• Title, Summary, Keyword: Temperature increase

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Past and Future Temperature and Precipitation Changes over Korea using MM5 Model

  • Oh, Jai-Ho;Min, Young-Mi;Kim, Tae-Kook;Woo, Su-Min;Kwon, Won-Tae;Baek, Hee-Jeong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Quaternary Association Conference
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    • pp.29-29
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    • 2004
  • Long term observational analysis by climatologists has confirmedthat the global warming is no longer a topic of debate among scientists andpolicy makers. According to the report of IPCC-2001 (Intergovernmental Panelon Climate Change), the global mean surface air temperature is increasinggradually. The reported increase of mean temperature is by 0.6 degree in the end of twentieth century. This could represent severe threat for propertylosses especially due to increase in the number of extreme weather arising out of global warming. period of model integration from 2001 to 2100 using output of ECHAM4/HOPE-G of Max Planet Institute of Meteorology (MPI) for IPCC SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios). The main results of this study indicate increase of surface air temperature by 6.20C and precipitation by 2.6% over Korea in the end of 21st century. Simulation results also show that there is increase in daily maximum and minimum temperatures while decrease in diurnal temperature range (DTR). DTR changes are diminished mainly due to relatively rapid increase of daily minimum temperature than that of daily maximumtemperature. It has been observed that increase in precipitation amount anddecrease in the number of rainy days lead to increase of pre precipitationintensity.

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Space charge characteristics in several polymers at high temperature (고분자 재료의 고온하분포특성)

  • 남진호;고정우;서광석
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.84-87
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    • 2001
  • Space charge formation at high temperature was investigated in several polymers using pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method. In SXLPE, homocharge is found and increased as an increase of temperature. In a charge of polarity of poling voltage(positive to negative), space charge mainly cause of hole injection. In Ionomer, heterocharge is found because of ion. As an increase of temperature heterocharge is also increased. In PET, As an increase of temperature homocharge is decreased.

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Climate Change and Urban Air Temperature Increase in Korean Peninsula (기후변화와 한반도 도시지역의 기온 증가)

  • Oh, Sung-Nam;Ju, Ok-Jung;Moon, Yung-Su;Lee, Kyoo-Seock
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.169-177
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    • 2010
  • One of the most obvious climatic manifestations of urbanization in Korea is a trend towards higher air temperature. The trends of long-term annual temperature generally well describe the warming of urban areas. The increase of air temperature in urban area has been observed to the present since the meteorological observations in Korea began. The objective of this study is to explore the actual increase and the regional long-term trends of air temperature attributed to urbanization in the Korean Peninsula. Therefore, temperatures of the selected urban areas were compared with that of the surrounding rural areas, with the results varying by the application of the estimates of each region. The second objective is to separate the long-term trend of surface air temperature of global warming from urbanization and to find the actual temperature increase from urbanization in Korean peninsula. For the data analysis, daily air temperatures observed by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) during between from 1961 and 2005 were used at five rural sites and cities. The re-analyzed surface air temperatures by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) was also carried out to compare the result from the observed air temperature in the Korean climate domain. In this study, the urban areas in Korea showed high increase rate of air temperature with $0.4^{\circ}C$ per decade during past 50 year period, while rural sites as Chupungryung with the $0.2^{\circ}C$ decadal increase rate. The analyses reflect that the urban area shows the high rate of temperature increase with $1.39^{\circ}C$ of regression value at the urban area, Seoul, and $0.43^{\circ}C$ at the rural site, Chupungnyeong during the period of 30 years. The temperature increas due to the urbanization only showed the increase range between $0.44^{\circ}C$ and $0.86^{\circ}C$, and the observed decrease in diurnal temperature range at five urban areas during the 30 years period.

