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Sochungyong-tang, Tradititional Korean Medicine, Suppresses Th2 Lineage Development (소청룡탕(小靑龍湯)이 분화된 Th1 cell 및 Th2 cell cytokine profile에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Hyuk-Joon;Hong, Moo-Chang;Shin, Min-Kyu;Bae, Hyun-Su
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.380-388
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    • 2005
  • In this study, the immunological effect of a traditional Korea herbal medicine, Sochungyong-tang (SCRT) that has been widely used for the treatment of various immunological disorders including allergic asthma in Korea, was examined in vitro. In our previous study demonstrated that SCRT decreases the expression of IL-4 mRNA, that plays pivotal role in Th2 cell development, while increases $IFN-{\gamma}{\tilde{a}}expression$, which is one of the key cytokines for Th1 lineage development in Th0 condition. That study strongly implies that SCRT can correct Th2 dominant condition directly affecting to the CD4+ T cell development. Present study designated to further evaluate the SCRT on helper T cell development by monitoring Th1/Th2 specific cytokine secretion patterns in artificially induced Th1 or Th2 polarized condition. The results demonstrated that Th2 cells were dramatically under-populated in Th2 driven condition with SCRT treatment, while Th1 cells were not altered in Th1 skewed condition. Furthermore, under Th2-skewed conditions the levels of and IL-4 were considerably decreased with SCRT treatment. However, the expression of GATA-3, a transcription factor that plays pivotal role in Th2 lineage programming, was not changed with SCRT, suggesting that the suppression of Th2 cell development by SCRT was not mediated by GATA-3. Present study implies that the effect on CD4+ T cell may be the one of key pharmacological effect point for treating IgE medicated allergic asthma by SCRT. These results also suggest that SCRT might be desirable agent for the correction of Th2 dominant pathological disorders.

Effects of Thermotherapy on Th1/Th2 Cells in Esophageal Cancer Patients Treated with Radiotherapy

  • Hong, Mei;Jiang, Zao;Zhou, Ying-Feng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.2359-2362
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    • 2014
  • Background: To investigate the effects of double radiofrequency hyperthermia on Th1/Th2 cells in esophageal cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: 22 patients with esophageal cancer were divided into a radiotherapy group (10 cases) and a combined group (double radiofrequency hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy group, 12 cases). Both groups received conventional radiotherapy using a cobalt-60 therapy apparatus (TD60-66Gy/30-33F). Patients in the combined group also underwent double radiofrequency hyperthermia (2F/W, 8-10F). Before and after treatment, Th1, Th2, Tc1 and Tc2 cells in peripheral blood were determined with flow cytometry. Results: In the radiotherapy group, Th1 cell contents before and after radiotherapy were $17.5{\pm}5.26%$ and $9.69{\pm}4.86%$, respectively, with a significant difference (p<0.01). The Th1/Th2 ratio was significantly decreased from $28.2{\pm}14.3$ to $16.5{\pm}10.4 $(p<0.01). In the combined group, Th1 cell content before radiotherapy was $15.9{\pm}8.18%$, and it increased to $18.6{\pm}8.84$ after radiotherapy (p>0.05), the Th1/Th2 ratio decreasing from $38.4{\pm}36.3$ to $28.1{\pm}24.0$ (p>0.05). Changes in Th2, Tc1 and Tc2 cell levels were not significant in the two groups before and after therapy (p>0.05). Conclusions: Double radiofrequency hyperthermia can promote the conversion from Th2 to Th1 cells, and regulate the balance of Th1/Th2 cells.

[ $(Th,U)O_2$ ] Pellets: Fabrication and Thermal Properties

  • Kang Ki Won;Yang Jae Ho;Kim Keon Sik;Song Kun Woo;Lee Chan Bock;Jung Youn Ho
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.299-308
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    • 2003
  • Fabrication technique of $(Th,U)O_2$ pellets has been investigated. Powder mixtures of $ThO_2\;and\;UO_2$ were milled in two different ways-dry and wet milling. Milled powder was compacted and sintered to $(Th,U)O_2$ pellets. The wet-milled powder leads to a $(Th,U)O_2$ pellet having a high sintered density and uniform distribution of U and Th, compared to the dry-milled powder. The sintered density of a $(Th,U)O_2$ pellet tends to decrease by increasing the content of $ThO_2$. The thermal conductivity of $ThO_2\;and\;(Th,U)O_2$ pellets was measured by the laser flash method. The thermal conductivity of the $ThO_2$ pellet is higher than that of the $UO_2$ pellet, and the thermal conductivities of $(Th,U)O_2$ pellets containing $65wt\%\;and\;35wt\%\;ThO_2$ pellets are lower than that of the $UO_2$ pellet.

