alternatives. The three case studies in this article permit the learner to apply propositions in aspiration level rules in reaching a decision. Aspiration adaptation takes the form of a sequence of adjustment steps. An adjustment step shifts the current aspiration level to a neighboring point on an aspiration grid by a change in only one goal variable. An upward adjustment step is an increase and a downward adjustment step is a decrease of a goal variable. Creating and using aspiration adaptation levels is integral to bounded rationality theory. The present article increases understanding and expertise of both aspiration adaptation and bounded rationality theories by providing learner experiences and practice in using propositions in both theories. Practice in ranking CTSs and writing TOP gists from DSA maps serves to clarify and deepen Selten's view, "Clearly, aspiration adaptation must enter the picture as an integrated part of the search for a solution." The body of "direct research" by Mintzberg, Gladwin's ethnographic decision tree modeling, and Huff's work on mapping strategic thought are suggestions on where to look for research that considers both the structure of the environment and the computational capabilities of the actors making decisions in these environments. Such research on bounded rationality permits both further development of theory in how and why decisions are made in real life and the development of learning exercises in the use of heuristics occurring in natural environments. The exercises in the present article encourage learning skills and principles of using fast and frugal heuristics in contexts of their intended use. The exercises respond to Schank's wisdom, "In a deep sense, education isn't about knowledge or getting students to know what has happened. It is about getting them to feel what has happened. This is not easy to do. Education, as it is in schools today, is emotionless. This is a huge problem." The three cases and accompanying set of exercise questions adhere to Schank's view, "Processes are best taught by actually engaging in them, which can often mean, for mental processing, active discussion."

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A Study on the Architecture of the Original Nine-Story Wooden Pagoda at Hwangnyongsa Temple (황룡사 창건 구층목탑 단상)

  • Lee, Ju-heun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.196-219
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    • 2019
  • According to the Samguk Yusa, the nine-story wooden pagoda at Hwangnyongsa Temple was built by a Baekje artisan named Abiji in 645. Until the temple was burnt down completely during the Mongol invasion of Korea in 1238, it was the greatest symbol of the spiritual culture of the Korean people at that time and played an important role in the development of Buddhist thought in the country for about 700 years. At present, the only remaining features of Hwangnyongsa Temple, which is now in ruins, are the pagoda's stylobate and several foundation stones. In the past, many researchers made diverse inferences concerning the restoration of the original structure and the overall architecture of the wooden pagoda at Hwangnyongsa Temple, based on written records and excavation data. However, this information, together with the remaining external structure of the pagoda site and the assumption that it was a simple wooden structure, actually suggest that it was a rectangular-shaped nine-story pagoda. It is assumed that such ideas were suggested at a time when there was a lack of relevant data and limited knowledge on the subject, as well as insufficient information about the technical lineage of the wooden pagoda at Hwangnyongsa Temple; therefore, these ideas should be revised in respect of the discovery of new data and an improved level of awareness about the structural features of large ancient Buddhist pagodas. This study focused on the necessity of raising awareness of the lineage and structure of the wooden pagoda at Hwangnyongsa Temple and gaining a broader understanding of the structural system of ancient Buddhist pagodas in East Asia. The study is based on a reanalysis of data about the site of the wooden pagoda obtained through research on the restoration of Hwangnyongsa Temple, which has been ongoing since 2005. It is estimated that the wooden pagoda underwent at least two large-scale repairs between the Unified Silla and Goryeo periods, during which the size of the stylobate and the floor plan were changed and, accordingly, the upper structure was modified to a significant degree. Judging by the features discovered during excavation and investigation, traces relating to the nine-story wooden pagoda built during the Three Kingdoms Period include the earth on which the stylobate was built and the central pillar's supporting stone, which had been reinstalled using the rammed earth technique, as well as other foundation stones and stylobate stone materials that most probably date back to the ninth century or earlier. It seems that the foundation stones and stylobate stone materials were new when the reliquaries were enshrined again in the pagoda after the Unified Silla period, so the first story and upper structure would have been of a markedly different size to those of the original wooden pagoda. In addition, during the Goryeo period, these foundation stones were rearranged, and the cover stone was newly installed; therefore, the pagoda would seem to have undergone significant changes in size and structure compared to previous periods. Consequently, the actual structure of the original wooden pagoda at Hwangnyongsa Temple should be understood in terms of the changes in large Buddhist pagodas built in East Asia at that time, and the technical lineage should start with the large Buddhist pagodas of the Baekje dynasty, which were influenced by the Northern dynasty of China. Furthermore, based on the archeological data obtained from the analysis of the images of the nine-story rock-carved pagoda depicted on the Rock-carved Buddhas in Tapgok Valley at Namsan Mountain in Gyeongju, and the gilt-bronze rail fragments excavated from the lecture hall at the site of Hwangnyongsa Temple, the wooden pagoda would appear to have originally been an octagonal nine-story pagoda with a dual structure, rather than a simple rectangular wooden structure.

