• Title, Summary, Keyword: Thai males

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Knowledge regarding factors that influence fertility in Thai reproductive-age population living in urban area: A cross-sectional study

  • Nakhon, Sarapan Na;Limvorapitux, Pawan;Vichinsartvichai, Patsama
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.38-43
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    • 2018
  • Objective: To survey knowledge about the factors that influence fertility in a reproductive-age population living in an urban area. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire-based survey among both males and females aged 18-45 years living in the Bangkok metropolitan area. Results: The mean age of the participants was $26.8{\pm}7.2years$ (male, 41.9%; female, 58.1%). Of the participants, 53.1% had an undergraduate degree and 57.1% were single. Only one-fifth of the participants correctly identified the age when fecundity declines in male and female, the definition of infertility, and the period during the menstrual cycle with the highest chance of pregnancy. Approximately three-fourths of the participants correctly identified that cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and sexually transmitted infections affect fertility. Conclusion: A considerable knowledge gap about the factors that influence fertility was identified in reproductive-age individuals in an urban area of Thailand. This issue should be urgently addressed by promoting fertility awareness through education, discussions about social perceptions regarding fertility, and reliable sources of knowledge.

Prevalence and Alternative Treatment of Head-Lice Infestation in Rural Thailand: A Community-Based Study

  • Singhasivanon, On-uma;Lawpoolsri, Saranath;Mungthin, Mathirut;Yimsamran, Surapon;Soonthornworasiri, Ngamphol;Krudsood, Srivicha
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.57 no.5
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    • pp.499-504
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    • 2019
  • Head-lice infestation, pediculosis capitis, remains a public-health burden in many countries. The widely used first-line pediculicides and alternative treatments are often too costly for use in poor socio-economic settings. Ivermectin has been considered an alternate treatment for field practice. This study was composed of 2 parts, a cross-sectional survey and an intervention study. The main objectives were to determine the prevalence and potential factors associated with head-lice infestation, and to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral ivermectin administration. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 890 villagers in rural areas along Thai-Myanmar border. Females with infestations were eligible for the intervention study, and 181 participated in the intervention study. A post-treatment survey was conducted to assess acceptance of ivermectin as a treatment choice. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and a generalized-estimation-equation model adjusted for cluster effect. The study revealed the prevalence of head-lice infestation was 50% among females and only 3% among males. Age stratification showed a high prevalence among females aged <20 years, and among 50% of female school-children. The prevalence was persistent among those with a history of infestation. The major risk factors were residing in a setting with other infected cases, and sharing a hair comb. The study also confirmed that ivermectin was safe and effective for field-based practice. It was considered a preferable treatment option. In conclusion, behavior-change communication should be implemented to reduce the observed high prevalence of head-lice infestation. Ivermectin may be an alternative choice for head-lice treatment, especially in remote areas.

Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer in Thailand

  • Poomphakwaen, Kirati;Promthet, Supannee;Suwanrungruang, Krittika;Kamsa-ard, Siriporn;Wiangnon, Surapon
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.6105-6109
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    • 2015
  • Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for colorectal cancer in the Thai population. Materials and Methods: A cohort study was carried out in Khon Kaen, Thailand, including 71 cases of histologically confirmed CRC patients among 19,861 participants, aged 30-69 years, who were recruited for a cohort study during the period 1990-2001. Participants were followed-up until 31 December, 2013. To identify factors associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer, hazard ratios were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard regression. Results: No environmental variables could be shown to be significantly related to the risk of CRC. Although in our sample, CRC was more prevalent among males, ex-smokers, and those who drank alcohol beverages ${\geq}50gram/day$, but we could not demonstrate significantly associations (HRmale= 1.67, 95% CI, 0.80-3.49, HR ex-smokers = 1.34, 95% CI, 0.52-3.46, and HRalc ${\geq}50=1.08$, 95% CI, 0.43-2.71). Individuals within the sample with a family history of cancer, working hour >8 hours per day, and current-smokers appeared to have decrease risk of CRC, but again these relationship could not be shown to be significantly associated (HRfam cancer= 0.96, 95% CI, 0.85-1.09, HRwork>8= 0.84, 95% CI, 0.36-1.93, and HRcurrent-smoker = 0.51, 95% CI, 0.18-1.38). Conclusions: We found no evidence of environmental factors effecting the risk of CRC. There is a need for further research to determine why factors identified risk in other populations appear to not be associated with CRC risk in Thais.

