• Title, Summary, Keyword: Thinking

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Evaluation Factor related to Thinking Skills and Strategies based on Mathematical Thinking Process (수학적 사고 과정 관련의 평가 요소 탐색)

  • 황혜정
    • The Mathematical Education
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.253-263
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    • 2001
  • Developing mathematical thinking skills is one of the most important goals of school mathematics. In particular, recent performance based on assessment has focused on the teaching and learning environment in school, emphasizing student's self construction of their learning and its process. Because of this reason, people related to mathematics education including math teachers are taught to recognize the fact that the degree of students'acquisition of mathematical thinking skills and strategies(for example, inductive and deductive thinking, critical thinking, creative thinking) should be estimated formally in math class. However, due to the lack of an evaluation tool for estimating the degree of their thinking skills, efforts at evaluating student's degree of mathematics thinking skills and strategy acquisition failed. Therefore, in this paper, mathematical thinking was studied, and using the results of study as the fundamental basis, mathematical thinking process model was developed according to three types of mathematical thinking - fundamental thinking skill, developing thinking skill, and advanced thinking strategies. Finally, based on the model, evaluation factors related to essential thinking skills such as analogy, deductive thinking, generalization, creative thinking requested in the situation of solving mathematical problems were developed.

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Analysis about the Initial Process of Learning Transfer in Computational Thinking Education (Computational Thinking 교육에서 나타난 초기 학습전이에 대한 분석)

  • Kim, Soohwan
    • The Journal of Korean Association of Computer Education
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2017
  • The Goal of SW education is to improve computational thinking. Especially, non computer majors need to apply computational thinking to their problem solving in their fields after computational thinking class. In this paper, we verified what factors affect the improvement of computational thinking through mixed research method after teaching computational thinking to non major students. Also, we analysed the characteristics of initial learning transfer of computational thinking, and establish the reason about he validity and justification for non major in SW education. The result shows learning satisfaction, learning transfer motivation, and self-CT efficacy affect the perception about improvement of computational thinking. Also, we found that there is application of computational thinking was coming up with problem solving process because the initial learning transfer process of computational thinking has characteristics about concepts and practices of it in programming steps. The effectiveness and learning transfer process of computational thinking for non majors will give the validity and justification to teach SW education for all students.

The Effects of Reflective Thinking promotion strategies using Thinking maps on Reflective thinking, Science academic achievement and Scientific attitudes of Elementary school students (생각 지도를 이용한 반성적 사고 촉진 전략이 초등학생의 반성적 사고, 과학 학업성취도 및 과학적 태도에 미치는 영향)

  • Baek, Dong-Guk;So, Keum Hyun
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.219-237
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to improve the reflective thinking education so far and to improve the reflective thinking, academic achievement and scientific attitude of elementary school students. Two sixth grade classes were divided into two groups. Experimental group(13 boys, 11 girls) was treated with elementary science class using Reflective Thinking promotion strategies using Thinking maps and comparison group(14 boys, 10 girls) was treated with traditional way. The results of this study were as follows: First, reflective thinking strategy program using thinking maps has positively influenced the reflective thinking of elementary school students. Second, reflective thinking strategy program using thinking maps did not significantly affect elementary school students' academic achievement. Third, reflective thinking strategy program using thinking maps positively influenced elementary school students' scientific attitudes. Fourth, elementary school students' satisfaction with reflective thinking strategy programs using thinking maps was generally high. Most of students felt that this program was useful to learn, and to be interest in science. Based on these results, reflective thinking promotion strategies using thinking maps may be effective for reflective thinking and scientific attitudes of elementary school students.

