• Title, Summary, Keyword: Tetrapod

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CdTe/CdSe type II heterostructure tetrapod based photovoltaic cells (CdTe/CdSe type II Tetrapod 이종접합을 이용한 태양전지)

  • Kim, Junhee;Lee, Hyunju;Kim, Sungwon;Kim, Donghwan
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.77.1-77.1
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    • 2010
  • 반도체 나노 결정은 크기와 모양에 따라 다른 광학적 전기적 성질을 보이는 독특한 특성 때문에 태양전지, 발광 다이오드, 레이저, 바이오메디컬 레이블링 등에 응용될 수 있는 저가격의 차세대 광전기 재료의 개발을 위한 구조체로 각광받고 있다. 최근에는 하나의 나노 결정에 type-II band offset을 가지는 두 개의 물질을 결합한 이종접합 나노 결정체의 연구가 활발하게 진행되고 있는데, 이는 나노 결정 내에서 빛에 의해 생성된 전하들을 공간적으로 분리해 낼 수 있는 장점을 가지고 있기 때문에 태양전지나 광촉매로의 응용에 매우 유용하다. 우리는 나노 결정과 고분자 하이브리드 태양전지의 제작에 있어서 성분과 type-II 이종접합 반도체 나노 결정의 영향을 조사하기 위하여 CdSe, CdTe, type-II CdTe/CdSe tetrapod을 합성하였다. CdSe tetrapod과 P3HT의 블렌딩에 의해 만들어진 태양전지는 AM 1.5, 100mW/$cm^2$ 조건에서 1.03%의 가장 높은 변환 효율, 그리고 415nm에서 43%의 IPCE를 나타내었다. 그리고 CdTe/CdSe type-II tetrapod 이종접합과 P3HT 블렌딩으로 만들어진 태양전지는 CdTe를 이용하여 만든 태양전지에 비해 4.4배의 변환효율과 3.9배의 단락전류를 나타내었다.

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Experimental Investigation on the Change of Stability Coefficient of Tetrapod According to Difference in Density (비중 차이에 따른 테트라포드 안정계수 변화에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Lee, Dal Soo;Oh, Sang-Ho;Cho, Bong Suk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.124-131
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    • 2016
  • In this study, a physical experiment was performed to investigate the change in the stability coefficient, defined by Hudson equation, for the tetrapod of different specific densities. The experiment was carried out once (with no repetition) for a rubble mound breakwater with 1:1.5 slope. In this experiment, the stability coefficient for the high-density tetrapod was greater than that for the normal-density tetrapod. This indicates variability of the stability coefficient according to change in the density of tetrapod. Further experiments and detailed analysis are required to investigate the effect of the density on the stability coefficient of tetrapod.

Evaluation of the Weak Part for Wave Dissipating Blocks under Various Conditions: Tetrapod (다양한 하중 조건에서 Tetrapod 소파블록의 취약부 분석)

  • Lim, Jeong Hyeon;Won, Deokhee;Han, Taek Hee;Kang, Young-Jong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.5385-5392
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    • 2014
  • Super typhoons develop as a result of meteorological changes. In 2012, Typhoons Bolaven and Denba reached Korea. The maximum instantaneous wind speed of the typhoons reached 60 m/sec. Harbor structures including sofa block sustained damage and loss by the abnormally high waves. In Korea, tetrapod blocks were installed the most for wave dissipating. Nevertheless, a structural evaluation of the tetrapod block has not been performed. This study examined the structural mechanism and weakness part of the tetrapod block under a range of boundary conditions. The block has weakness against a tensile force because it is plain concrete. The joint part of the legs is the most vulnerable to tensile stress. The weakest part can be reduced if the joint part is reinforced as a hunch.