Soil Classification of Paddy Soils by Soil Taxonomy (미국신분류법(美國新分類法)에 의(依)한 답토양의 분류(分類)에 관한 연구)

  • Joo, Yeong-Hee;Shin, Yong-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 1979
  • According to Soil Taxonomy which has been developed over the past 20 years in the soil conservation service of the U. S. D. A, Soils in Korea are classified. This system is well suited for the classification of the most of soils. But paddy field soils have some difficulties in classification because Soil Taxonomy states no proposals have yet been developed for classifying artificially irrigated soils. This paper discusses some problems in the application of Taxonomy and suggestes the classification of paddy field soils in Korea. Following is the summary of the paper. 1. Anthro aquic, Aquic Udipsamments : The top soils of these soils are saturated with irrigated water at some time of year and have mottles of low chroma(2 or less) more than 50cm of the soil surface. (Ex. Sadu, Geumcheon series) 2. Anthroaquic Udipsamments : These sails are like Anthroaquic, Aquic Udipsamments except for the mottles of low chroma within 50cm of the soil surface. (Ex. Baegsu series) 3. Halic Psammaquents : These soils contain enough salts as distributed in the profile that they interfere with the growth of most crop plants and located on the coastal dunes. The water table fluctuates with the tides. (Ex. Nagcheon series) 4. Anthroaquic, Aquic Udifluvents : They have some mottles that have chroma of 2 or less in more than 50cm of the surface. The upper horizon is saturated with irrigated water at sometime. (Ex. Maryeong series) 5. Anthro aquic Udifluvents : These soils are saturated with irrigated water at some time of year and have mottles of low chroma(2 or less) within 50cm of the surface soils. (Ex. Haenggog series) 6. Fluventic Haplaquepts : These soils have a content of organic carbon that decreases irregularly with depth and do not have an argillic horizon in any part of the pedon. Since ground water occur on the surface or near the surface, they are dominantly gray soils in a thick mineral regolith. (Ex Baeggu, Hagseong series) 7. Fluventic Thapto-Histic Haplaquepts : These soils have a buried organic matter layer and the upper boundary is within 1m of the surface. Other properties are same as Fluventic Haplaquepts. (Ex. Gongdeog, Seotan series) 8. Fluventic Aeric Haplaquepts : These soils have a horizon that has chroma too high for Fluventic Haplaquepts. The higher chroma is thought to indicate either a shorter period of saturation of the whole soils with water or some what deeper ground water than in the Fluventic Haplaquepts. The correlation of color with soil drainage classes is imperfect. (Ex. Mangyeong, Jeonbug series) 9. Fluventic Thapto-Histic Aeric Haplaquepts : These soils are similar to Fluventic Thapto Histic Haplaquepts except for the deeper ground water. (Ex. Bongnam series) 10. Fluventic Aeric Sulfic Haplaquepts : These soils are similar to Fluventic Aeric Haplaquepts except for the yellow mottles and low pH (<4.0) in some part between 50 and 150cm of the surface. (Ex. Deunggu series) 11. Fluventic Sulfaquepts : These soils are extremely acid and toxic to most plant. Their horizons are mostly dark gray and have yellow mottles of iron sulfate with in 50cm of the soil surface. They occur mainly in coastal marshes near the mouth of rivers. (Ex. Bongrim, Haecheog series) 12. Fluventic Aeric Sulfaquepts : They have a horizon that has chroma too high for Fluventic Sulfaquepts. Other properties are same as Fluventic Sulfaquepts. (Ex. Gimhae series) 13. Anthroaquic Fluvaquentic Eutrochrepts : These soils have mottles of low chroma in more than 50cm of the surface due to irrigated water. The base saturation is 60 percent or more in