A Basic Research on the Method for Applying Mapping Technique to Basic Design Education (기초디자인 교육에 있어서 매핑기법의 활용 방법에 관한 기초연구)

  • Prak, Eung-Bum;Hong, Jung-Pyo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Emotion and Sensibility Conference
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    • pp.67-69
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    • 2007
  • Customary way of thinking may be the most major stumbling block to creative thinking in basic design education in the information and network era. The basic design education was used to be based on personal experience or subjective ideas, but these days, the role of divergent thinking and convergent thinking which provide the basis of creative techniques has been closely examined. Going beyond a divergent thinking and directly starting a convergent thinking means bypassing the design process of the existing basic design education. Though preceding studies considered various creative techniques apart from divergent thinking and convergent thinking, this study presumed that complementing the most typical methods of divergent thinking and convergent thinking may result in the same basic design education effect. So, what approach must be used to the design? The way of thinking needs to change. For that, we try to apply the mapping to basic design education. It must encompass interactive thinking which includes immaterial elements and communication. Divergent thinking can begin with the accurate understanding of current state, and the created current state resolves the design process that needs to be a certain thing. The purpose of this study was to present the method for applying the mapping techniques to basic design education based on divergent and convergent thinking which provides the basis of creative ideas.

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Prior Thinking and Posterior Thinking Formation of Children and Adolescents In Sinking Objects (물체의 수중낙하에 대한 아동 및 청소년의 사전생각과 사후생각 형성)

  • 김헤라;유안진
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.39-51
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate prior thinking and posterior thinking formation of children and adolescents in sinking objects. The subjects consisted of twenty eight, 9- and 11-year old children and fourteen, 13-year old adolescents selected from one elementary school and two middle schools. The transcripts were analyzed to classify children and adolescents'prior thinking and posterior thinking frequency, reasoning response(evidence based response, idea based response) and reasoning method(valid method, invalid method). The data were analyzed by frequency, percentile, mean and standard deviation,1 test, ANOVA. Major findings were as followings: 1. Children and adolescents have already had prior thinking in sinking objects. 2. Children and adolescents applies their prior thinking to posterior thinking formation process. 3. There were significant differences in children and adolescent'posterior thinking formation process, especially choices in objects and reasoning methods depending on age. 4. There were significant differences in children and adolescents'reasoning response depending on presented evidences types.5. Through the experimentation, children and adolescents'prior thinking was different from their posterior thinking. There were significant differences in differences between the prior thinking and posterior thinking depending on age.

Critical Thinking in Nursing Science: A Literature Review (간호학적 비판적 사고능력에 대한 문헌고찰)

  • Shin, Su-Jin;Jung, Duk-Yoo
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.117-128
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: The purposes of this study were as follows; 1) To review the definitions of critical thinking from various perspectives, 2) To examine the critical thinking measurements throughout nursing research, and 3) To review the nursing studies with regard to critical thinking. Methods: This study was a literature review with regard to the critical thinking in nursing in aspects of conceptual meaning, measurements, and research. Results: The definition of critical thinking in nursing included decision making in clinical setting, inference with logical construct to increase nursing quality, interpretation in the context, and evaluation. The critical thinking was a core concept, which meant not only simple nursing process, but included decision making ability. The critical thinking has been conceptualized by both critical thinking disposition and skill. However, there was no nursing specified critical thinking measurement. Critical thinking research has been conducted to describe critical thinking disposition and critical thinking, to determine relationships between critical thinking and clinical competency, and to evaluate the effectiveness of educational programs. Conclusion: The instruments for measuring critical thinking disposition and skill that contain cultural difference and clinical specificity need to be developed to measure critical thinking and increase it.

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A Study on the Algebraic Notations and Algebraic Thinking (대수적 사고와 대수 기호에 관한 고찰)

  • 김성준
    • Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.229-246
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    • 2002
  • In this paper, we start with the question "what is algebraic thinking\ulcorner". The problem is that the algebraic thinking is not exactly defined. We consider algebraic thinking from the various perspectives. But in the discussion relating to the definition of algebraic thinking, we verify that there is the algebraic notations in the core of algebraic thinking. So we device algebraic notations into the six categories, and investigate these examples from the school mathematics. In order to investigate this relation of algebraic thinking and algebraic notations, we present 'the algebraic thinking process analysis model' from Frege' idea. In this model, there are three components of algebraic notations which interplays; sense, expression, denotapion. Thus many difficulties of algebraic thinking can be explained by this model. We suppose that the difficulty in the algebraic thinking may be caused by the discord of these three components. And through the transformation of conceptual frame, we can explain the dynamics of algebraic thinking. Also, we present examples which show these difficulties and dynamics of algebraic thinking. As a result of these analysis, we conclude that algebraic thinking can be explained through the semiotic aspects of algebraic notations.