Applicability Evaluation of Tetrapod Debris Barrier -A Case of Honggyeri Area in Sanchung County- (테트라포드 사방댐의 적용성 평가 -산청군 홍계리 지역을 대상으로-)

  • Kim, Ki Heung;Park, Jae Hyeon;Ma, Ho Seop
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.119-132
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    • 2012
  • In order to connect eco-corridor and to harmonize with natural environment, it is necessary to construct small debris barrier. Therefore, we will evaluate applicability of small debris barrier which made of tetrapod utilized in construction of seashore protection facilities and breakwater. From result compared with the adaptation processes in fields, tetrapod were stabilized to critical tractive force. Stability evaluation method on sliding and overturn of tetrapod debris barrier was developed, and hereafter could be applied to similar debris barriers. According to results analyzed to continuity on sediment supply in debris barrier, boulders were deposited in upstream and gravels were deposited in downstream. Therefore, tetrapod debris barrier will be able to prevent in the long-term the erosion of river bed in down-stream, and the maintenance is easy because dredging is not necessary. Current were formed in between the tetrapod provided eco-corridors for fishes and shellfishes.

PIV measurement on flow characteristics behind a Tetrapod in uniform flow (균일 흐름에 놓인 테트라포드 후류 유동특성에 대한 PIV 계측)

  • Gim, Ok-Sok;Lee, Kyeong-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.207-217
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    • 2008
  • Costal regions in Korea often suffer severe damages due to wave-induced disasters, storm surge disasters and so on. therefore, many engineers and researchers have devoted their energy to prevent these costal disasters. The development of artificial reefs including sunken vessels is one of their remarkable achievements and various kind of these artificial upwelling structures have been designed and applied. However, the flow characteristics around a Tetrapod under the water has not been investigated experimentally. So in this article, in uniform flow of circulating water channel and some different velocities, PIV measurement has been conducted on the flow characteristics behind a Tetrapod. The results were analyzed on the flow characteristics of both cases of a Tetrapod. Therefore, it can be concluded that the both cases have its own distinctive flow characteristics behind the bluff body; Case A has an steep upstream flow pattern. On the contrary, Case B has an developed downstream flow pattern in the near wake of the Tetrapod. The velocity gradient at position x=150mm of Case-A appears gently up and down But, the velocity gradient at the same position of Case-B appears better highly up and down.

Comparison of Stability Coefficients of Radial Shape Armor Blocks Depending on Placement Methods (피복 방법에 따른 방사형 소파 블록의 안정계수 비교)

  • Min, Eun-Jong;Cheon, Se-Hyeon;Suh, Kyung-Duck
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.135-141
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    • 2015
  • In this study, two different uniform placement methods are proposed for each of Tetrapod, Rakuna-IV, and Dimple armoring a rubble mound breakwater, and the corresponding stability coefficients are determined by hydraulic experiments. The Tetrapod and Rakuna-IV show similar stability coefficients regardless of the placement methods, whereas the Dimple shows somewhat different stability coefficients depending on the placement methods. It is shown that the Dimple gives the largest stability coefficient, whereas the Tatrapod gives the smallest value. The uniform placement methods of Tatrapod and Rakuna-IV give slightly larger stability coefficients than the random placement, whereas the uniform placements of Dimple give much larger stability coefficients than the random placement. However, the small void ratio of uniform placements of Dimple requires attention because the blocks would behave like single layer system blocks so that brittle failure could occur.

Evaluation of Partial Safety Factors for Tetrapod Armor Blocks Depending on the Shape Parameter of Extreme Wave Height Distributions (극치파고분포의 형상 모수에 따른 Tetrapod 피복블록의 부분안전계수 산정)

  • Kim, Seung-Woo;Suh, Kyung-Duck;Lee, Dong-Young;Jun, Ki-Cheon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.32 no.1B
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 2012
  • Probabilistic design is required to effectively consider the coastal environment of great uncertainty. However, designers who are familiar with the deterministic design method prefer a method which is similar to the existing method but is based on the probabilistic concept. Therefore, the partial safety factor method has been adopted as a new design method over the world. In Korea, Tetrapod is widely used for armoring rubble mound breakwaters. Even though the partial safety factor method developed in the United States and Europe covers Tetrapods, the limited wave and structure conditions in its development make the engineers hesitate about its use in practical breakwater design. In this study, partial safety factors for Tetrapod armor blocks have been developed by analyzing 116 breakwater cross-sections and wave conditions in 16 trade harbors and 15 coastal harbors with the FORM and optimal code calibration approach. Especially, partial safety factors have been proposed depending on the shape parameter of the Weibull extreme wave height distribution. For other types of extreme distributions, it is possible to apply the proposed partial safety factors using the relationship between skewness coefficient and shape parameter. Finally, the proposed partial safety factors have been applied to existing structures to show that they better satisfy the target reliability of the structures than previous partial safety factors.