some subhroizon that is between depth of 25 and 75cm below the surface. (Ex. Jangyu, Chilgog series) 14. Anthroaquic Dystric Fluventic Eutrochrepts : These soils are similar to Anthroaquic Fluvaquentic Eutrochrepts except for the low chroma within 50cm of the surface. (Ex. Weolgog, Gyeongsan series) 15. Anthroaquic Fluventic Dystrochrepts : These soils have mottles that have chroma of 2 or less within 50cm of the soil surface due to artificial irrigation. They have lower base saturation (<60 percert) in all subhorizons between depths of 25 and 75cm below the soil surface. (Ex. Gocheon, Bigog series) 16. Anthro aquic Eutrandepts : These soils are similar to Anthroaquic Dystric Fluventic Eutrochrepts except for lower bulk density in the horizon. (Ex. Daejeong series) 17. Anthroaquic Hapludalfs : These soils' have a surface that is saturated with irrigated water at some time and have chroma of 2 or less in the matrix and higher chroma of mottles within 50cm of the surface. (Ex. Hwadong, Yongsu series) 18. Anthro aquic, Aquic Hapludalfs : These soils are similar to Anthro aquic Hapludalfs except for the matrix that has chroma 2 or less and higher chroma of mottles in more than 50cm of the surface. (Ex. Geugrag, Deogpyeong se ries)

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Characteristics and classification of paddy soils on the Gimje-Mangyeong plains (김제만경평야(金堤萬頃平野)의 답토양특성(沓土壤特性)과 그 분류(分類)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Shin, Yong Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.1-38
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    • 1972
  • This study, designed to establish a classification system of paddy soils and suitability groups on productivity and management of paddy land based on soil characteristics, has been made for the paddy soils on the Gimje-Mangyeong plains. The morphological, physical and chemical properties of the 15 paddy soil series found on these plains are briefly as follows: Ten soil series (Baeggu, Bongnam, Buyong, Gimje, Gongdeog, Honam, Jeonbug, Jisan, Mangyeong and Suam) have a B horizon (cambic B), two soil series (Geugrag and Hwadong) have a Bt horizon (argillic B), and three soil series (Gwanghwal, Hwagye and Sindab) have no B or Bt horizons. Uniquely, both the Bongnam and Gongdeog series contain a muck layer in the lower part of subsoil. Four soil series (Baeggu, Gongdeog, Gwanghwal and Sindab) generally are bluish gray and dark gray, and eight soil series (Bongnam, Buyong, Gimje, Honam, Jeonbug, Jisan, Mangyeong and Suam) are either gray or grayish brown. Three soil series (Geugrag, Hwadong and Hwagye), however, are partially gleyed in the surface and subsurface, but have a yellowish brown to brown subsoil or substrata. Seven soil series (Bongnam, Buyong, Geugrag, Gimje, Gongdeog, Honam and Hwadong) are of fine clayey texture, three soil series (Baeggu, Jeonbug and Jisan) belong to fine loamy and fine silty, three soil series (Gwanghwal, Mangyeong and Suam) to coarse loamy and coarse silty, and two soil series (Hwagye and Sindab) to sandy and sandy skeletal texture classes. The carbon content of the surface soil ranges from 0.29 to 2.18 percent, mostly 1.0 to 2.0 percent. The total nitrogen content of the surface soil ranges from 0.03 to 0.25 percent, showing a tendency to decrease irregularly with depth. The C/N ratio in the surface soil ranges from 4.6 to 15.5, dominantly from 8 to 10. The C/N ratio in the subsoil and substrata, however, has a wide range from 3.0 to 20.25. The soil reaction ranges from 4.5 to 8.0. All soil series except the Gwanghwal and Mangyeong series belong to the acid reaction class. The cation exchange cpacity in the surface soil ranges from 5 to 13 milliequivalents per 100 grams of soil, and in all the subsoil and