A Study on the Waveform Analysis of Left KWAN Pulse Dignosis by the Pressure (단계별(段階別) 가압(加壓)에 따른 좌관부위(左關部位) 맥파(脈波) 변화(變化))

  • Kim, Gyeong-Cheol;Lee, Jeong-Won;Ryu, Kyeong-Ho;Kim, Jong-Hwan;Park, Ju-Yeon
    • The Journal of the Korean Medicine Diagnostics
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.19-35
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : In the study on the waveform analysis of radial artery pulse diagnosis, we need to establish fundamentals of contemporary pulse diagnosis research. To achieve certain experimental basis on traditional pulse diagnosis, we have to research the differences of pulse waveform according to pressure (in 5 level) and position (Chon, Gwan, Cheok in radial artery). As a first step, in present thesis, we tried to find the differences of pulse waveform according to pressure. Methods and Results : In this research, we analyzed seven parameters of the waveform at five levels of pressure. The parameters are E(so called 'energy', a representative of pulse strength), h1(height of percussion wave) and h2(height of subincisura). The results were as follows. 1. When we analyzed the change of the waveform according to pressure in the left Gwan, E, hl, h2 and A differed between 1st and 2nd grade, between 1st and 3rd grade, between 1st and 4th grade, between 1st and 5th grade, between 2nd and 3rd grade, between 2nd and 5th grade, between 3rd and 5th grade and between 4th and 5th grade in 95% confidence interval. 2. And t2, t4 differed between 1st and 2nd grade, between 1st and 5th grade, between 2nd and 4th grade, between 2nd and 4th grade, between 2nd and 5th grade, between 3rd and 4th grade, between 3rd and 5th grade and between 4th and 5th grade in 95% confidence interval. 3. W differed between 1st and 3rd grade, between 1st and 4th grade, between 2nd and 3rd grade, between 2nd and 4th grade, between 2nd and 5th grade, between 3rd and 4th grade, between 3rd and 5th grade, and between 4th and 5th grade in 95% confidence interval. 4. And h2/h1 differed between 1st and 4th grade, between 1st and 5th grade, between 2nd and 4th grade, between 2nd and 5th grade, between 3rd and 4th grade & between 3rd and 5th grade in 95% confidence interval. 5. There were differences between 1st and 2nd grade & between 2nd and 5th grade in the case of t4/t2 in 95% confidence interval. And there were differences between 1st and 5th grade, between 3rd and 4th grade, between 3rd and 5th grade & between 4th and 5th grade in the case of W/A in 95% confidence interval. And were differences between 1st and 2nd grade, between 2nd and 3rd grade, between 2nd and 4th grade, between 3rd and 4th grade, between 3rd and 5th grade & between 4th and 5th grade in the case of A/E in 95% confidence interval. Conclusions : As mentioned above, we conclude that the waveform analysis according to five grade pressure in the left Gwan shows the difference of waveform in each grade pressure.

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Effects of Anti-Asthma Agents on Cytokine and Prostaglandin Production in Ovalbumin-Sensitized Splenocytes

  • Won, Tae-Joon;Lee, Chan-Woo;Kwon, Seok-Joong;Lee, Do-Ik;Park, So-Young;Hwang, Kwang-Woo
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.388-394
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    • 2009
  • The cytokines which is produced by allergen-specific T helper (Th) cells play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Asthma is caused by exaggerated T-helper 2 (Th2)-based immune responses. It is suggested that controlling such Th2-based response is necessary for asthma therapy. The current therapies for asthma focus primarily on control of symptoms and suppression of inflammation, without affecting the underlying cause. So, we examined that anti-asthmatic drugs might have play a certain role in Th2/Th1 balance. Splenocytes isolated from ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice cultured with anti-asthmatic drugs. It is well known that Th2 and Th1 immune responses can balance one another, as Th2 mediators suppress Th1 responses and Th1 mediators similarly inhibit Th2 responses. But salmeterol inhibits both of Th1 and Th2 mediators, which salmeterol is a suppressor of immune responses not only a suppressor of Th2-based immune responses. Aminophylline is a weak suppressor of immune responses. But ipratropium and cromoglycate don't have any suppressor effect to Th2-driven responses. They only have suppressor effect to Th1 immune responses. Salmeterol, ipratropium, aminophylline, and cromoglycate augmented mRNA levels of CRTH2, EP2, and IP2 receptors in OVA-sensitized splenocytes. It is well known that the up-regulation of CRTH2 - $PGD_2$ receptor - results in restraint of eosinophil recruitment and that the increment of IP and EP2 - $PGI_2$ and $PGE_2$ receptor, respectively - may induce the accumulation of cAMP that decrease the effector function of T cells. Moreover salmeterol and cromoglycate increase the mRNA expression of $PGD_2$ synthase. These findings indicate that anti-asthma agents may alleviate the immunological responses that cause the asthmatic diseases.