Effects of vertical wall and tetrapod weights on wave overtopping in rubble mound breakwaters under irregular wave conditions

  • Park, Sang Kil;Dodaran, Asgar Ahadpour;Han, Chong Soo;Shahmirzadi, Mohammad Ebrahim Meshkati
    • International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.947-964
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    • 2014
  • Rubble mound breakwaters protect the coastal line against severe erosion caused by wave action. This study examined the performance of different sizes and properties (i.e. height of vertical wall and tetrapod size) of rubble mound breakwaters on reducing the overtopping discharge. The physical model used in this study was derived based on an actual rubble mound in Busan Yacht Harbor. This research attempts to fill the gap in practical knowledge on the combined effect of the armor roughness and vertical wall on wave overtopping in rubble mound breakwaters. The main governing parameters used in this study were the vertical wall height, variation of the tetrapod weights, initial water level elevation, and the volume of overtopping under constant wave properties. The experimental results showed that the roughness factor differed according to the tetrapod size. Furthermore, the overtopping discharge with no vertical wall was similar to that with relatively short vertical walls (${\gamma}_v=1$). Therefore, the experimental results highlight the importance of the height of the vertical wall in reducing overtopping discharge. Moreover, a large tetrapod size may allow coastal engineers to choose a shorter vertical wall to save cost, while obtaining better performance.

ZnO Nano-Powder Synthesized through a Simple Oxidation of Metallic Zn Powder in Alumina Crucible under an Air Atmosphere (대기 분위기의 알루미나 도가니 내에서 Zn 분말의 산화에 의해 합성된 ZnO 나노분말)

  • Lee, Geun-Hyoung
    • Korean Journal of Metals and Materials
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    • v.48 no.9
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    • pp.861-866
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    • 2010
  • Tetrapod-shaped ZnO crystals were synthesized through a simple oxidation of metallic Zn powder in air without the presence of any catalysts or substrates. X-ray diffraction data revealed that the ZnO crystals had wurtzite structure. It is supposed that the growth of the tetrapod proceeded in a vapor-solid growth mechanism. As the amount of the source powder increased, the size of the tetrapod decreased. The tip morphology of the tetrapod changed from a needle-like shape to a spherical shape with the oxidation time. ZnO crystals with rod shape were fabricated via the oxidation of Zn and Sn mixture. Sn played an important role in the formation of ZnO crystals with different morphology by affecting the growth mode of ZnO crystals. The cathodoluminescent properties were measured for the samples. The strongest green emission was observed for the rod-shaped ZnO crystals, suggesting that the crystals had the high density of oxygen vacancies.

Synthesis and Cathodoluminescence of Tetrapod and Multipod-shaped ZnO Nanostructures by Oxidation of Zn in Air Atmosphere (공기 중 대기압 분위기에서 Zn의 산화에 의해 생성된 Tetrapod와 Multipod 형태의 나노구조와 음극선 발광 특성)

  • Lee, Geun-Hyoung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.256-260
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    • 2011
  • ZnO nanostructures with tetrapod, needle and multipod shapes were synthesized without catalysts through a simple thermal oxidation of metallic Zn powder in alumina crucible under air atmosphere. X-ray diffraction data revealed that the ZnO nanostructures had wurtzite structure of hexagonal phase. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra showed that the ZnO was of high purity. After the oxidation of Zn powder, white colored product was mainly observed and yellow colored product was observed only a very little on the surface of the oxidized source materials. The white product consisted of tetrapods, while yellow product was composed of needles and multipods. Cathodoluminescece spectra showed that the crystalline quality of tetrapods was better that those of needles and multipods.