substrata except those of a sandy texture, from 10 to 20 milliequivalents per 100 grams of soil. The base saturation of the soil series except Baeggu and Gongdeog is more than 60 percent. The active iron content of the surface soil ranges from 0.45 to 1.81 ppm, easily-reduceable manganese from 15 to 148 ppm, and available silica from 36 to 366 ppm. The iron and manganese are generally accumulated in a similar position (10 to 70cm. depth), and silica occurs in the same horizon with that of iron and manganese, or in the deeper horizons in the soil profile. The properties of each soil series extending from the sea shore towards the continental plains change with distance and they are related with distance (x) as follows: y(surface soil, clay content) = $$-0.2491x^2+6.0388x-1.1251$$ y(subsoil or subsurface soil, clay content) = $$-0.31646x^2+7.84818x-2.50008$$ y(surface soil, organic carbon content) = $$-0.0089x^2+0.2192x+0.1366$$ y(subsoil or subsurface soil, pH) = $$-0.0178x^2-0.04534x+8.3531$$ Soil profile development, soil color, depositional and organic layers, soil texture and soil reaction etc. are thought to be the major items that should be considered in a paddy soil classification. It was found that most of the soils belonging to the moderately well, somewhat poorly and poorly drained fine and medium textured soils and moderately deep fine textured soils over coarse materials, produce higher paddy yields in excess of 3,750 kg/ha. and most of the soils belonging to the coarse textured soils, well drained fine textured soils, moderately deep medium textured soils over coarse materials and saline soils, produce yields less than 3,750kg/ha. Soil texture of the profile, available soil depth, salinity and gleying of the surface and subsurface soils etc. seem to be the major factors determining rice yields, and these factors are considered when establishing suitability groups for paddy land. The great group, group, subgroup, family and series are proposed for the classification categories of paddy soils. The soil series is the basic category of the classification. The argillic horizon (Bt horizon) and cambic horizon (B horizon) are proposed as two diagnostic horizons of great group level for the determination of the morphological properties of soils in the classification. The specific soil characteristics considered in the group and subgroup levels are soil color of the profile (bluish gray, gray or yellowish brown), salinity (salic), depositonal (fluvic) and muck layers (mucky), and gleying of surface and subsurface soils (gleyic). The family levels are classified on the basis of soil reaction, soil texture and gravel content of the profile. The definitions are given on each classification category, diagnostic horizons and specific soil characteristics respectively. The soils on these plains are classified in eight subgroups and examined under the existing classification system. Further, the suitability group, can be divided into two major categories, suitability class and subclass. The soils within a suitability class are similar in potential productivity and limitation on use and management. Class 1 through 4 are distinguished from each other by combination of soil characteristics. Subclasses are divided from classes that have the same kind of dominant limitations such as slope(e), wettness(w), sandy(s), gravels(g), salinity(t) and non-gleying of the surface and subsurface soils(n). The above suitability classes and subclasses are examined, and the definitions are given. Seven subclasses are found on these plains for paddy soils. The classification and suitability group of 15 paddy soil series on the Gimje-Mangyeong plains may now be tabulated as follows.

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