Histopathology Analysis of Benign Colorectal Diseases and Colorectal Cancer in Hatyai Hospital, Songkhla, Thailand

  • Kotepui, Manas;Piwkham, Duangjai;Songsri, Apiram;Charoenkijkajorn, Lek
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2667-2671
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    • 2013
  • Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and also ranks as the fifth-leading malignancy and death in Thailand. This study aimed to provide a present outlook of colorectal diseases among Thai patients with special emphasis on CRC in Hatyai, Songkhla, southern Thailand. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study covered ten year data of CRC, benign colorectal tumors and non-colorectal tumors from the Department of Pathology in Hatyai Hospital, Songkhla, Thailand, between years 2003-2012. Incidence rates based on age, gender, ten year incidence trends, and distribution of histopathological characteristics of patients were calculated and demonstrated. Results: Out of 730 biopsies, 100 cases were benign colorectal tumors, 336 were CRC and 294 were non-colorectal tumors. Colorectal tumors (both benign and CRC) (60.1%) were more common than non-colorectal tumors (39.9%). CRC (77.1%) were more common than benign colorectal tumors (32.9%). Colorectal tumors were mainly found in patients aged over sixty whereas non-colorectal and benign colorectal tumors were found in those under sixty (P=0.01). sAmong CRC, adenocarcinoma contributed about 97.3% of all cases with well differentiated tumors being the most frequent (56.9%). Both benign colorectal tumors and CRC were more commonly found in males (63%) than females (37%). The incidence trend of CRC demonstrated increase from 2003-2012. Conclusions: The incidence of CRC increased in Hatyai from 2003-2012. CRC tends to be more common in people older than sixty, thus, screening programs, cost-effective analysis of treatment modalities, and treatment protocols for the elderly should be examined. Proper implementation of preventive measures such as changing lifestyle factors might enhance control of colorectal disease.

Lack of Association between an XRCC1 Gene Polymorphism and Colorectal Cancer Survival in Thailand

  • Siewchaisakul, Pallop;Suwanrungruang, Krittika;Poomphakwaen, Kirati;Wiangnon, Surapon;Promthet, Supannee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2055-2060
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    • 2016
  • Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of death worldwide and in Thailand. The X-ray repair cross-complementary protein 1 (XRCC1) is required for efficient DNA repair. The effects of this gene on survival in colorectal cancer remain controversial and have not been reported in Thailand. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the XRCC1 gene with survival of colorectal cancer patients in a Thai population. Materials and Methods: Data and blood samples were collected from 255 newly diagnosed and pathologically confirmed CRC patients who were recruited during the period 2002 to 2006 and whose vital status was followed up until 31 October, 2014. Real-time PCR-HRM was used for genotype identification. The Kaplan-Meier method, the log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard regression were used to estimate cumulative survival curves and compare various survival distributions and adjusted hazard ratios. Results: Most of the cases were males, and the median age was 55 years. The median survival time was 2.43 years. The cumulative 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10 year survival rates were 76.70%, 39.25%, 26.50%, 16.60% and 3.56%, respectively. After adjustment, female gender, ages 50-59 and ${\geq}60years$, tumour stage III+IV, a signet-ring cell carcinoma, and poor differentiation had significant associations with increased risk of CRC death. While the XRCC1 Arg/Arg homozygote appeared to be a risk factor for CRC death, the association was not significant. Conclusions: The genetic variant in the XRCC1 may not be associated with the survival of CRC patients in Thailand. Further studies are needed to verify our findings.

Age-Standardized Incidence Rates and Survival of Osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand

  • Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun;Phanphaisarn, Areerak;Pongnikorn, Donsuk;Daoprasert, Karnchana;Teeyakasem, Pimpisa;Chaiyawat, Parunya;Katruang, Narisara;Settakorn, Jongkolnee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3455-3458
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    • 2016
  • Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Recent worldwide average incidences of osteosarcoma in people aged 0 to 24 years were 4.3 and 3.4 per million, respectively, with a ratio of 1.4:1. However, data on the incidence of osteosarcoma in Thailand are limited. This study analyzed the incidence of osteosarcoma in the upper northern region of Thailand, with a population of 5.85 million people (8.9% of the total Thai population), using data for the years 1998 to 2012, obtained from the Chiang Mai Cancer Registry (CMCR) at Chiang Mai University Hospital and the Lampang Cancer Registry (LCR) at the Lampang Cancer Hospital, a total of 144 cases. The overall annual incidence of osteosarcoma was 1.67 per million with a male:female ratio of 1.36:1. Incidences by age group (male and female) at 0 to 24, 25 to 59 and over 60 years were 3.5 (3.9 and 3.0), 0.8 (0.9 and 0.6), and 0.7 (0.8 and 0.5), respectively. The peak incidence occurred at 15 to 19 years for males and at 10 to 14 years for females. The median survival time was 18 months with a 5-year survival rate of 43%. Neither the age group nor the 5-year interval period of treatment was significantly correlated with survival during the 15-year period studied.

