• Title, Summary, Keyword: Target tissue

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Radiation Treatment Planning Evaluation by Internal Target Volume Settings (내부표적체적 설정을 통한 방사선치료계획 평가)

  • Park, Ho-Chun;Han, Jae-Bok;Choi, Nam-Gil
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.416-423
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    • 2015
  • The study was conducted targeting 25 patients who underwent the respiratory gated radiation therapy in the abdominal region at Radiation Oncology of a University Hospital from December 2013 to June 2014 and types of cancer included liver(64%), CBD(8%), gastric(8%), GB(8%), pancreas(8%), SMA(4%). The means of ITV and PTV volume are 471.44 cm3 and 425.48 cm3, showing an increase in volume. Normal tissue volume was also found to have increased due to the increase of the section selected from PTV section to ITV section. Right kidney showed a significant increase in differences between increase in normal tissue volume, increase in target volume and increase in therapy irradiation area and difference between the means of dose applied to normal tissue. There was no significant difference in the mean dose applied to normal tissue according to the respiratory average. Both kidneys showed a significant difference in the difference between mean doses of target moving and normal tissue. In this study, both therapy methods through PTV section and ITV section volume setting were appropriate for protection doses of normal tissue and distributed over 95% of the prescribed dose and therefore, it is considered to be okay to be optionally used depending on the patient's therapeutic purpose. But in order to minimize the unexpected side effect, the plan of PTV section and ITV section should be established and used by evaluating normal tissue protection dose.

Differential Expression of miR-34c and Its Predicted Target Genes in Testicular Tissue at Different Development Stages of Swine

  • Zhang, Xiaojun;Zhao, Wei;Li, Chuanmin;Yu, Haibin;Qiao, YanYan;Li, Aonan;Lu, Chunyan;Zhao, Zhihui;Sun, Boxing
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1532-1536
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    • 2015
  • To verified the target genes of miR-34c, bioinformatics software was used to predict the targets of miR-34c. Three possible target genes of miR-34c related to spermatogenesis and male reproductive development: zinc finger protein 148 (ZNF148), kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) were predicted. Then, the expression of miR-34c and its target genes were detected in swine testicular tissue at different developmental stages by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results suggested that the expression of PDGFRA has the highest negative correlation with miR-34c. Then immunohistochemical staining was done to observe the morphology of swine testicular tissue at 2-days and 3, 4, 5-months of age, which indicated that PDGFRA was mainly expressed in the support cells near the basement membrane during the early development stages of testicular tissue, but that the expression of PDGFRA was gradually reduced in later stages. Therefore, western blot analyzed that the highest expression of PDGFRA was generated in 2-days old testicular tissues and the expression levels reduced at 3 and 4-months old, which correlated with the results of immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, PDGFRA is a target gene of miR-34c.

3-D High Resolution Ultrasonic Transmission Tomography and Soft Tissue Differentiation

  • Kim Tae-Seong
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.55-63
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    • 2005
  • A novel imaging system for High-resolution Ultrasonic Transmission Tomography (HUTT) and soft tissue differentiation methodology for the HUTT system are presented. The critical innovation of the HUTT system includes the use of sub-millimeter transducer elements for both transmitter and receiver arrays and multi-band analysis of the first-arrival pulse. The first-arrival pulse is detected and extracted from the received signal (i.e., snippet) at each azimuthal and angular location of a mechanical tomographic scanner in transmission mode. Each extracted snippet is processed to yield a multi-spectral vector of attenuation values at multiple frequency bands. These vectors form a 3-D sinogram representing a multi-spectral augmentation of the conventional 2-D sinogram. A filtered backprojection algorithm is used to reconstruct a stack of multi-spectral images for each 2-D tomographic slice that allow tissue characterization. A novel methodology for soft tissue differentiation using spectral target detection is presented. The representative 2-D and 3-D HUTT images formed at various frequency bands demonstrate the high-resolution capability of the system. It is shown that spherical objects with diameter down to 0.3㎜ can be detected. In addition, the results of soft tissue differentiation and characterization demonstrate the feasibility of quantitative soft tissue analysis for possible detection of lesions or cancerous tissue.