Climate Change and Health - A Systemic Review of Low and High Temperature Effects on Mortality (기후변화와 건강 - 저온과 고온이 사망에 미치는 영향에 관한 체계적 고찰)

  • Lim, Youn-Hee;Kim, Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.397-405
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: The impact of climate change on the health has been of increasing concern due to a recent temperature increase and weather abnormality, and the research results of the impact varied depending on regions. We synthesized risk estimates of the overall health effects of low and high temperature taking account of the heterogeneity. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PUBMED to identify journal articles of low and/or high temperature effects on mortality. The search was limited to the English language and epidemiological studies using time-series analysis and/or case-crossover design. Random-effect models in meta analysis were used to estimate the percent increase in mortality with $1^{\circ}C$ temperature decrease or increase with 95% confidence intervals (CI) in cold or hot days. Results: Twenty three studies were presented in two tables: 1) low temperature effects; 2) high temperature effects on mortality. The combined effects of low and high temperatures on total mortality were 2% (95% CI, 1-4%) per $1^{\circ}C$ decrease and 4% (95% CI, 2-5%) per $1^{\circ}C$ increase of temperature, respectively. Conclusions: This meta analysis found that both low and high temperatures affected mortality, and the magnitude of high temperature appeared to be stronger than that of low temperature.

Estimation of Performance Variation of ER Clutch due to Temperature Increase of ER Fluid (ER 유체의 온도상승에 의한 ER 클러치의 성능변화 예측)

  • 이규한;심현해;김창호;임윤철
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers Conference
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    • pp.151-166
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    • 1997
  • ER clutch is a device using ER fluid, so called "intelligent material" and is a controlled system with electric field strength. Current problem of this device is that the temperature of ER fluid increases when ER clutch is operating and affects the performance of ER clutch. This study was undertaken to estimate this performance variation due to temperature increase of ER fluid. Analytic power transmission relationships and the temperature increase model using the rheological model of ER fluid were developed and the dynamic model of proposed ER clutch system was constructed, also. With this relationships, effects of changing geometric, kinetic parameters of ER clutch and ER fluid properties were described and performance variations due to temperature increases of ER fluid were estimated. In conclusion, compared with neglecting temperature increase effects, a performance of ER clutch was very differential. Therefore, to achieve uniform performance of ER clutch, we have to improve thermal stability of ER fluid with a view point of material development and design carefully ER clutch considering temperature increase effects with a view point of mechanical design skill.ign skill.

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A Study on the Effects of Heating of Fuel Oil on Combustion Characteristics and Engine Performance (연료유 가열이 디젤기관의 연소특성 및 기관성능에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 고대권
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.82-86
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    • 1989
  • This paper is concerned with the effects of temperature of diesel fuel on combustion characteristics and engine performance in a home-made precombustion diesel engine for small-sized fishing boat. The results may be summarized as follows: 1. The fuel injection timing was delayed with increase in temperature for diesel fuel, and remarkably delayed at low load. 2. The point of maximum pressure was delayed with increase in temperature for diesel fuel, the maximum pressure decreased with increase in temperature for diesel fuel but increased with increase in load. 3. The brake specific fuel comsumption (BSFC) decreased with increase in load, the optimum temperature of the heated fuel was about 15$0^{\circ}C$. 4. The smoke emissions increased with increase in load and temperature for diesel fuel.

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Temperature in Nerve Conduction and Electromyography (신경전도와 근전도검사에서의 체온)

  • Kim, Doo-Eung
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.125-134
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    • 2006
  • Among the various physiological factors that affect nerve conduction velocity (NCV), temperature is the most important. Because the influence of temperature is the most important source of error. It is known from animal experiments that conduction is eventually completely blocked at low temperatures, the myelinated A fibers being the first affected and the thin fibers of group C the last. Many studies showed that the NCV decreases linearly with lowering temperature within the physiological range. The distal motor latency increased by $0.2msec/^{\circ}C$ drop in temperature between $25^{\circ}C$and $35^{\circ}C$ in the median, ulnar and peroneal nerves. The temperature affect the neuromuscular transmission; The miniature endplate potential (MEPP) and endplate potential (EPP) are increase with increasing temperature. In myasthenia gravis, the reduction in the decremental response is observed following cooling. The lowering temperature make increase the amplitude of sensory compound action potential; make enlarge the surface area of compound muscle action potential with very little increase in amplitude; make diminish the fibrillation potential and increase the myotonia in needle electromyography (EMG). Because of these findings mentioned above, the skin temperature should be routinely monitored and controlled during nerve conduction tests and needle EMG and should be taken into account when interpreting the findings.