A Clinical Study of Headache in 58 Cases (두통(頭痛)의 임상양상(臨床樣狀) 및 생체전기자율반응에 대(對)한 임상적(臨床的) 고찰(考察))

  • Lee Sang-Ryong;Kim Myung-Jin
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.103-122
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    • 2001
  • The clinical study was carried out the 58 patients with Headache who were treated in Department of Neuropsychiatry, College of Oriental Medicine, Dae Jeon University from 14 October 1999 to 15 October 2001. The results were summarized as follows. 1. The ratio of male and female was 15:43, 40s(36.2%) was frequent, the ratio of Tension headache and Migraine was 43:12, hypernoia and overwork oneself were the most inducing factor. 2. In distribution of the period of the clinical history, Tension headache was comparatively short term within 1 month(62.8%) and Migraine was comparatively long term over 1 year(91.7%), Tension headache was frequent at whole portion(41.3%) and occipital portion(26.1%), Migraine was frequent at temporal portion(76.9%). 3. In pain type, Tension headache has many vandlike discomport type, Migraine has many pulsatile type, neck-stiffness-pain and dizziness were mainly coexited. 4. Toung aspect has many SULDAMHONGTAEBAEKHOO(舌淡紅苔白厚), GINMAEK(緊脈) and HEUNMAEK(弦脈) were frequent in Pulse type, the GAEDAMSUNKIJEETONG(祛淡順氣止痛) prescription drugs were frequent such as GEYNTONGA(肩痛A), GEYNTONGDODAMTANG(?通導淡湯), Tension headache patients were well treated(90.7%). 5. In Tension headache and Migraine, the Curve has many SL except Tension headache‘s 2th SANGHAN(상한), in Regulation RR was frequent at 1th, 2th, 3th, 4th, 7th SANGHAN and RL was frequent at 5th, 6th SANGHAN, the result of Graph, Activity and Reactivity have many low response at the whole. 6. The Curve was within normal limit at whole portion and frequent SL at temporal portion, the whole and temporal portion s Regulation also have many RR at 1th, 2th, 3th, 4th, 7th SANGHAN and RL at 5th, 6th SANGHAN, Activity and Reactivity have many low response at the whole. 7. The occipital and frontal portion‘s Curve have many SL at 1th SANGHAN, the occipital portion’s Regulation has many RR at 1th, 2th, 4th, 7th SANGHAN and RL at 5th, 6th SANGHAN, Activity has many low response at the whole, Reactivity has many low response at 1th, 4th, 5th, 6th SANGHAN and high response 2th, 3th SANGHAN, the frontal portion s Regulation has many RL at 1th, 3th, 5th, 6th, 7th SANGHAN and RR at 4th SANGHAN, Activity and Reactivity also have many low response at the whole except 6th, 7th SANGHAN respectively.

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Modulation of Th1/Th2 Cytokine Secretion in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Water Extract of Acanthopanax divaricatus var. albeofructus Fruits (사람 말초혈액 단핵세포에서 흰털오가피 열매 추출물에 의한 Th1/Th2 Cytokine 분비조절)

  • Lyu, Su-Yun;Noh, Bin-Na;Park, Won-Bong
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 2008
  • Water extracts of Acanthopanax divaricatus var. albeofructus (ADA) fruits were used to treat hPBMC to determine the mechanisms for the immunomodulatory effects. The secretion level of various cytokines including Th-1 type (IL-2, L-12, $IFN-{\gamma}$ and $TNF-{\alpha}$) and Th-2 type (IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) were measured using ELISA. A significant increase of Th-1 type cytokine secretion was observed in the presence of extract while Th-2 cytokine, IL-6 was suppressed. Our results suggest that ADA fruit extract may influence the anticancer immune responses towards a predominance of Th-1 cytokines in the immune system.

Modulation of Bee Venom on Th1/Th2 Cell Lineage Development (봉독 추출액이 helper T cell 분화에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko Eun Jung;Nam Sang Soo;Hong Moo Chang;Shin Min Kyu;Bae Hyun Su
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.1347-1355
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    • 2004
  • In this study, the immunological effect of a traditional Korea herbal acupuncture, that has been widely used for the treatment of various immunological disorders including inflammation in Korea, was examined in vitro and in vivo. In our previous study demonstrated that BV increased the expression of IFN-γ mRNA, that plays pivotal role in T cell response. This study was designated to evaluate the effect of BV on helper T cell development by monitoring Th1/Th2 specific cytokine secretion patterns in artificially induced Th1/Th2 polarized condition and in vivo. The results demonstrated that BV didn't have mitogenic effects on the unstimulated CD4+ T cell, but increased the CD4+ T cell proliferation upon activation with anti-CD3/CD28 antibody. The Th1 cells were over-populated dramatically in Th1 driven condition with BV treatment, while the Th2 cells were increased slightly in Th2 skewed condition. Furthermore, under Th1-skewed conditions, the level of IFN-γ was considerably increased with BV treatment. Besides, the expression of T-bet, a transcription factor that plays pivotal role in Th1 lineage programming, was increased with BV treatment. The expressions of IFN-γ and T-bet were also significantly increased in vivo. The results that Th1 specific cytokine secretion were considerably increased and Th2 specific cytokine secretion were not significantly changed in vitro and in vivo indicated that BV enhances Th1 lineage development, Therefore, these results suggest that BV might be desirable agent for correction of Th1 dominant pathological disorders.

