• Title, Summary, Keyword: Test of heterogeneity

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Comparison of Dose Distributions Calculated by Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm and Pencil Beam Convolution Algorithm at Tumors Located in Liver Dome Site (간원개에 위치한 종양에 대한 Anisotropic Analyticalal Algorithm과 Pencil Beam Convolution 알고리즘에 따른 전달선량 비교)

  • Park, Byung-Do;Jung, Sang-Hoon;Park, Sung-Ho;Kwak, Jeong-Won;Kim, Jong-Hoon;Yoon, Sang-Min;Ahn, Seung-Do
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.106-113
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the variation of radiation dose distribution for liver tumor located in liver dome and for the interest organs(normal liver, kidney, stomach) with the pencil beam convolution (PBC) algorithm versus anisotropic Analyticalal algorithm (AAA) of the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system, The target volumes from 20 liver cancer patients were used to create treatment plans. Treatment plans for 10 patients were performed in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) plan and others were performed in 3 Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3DCRT) plan. dose calculation was recalculated by AAA algorithm after dose calculation was performed by PBC algorithm for 20 patients. Plans were optimized to 100% of the PTV by the Prescription Isodose in Dose Calculation with the PBC algorithm. Plans were recalculated with the AAA, retaining identical beam arrangements, monitor units, field weighting and collimator condition. In this study, Total PTV was to be statistically significant (SRS: p=0.018, 3DCRT: p=0.006) between PBC and AAA algorithm. and in the case of PTV, ITV in liver dome, plans for 3DCRT were to be statistically significant respectively (p=0.013, p=0.024). normal liver and kidney were to be statistically significant (p=0.009, p=0.037). For the predictive index of dose variation, CVF ratio was to be statistically significant for PTV in the liver dome versus PTV (SRS r=0.684, 3DCRT r=0.732, p<0.01) and CVF ratio for Tumor size was to be statistically significant (SRS r=-0.193, p=0.017, 3DCRT r=0.237, p=0.023).

Implementation of Water Bolus in Patient with Large Tissue Defect (조직결손이 큰 환자에서 물 볼루스의 적용에 관한 고찰)

  • Park, Hyo-Kuk;Lee, Sang-Kyu;Yoon, Jong-Won;Cho, Jeong-Hee;Kim, Dong-Wook;Kim, Joo-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: To demonstrate that water bolus in the patient surface can decrease the dose inhomogeneity by patient surface large tissue defect when the surface is in an electron-beam field. And We tried to find a easy way to water control. Methods and Materials: To demonstrate the use of water bolus in the irregular surface clinically, the case of a patient with myxofibrosarcoma of the chest wall who was treated with electrons. We obtained dose distribution using missing tissue option of PINACLE 6.2b (ADAC, USA). We fabricate a Mev-green for water bolus in patient with defect of tissue. Then put the water bolus which is vinyl packed water into the designed Mev-green. We peformed CT scan with CT-simulator. Three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions with and without water bolus in the large irregular chest wall were calculated for a representative patient. Resulting dose distributions and dose-volume histograms of water bolus were compared with missing tissue option and non bolus plans. We fabricate a new water control device. Results: Controlled Water bolus markedly decrease the dose heterogeneity, and minimizes normal tissue exposure caused by the surface irregularities of the chest wall mass. In the test case, The non bolus plan has a maximum target dose of 132%. After applying water bolus, the maximum target dose has been reduced substantially to 110.4%. The maximum target dose was reduced by 21.6% using this technique. Conclusion: The results showed that controlled water bolus could significantly improve the dose homogeneity in the PTV for patients treated with electron therapy using water control device. This technique may reduce the incidence of normal organ complications that occur after electron-beam therapy in irregular surface. And our new device shows handiness of water control.

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The Origin and Geochemical Behavior of Fluoride in Bedrock Groundwater: A Case Study in Samseung Area (Boeun, Chungbuk) (화강암 지역 암반 지하수 내 불소 이온의 기원 및 거동: 충북 보은 삼승면 일대의 현장 조사와 실내 실험 연구)

  • Chae, Gi-Tak;Koh, Dong-Chan;Choi, Byoung-Young
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.555-566
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    • 2008
  • Hydrogeochemical study in Samseung area (Boeun, Chungbuk) and waterrock interaction experiment using rock samples from the area were performed to elucidate the fluoride source in groundwater and explaining geochemical behavior of fluoride ion. Fluoride concentration of public water supply mostly using groundwater in Boeun area was significantly higher in South Korea. The maximum fluoride concentration of the study area was 3.9 mg/L, and 23% of samples exceeded the Korean Drinking Water Standard of fluoride (1.5 mg/L). The average concentration of fluoride was 1.0 mg/L and median was 0.5 mg/L. Because of high skewness (1.3), median value is more appropriate to represent fluoride level of this area. The relationships between fluoride ion and geochemical parameters ($Na^+$, $HCO_3$, pH, etc.) indicated that the degree of waterrock interaction was not significant. However, high fluoride samples were observed in $NaHCO_3$ type on Piper's diagram. The negative relationship between fluoride and $NO_3$ ion which might originate from surface contaminants was obvious. These results indicate that fluoride ion in groundwater is geogenic origin. The source of fluoride was proved by waterrock interaction batch test. Fluoride concentration increased up to 1.2 mg/L after 96 hours of reaction between water and biotite granite. However, the relationship between well depth and fluoride ion, and groundwater age and fluoride ion was not clear. This indicates that fluoride ion is not correlated with degree of waterrock interaction in this area but local heterogeneity of fluoriderich minerals in granite terrain. High fluoride concentration in Boeun area seems to be correlated with distribution of permeable structures in hard rocks such as lineaments and faults of this area. This entails that the deep bedrock groundwater discharges through the permeable structures and mixed with shallow groundwater.

Application of Antibiotic Resistance Test for the Recognition of Korean Native Rhizobium japonicum Strain (한국(韓國) 토착대두(土着大豆) 근류균(根瘤菌)의 균주(菌株) 인식(認識)을 위한 항생제(抗生劑) 내성(耐性) 검정법(檢定法)의 응용(應用))

  • Lim, Sun-Uk;Kim, Min-Kyun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.239-244
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    • 1989
  • This work was for the elucidation of heterogeneity in a natural population of Rhizobium japonicum existing in Seoul National University's Experiment Field and of sensitivities of R. japonicum isolates for several antibiotics by using a method based on intrinsic antibiotic resistance (IAR). In addition, the suitability of IAR method for the recognition of R. japonicum strain was elucidated. Twenty seven isolates from various soybean cultivars cultivated at SNU's Experiment Field were tested to 4 antibiotics (streptomycin sulphate, kanamycin sulphate, ampicillin, oxytetracycline);There were 21 different IAR patterns among 27 isolates. It demonstrated diverse distribution of R. japonicum strains in SNU's Experiment Field. Their growth was inhibited at from a low concentration of about $1{\mu}g/ml$ to a high concentration of $400{\mu}g/ml$ for streptomycin sulphate, ampicillin, and oxytetracyclin. For kanamycin sulphate, on the contrary, all 27 isolates showed their growth inhibitances at below the concentration of $12.5{\mu}g/ml$. Two isolates identified as different strains from each other by the previous seroimmunological tests showed the same sensitivities for 4 antibiotics, and it seemed that IAR method was not perfect for the exact recognition of R. japonicum strain.

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