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Analysis of Power Pattern According to Irradiation for Photovoltaic Generation System (태양광발전 시스템의 일사량에 따른 전력 패턴 분석)

  • Lee, Kyung-Sup
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers P
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.602-608
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    • 2009
  • In this thesis, output voltage, current and power of solar module were classified by irradiation from data of overall operating characteristics collected for one year in order to manage efficient photovoltaic generation system and deliver maximum power. In addition, from these data, correlations between irradiation of photovoltaic cell and amount of power given by photovoltaic cell was quantitatively examined to deduce optimization of the design and construction of photovoltaic generation system. As I-V characteristics according to a temperature range of 10~50[$^{\circ}C$], the area of I-V characteristics were increased with an increase in temperature. Since this area corresponds to the power, output power is thought to have increased with temperature. As output power characteristics according to a temperature range of 10~50[$^{\circ}C$], output power was increased with an increase in temperature. Since output power increases with temperature increase, the result corresponds well to the related equation on temperature and output power. As I-V characteristics according to a irradiation range of 100~900 [$W/m^2$], voltage and current were increased with an increase in irradiation. The result is thought of as an increase in output power with increasing irradiation. As output power characteristics according to a irradiation range of 100~900 [$W/m^2$], output power was increased with increasing irradiation. This result corresponds well to the related equation on irradiation and output power.

Temperature development and cracking characteristics of high strength concrete slab at early age

  • Wu, Chung-Hao;Lin, Yu-Feng;Lin, Shu-Ken;Huang, Chung-Ho
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.74 no.6
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    • pp.747-756
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    • 2020
  • High-strength concrete (HSC) generally is made with high amount of cement which may release large amount of hydration heat at early age. The hydration heat will increase the internal temperature of slab and may cause potential cracking. In this study, slab specimens with a dimension of 600 × 600 × 100 mm were cast with concrete incorporating silica fume for test. The thermistors were embedded in the slabs therein to investigate the interior temperature development. The test variables include water-to-binder ratio (0.25, 0.35, 0.40), the cement replacement ratio of silica fume (RSF; 5 %, 10 %, 15 %) and fly ash (RFA; 10 %, 20 %, 30 %). Test results show that reducing the W/B ratio of HSC will enhance the temperature of first heat peak by hydration. The increase of W/B decrease the appearance time of second heat peak, but increase the corresponding maximum temperature. Increase the RSF or decrease the RFA may decrease the appearance time of second heat peak and increase the maximum central temperature of slab. HSC slab with the range of W/B ratio of 0.25 to 0.40 may occur cracking within 4 hours after casting. Reducing W/B may lead to intensive cracking damage, such as more crack number, and larger crack width and length.

The Study on the Effect of Alloying Elements(V,Ti) and Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties in Chromium Cast Iron (크롬주철의 기계적 성질에 미치는 합금원소(V,Ti)와 열처리의 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sug-Won;Kim, Dong-Keon;Lee, Eui-Kwoon;Jang, Ho-Yeal
    • Journal of Korea Foundry Society
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.450-457
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    • 1992
  • The study aims to investigate the influence of alloying elements(V,Ti) and heat treatment on the mechanical properties in hypo-eutectic chromium cast iron. Before heat treatment, all of the specimen were fully annealed(950$^{\circ}C{\times}5Hr$) to homogenize their structures. The influence of heat treatment and alloying elements(V,Ti) on hardness, retained austenite volume, and charpy impact energy as well as tensile strength of the specimen was tested systematically. Retained austenite decreased with the increase of V and Ti, but incresed with the increase of number of cycles. The impact energy decreased, and hardness and tensile strength increased with the increase of alloying elements (V,Ti) and the decrease of the number of cycles. The hardness and tensile strength increased, but impact energy decreased with the increase of V and Ti elements and the temperature of destabillization heat treatment. After the destabillization heat treatment at the same temperature, the impact energy is increased, while hardness and tensile strength decreased as the increase of tempering temperature. Retained austenite increased with increase of destabilizatoin heat treatment temperature, while decrease with the increase of tempering temperature.

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