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among School Children in Pyin Oo Lwin and Naung Cho, Upper Myanmar

  • Thai, Thi Lam;Jun, Hojong;Park, Seo-Hye;Le, Huong Giang;Lee, Jinyoung;Ahn, Seong Kyu;Kang, Jung-Mi;Myint, Moe Kyaw;Lin, Khin;Sohn, Woon-Mok;Nam, Ho-Woo;Na, Byoung-Kuk;Kim, Tong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.57 no.3
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    • pp.303-308
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    • 2019
  • Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that can cause toxoplasmosis in a wide range of warm-blooded animals including humans. In this study, we analyzed seroprevalence of T. gondii among 467 school children living in the rural areas of Pyin Oo Lwin and Naung Cho, Myanmar. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii among school children was 23.5%; 22.5% of children were positive for T. gondii IgG, 0.4% of children were positive for T. gondii IgM, and 0.6% of children were positive for both T. gondii IgG and IgM. Geographical factors did not significantly affect the seroprevalence frequency between Pyin Oo Lwin and Naung Cho, Myanmar. No significant difference was found between males (22.2%) and females (25.0%). The overall seroprevalence among school children differed by ages (10 years old [13.6%], 11-12 years old [19.8%], 13-14 years old [24.6%], and 15-16 years old [28.0%]), however, the result was not significant. Polymerase chain reaction analysis for T. gondii B1 gene for IgG-positive and IgM-positive blood samples were negative, indicating no direct evidence of active infection. These results collectively suggest that T. gondii infection among school children in Myanmar was relatively high. Integrated and improved strategies including reinforced education on toxoplasmosis should be implemented to prevent and control T. gondii infection among school children in Myanmar.

Effect of gender on the pharmacokinetics and metabolite formation of sulfamethazine in the rabbit (토끼의 성차가 sulfamethazine의 약동학 및 대사산물 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Yun, Hyo-in;Park, Il-hyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.35-39
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    • 1992
  • SMZ is one of the most widely used antibacterial agents in veterinary medicine. It is also used as a growth promotant in many species of domestic animals There are marked species differences in its metabolism and pharmacokinetics. However, its pharmacokinetic and metabolism in rabbits. which are ragarded not only as good laboratorty animals hut also as good economical animals in its own, are lacking. Sex-differences in drug metabolism are well recognized in wide range of animal species including rats. Males are known to he more active than females. It is also know that there are Significant differences in the direction of metabolic pathways. But recently, female goats are reported to be more active in the metabolie capacity of SMZ than the other sex by Dutch researchers at Utrecht. Therefore, it is not easy to make general conclusicn of having higher SMZ metal-die capacity in the male compared to the opposite sex in every animal species. In this regard, the study on metabolic pattern of SMZ in rabbits, which are regarded as hervivorous, is of interest because the dietary habbits of rabbit are comparable to thai of goal, NEW Zealand White rabbits of each sex were given SMZ(35mg/kg) as a bolus injection into the marginalean, vein in order to study its pharmacokinetic profiles(using plasma) anc metabolic pattem(24h urine) as specified in the methods anc materials. 1. In the rabbit, the major metabolic pathway of SMZ was the acetylation(the formation of $N_4AcSMZ$). There were hydroxylation pathways(50HSMZ, $6CH_2OHSMZ$) as well, in the metabolism of SMZ in the rabbit, but minor pathways. 2. No sex differences in the metabolic direction of SMZ and its metabolites formation were found from the urinary excreted metabolites of SMZ out of 24h collected urine. 3. The concentration-time curves of SMZ(35mg/kg, iv) in the plasma compartment were fitted to a one-compartment open model when using a computer program(NONLIN). There was also no difference in the pharmacokinetic pattem of SMZ between two sexes. 4. The emergence of $N_4AcSMZ$ metabolized from SMZ was very fast in the plasma of the rabbit The elimination of $N_4AcSMZ$ was prolonged as compared to that of the parent drug Vie found no sex difference in the elimination pattern of $N_4AcSMZ$ in the rabbit.

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