Pycnogenol, a Standardized Extract of French Maritime Pine Bark, Inhibited the Transcriptional Expression of Th2 Cytokines by Suppressing $NF-{\kappa}B$ Activation in Primary Splenocytes of C57BL/6 Mice with Murine AIDS (Murine AIDS 감염쥐 splenocytes에서 $NF-{\kappa}B$의 활성화 억제를 통한 pycnogenol의 Th2 cytokines의 mRNA 발현 조절 효과)

  • Lee, Jeong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.829-834
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    • 2006
  • LP-BM5 murine leukemia retrovirus induces the immune dysfunction by imbalanced secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the murine AIDS model. In the present study, it was investigated whether pycnogenol (Pyc) administration could deactivate $NF-{\kappa}B$ to regulate the gene expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in C57BL/6 mice with murine AIDS. Treatment with Pyc for 12 weeks significantly inhibited the loss of body weight and enlargement of spleen and lymph node usually seen with AIDS. Moreover, Pyc increased the plasma level of Th1 cytokines, IL-2 and $IFN-{\gamma}$, while reducing the plasma level of Th2 cytokines, IL-6, IL-10, and $TNF-{\alpha}$. In primary culture of splenocytes, mRNA expression of Th2 cytokines was suppressed, but that of Th1 cytokines was not affected. The LP-BM5 retrovirus infection stimulated the cytoplasmic activation of $NF-{\kappa}B$ and nuclear translocation of $I-{\kappa}B$, whereas Pyc administration significantly reduced $NF-{\kappa}B$ activation and $I-{\kappa}B$ degradation. These results suggested that the inhibitory effect of Pyc on Th2 cytokines in mice with murine AIDS was dependent on suppression of the $NF-{\kappa}B$ signaling pathway and was not dependent on $INF-{\gamma}$ level, which regulates Th2 cytokines.

Effect of Control of Leaf Number on Growth and Chemical Characteristics in Flue-cured Tobacco (황색종담배의 엽수조절이 생육형질 및 화학성분에 미치는 효과)

  • Jeong, Kee-Taeg;Ban, You-Seon;Yoo, Kwang-Kun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.49-64
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    • 1989
  • The study was carried out to investigate the effect of control leaf number on growth and chemical characteristics, and on yield and quality In (rue-cured tobacco The rest upper leaves of 14, 16, and 18 leaves per plant were removed at button stage, and the plants were harvested :0, 12, and 16 leaves with discard 4 leaves of the bottom, respectively. 1. There were showed a tendency to increase in length (LL), width (LW), area (LA), fresh (LFW) and dry weight (LDW) per leaf as leaf numbers were decreased, while those per plant and the ratios of increase of those per plant were decreased. 2. In compensation effect (CE), there were increase in LL, LFW, LDW, LL/LW and LDW/LFW with each decreased in leaf numbers while LW was decreased, LA unchanged. 3. There were significant Increases in LL, LW, and LA at 5th~8th stalk positions form bottom (SP), while those .at 13th~16th SF were decreased. Also, LDW at 5th~l0th, and LDW/LFW and weight Per unit leaf area at 11th 16th were Increased as leaf numbers decreased. 4. Mean per plant and CE of nicotine were increased, but those of sugar were decreased with each decrease In leaf numbers. In addition, nicotine contents at 5th~14th SP except for 9th~10th were increased, otherwise sugar contents at 7th~14th were decreased. 5. There were showed a tendency to increase in grade per Plant and in tirade at 5th~8th SP, but decrease in CE of grade as leaf numbers were decreased. There wee significant decrease in grade at 11th~14th SP. Also, ratio of 5 grade was decreased, while ratios of 3 and 4 grades were increased. 6. When the 2 leaves at 3rd~4th SP were harvested, price was decrease 2.6% and yield was increased 5.8 %. 7. When the 6 leaves from convention were removed at but ton stage, effects of apparent, compensational, and net per leaf on yield were -3.9%, +2.6%, and -6.5%, respectively, and those on price were +1.1%, -1.6% and +2.7%, respectively.

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