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A Study on the Relationships between Critical Thinking Disposition and Critical Thinking Skill in Clinical Nurses (간호사의 비판적 사고 성향과 비판적 사고술에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Eun Joo
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.31-40
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: The descriptive-correlational study was undertaken in order to investigate the relationships between critical thinking disposition and critical thinking skill in clinical nurses. Methods: A convenience sample of 50 registered nurses was obtained from E University Hospital. The instruments used in this study were general characteristics, California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) and California Critical Thinking Skill Test(CCTST) developed by Facione & Facione (1994). The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Duncan test and Pearson's Correlation Coefficient with SPSS 12.0 Program. Results: 1) There was a statistically significant difference in critical thinking disposition according to age (F=3.23, p=.03) and educational background (F=39.07, p=.00). 2) There was a statistically significant difference in critical thinking skill according to age (F=3.40, p=.02), educational background(F=32.51, p=.00), and period of professional nursing experience(F=3.56, p=.02). Conclusion: A significant positive correlation between critical thinking disposition and critical thinking skill was found(r=.68, p=.00). Critical thinking disposition and critical thinking skill according to age and educational background had statistically significant differences. Therefore, it is needed to emphasize the necessity of continuous education and training of nurses which prepare their critical thinking ability.

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Serial Dual Mediating Effects of Preschoolers' Executive Functions and Counterfactual Thinking on Relationship between Maternal Reflective Functioning and Preschoolers' Higher-order Thinking (어머니의 반영기능과 유아의 상위수준 사고 간의 관계에서 유아의 실행기능과 반사실적 사고의 순차적 이중매개효과)

  • Lee, Yoonjeong;Lim, Jiyoung
    • Family and Environment Research
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.131-148
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    • 2020
  • This study examined the dual mediating effects of preschoolers' executive function and counterfactual thinking in the relationship between maternal reflective functioning and preschoolers' higher-order thinking. Participants included 293 preschoolers and their mothers in Daegu city and Gyeongsang province. The mothers completed questionnaires regarding their reflective functioning, preschoolers' executive function, and creative thinking. Teachers completed questionnaires regarding preschoolers' critical thinking and caring thinking. Preschoolers' counterfactual thinking was measured by interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis with SPSS 25.0. Path analysis and bootstrapping were used with AMOS 25.0 program. Also, specific indirect effect were analyzed using AMOS user-defined estimand function. The primary results of this study are as follows. Maternal reflective functioning had an indirect effect on preschoolers' critical thinking and caring thinking through preschoolers' executive function and counterfactual thinking; however, maternal reflective functioning had no indirect effect on preschoolers' creative thinking through preschoolers' executive function and counterfactual thinking. This study revealed that maternal reflective functioning and preschoolers' executive function and counterfactual thinking need to be considered simultaneously to explain the level of preschoolers' higher-order thinking. The results highlight the dual mediating effects of preschoolers' executive function and counterfactual thinking in the relationship between maternal reflective functioning and preschoolers' higher-order thinking.

Divergent and Convergent Thinking : The Connection of Right and Left-brain (확산적 사고와 수렴적 사고: 좌뇌와 우뇌의 연관성)

  • Lee, Hong
    • Knowledge Management Research
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2006
  • What is the role of right and left-brain in creative thinking? The current study is to address this question. Two empirical studies were performed to answer the question. First one is regarding the divergent thinking and right-brain connection. Second one is regrading the convergent thinking and left-brain connection. Empirical study showed that both of divergent and convergent thinking were asymmetrically related to creativity. Divergent thinking was connected to right-brain and convergent thinking was connected to left brain.

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