Feasibility of normal tissue dose reduction in radiotherapy using low strength magnetic field

  • Jung, Nuri Hyun;Shin, Youngseob;Jung, In-Hye;Kwak, Jungwon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.226-232
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Toxicity of mucosa is one of the major concerns of radiotherapy (RT), when a target tumor is located near a mucosal lined organ. Energy of photon RT is transferred primarily by secondary electrons. If these secondary electrons could be removed in an internal cavity of mucosal lined organ, the mucosa will be spared without compromising the target tumor dose. The purpose of this study was to present a RT dose reduction in near target inner-surface (NTIS) of internal cavity, using Lorentz force of magnetic field. Materials and Methods: Tissue equivalent phantoms, composed with a cylinder shaped internal cavity, and adjacent a target tumor part, were developed. The phantoms were irradiated using 6 MV photon beam, with or without 0.3 T of perpendicular magnetic field. Two experimental models were developed: single beam model (SBM) to analyze central axis dose distributions and multiple beam model (MBM) to simulate a clinical case of prostate cancer with rectum. RT dose of NTIS of internal cavity and target tumor area (TTA) were measured. Results: With magnetic field applied, bending effect of dose distribution was visualized. The depth dose distribution of SBM showed 28.1% dose reduction of NTIS and little difference in dose of TTA with magnetic field. In MBM, cross-sectional dose of NTIS was reduced by 33.1% with magnetic field, while TTA dose were the same, irrespective of magnetic field. Conclusion: RT dose of mucosal lined organ, located near treatment target, could be modulated by perpendicular magnetic field.

Differential Regulation of Obesity by Swim Training in Female Sham-operated and Ovariectomized Mice

  • Jeong, Sun-Hyo;Yoon, Mi-Chung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.13-20
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    • 2011
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\alpha}$ ($PPAR{\alpha}$) is a nuclear transcription factor that plays a central role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. To investigate whether swim training improves obesity and lipid metabolism through $PPAR{\alpha}$ activation in female sham-operated (Sham) and ovariectomized (OVX) mice, we measured body weight, visceral adipose tissue mass, serum free fatty acid at 6 weeks as well as the expression of hepatic $PPAR{\alpha}$ target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Swim-trained mice had decreased body weight, visceral adipose tissue mass and serum free fatty acid levels compared to high fat diet fed control mice in both female Sham and OVX mice. These reductions were more prominent in OVX than in Sham mice. Swim training significantly increased hepatic mRNA levels of $PPAR{\alpha}$ target genes responsible for mitochondrial fatty acid ${\beta}$-oxidation, such as carnitine palmitoyltransgerase-1 (CPT-1), very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD), and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) in OVX mice. However, swim trained female Sham mice did not increase hepatic mRNA levels of $PPAR{\alpha}$ target genes responsible for mitochondrial fatty acid ${\beta}$-oxidation compared to Sham control mice. These results indicate that swim training differentially regulates body weight and adipose tissue mass between OVX and Sham mice, at least in part due to differences in liver $PPAR{\alpha}$ activation.

Prodrug and Antedrug: Two Diametrical Approaches in Designing Safer Drugs

  • Lee, Henry-J.;Cooperwood, John-S.;You, Zhengqing;Ko, Dong-Hoon
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.111-136
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    • 2002
  • The prodrug and antedrug concepts, which were developed to overcome the physical and pharmacological shortcomings of various therapeutic classes of agents, employ diametrically different metabolic transformations. The prodrug undergoes a predictable metabolic activation prior to exhibiting its pharmacological effects in a target tissue while the antedrug undergoes metabolic deactivation in the systemic circulation upon leaving a target tissue. An increased therapeutic index is the aspiration for both approaches in designing as well as evaluation criteria. The recent research endeavors of prodrugs include the gene-directed and antibody-directed enzymatic activation of a molecule in a targeted tissue, organ specific delivery, improved bioavailabilities and cellular penetration of nucleotides. As for antedrugs, emphasis in research has been based upon the design and synthesis of systemically inactive molecule by incorporating a metabolically labile functional group into an active molecule.

Genomic Analysis of miR-21-3p and Expression Pattern with Target Gene in Olive Flounder

  • Jo, Ara;Lee, Hee-Eun;Kim, Heui-Soo
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.98-107
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    • 2017
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as regulators of gene expression by binding to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of target genes. They perform important biological functions in the various species. Among many miRNAs, miR-21-3p is known to serve vital functions in development and apoptosis in olive flounder. Using genomic and bioinformatic tools, evolutionary conservation of miR-21-3p was examined in various species, and expression pattern was analyzed in olive flounder. Conserved sequences (5'-CAGUCG-3') in numerous species were detected through the stem-loop structure of miR-21-3p. Thus, we analyzed target genes of miR-21-3p. Among them, 3' UTR region of PPIL2 gene indicated the highest binding affinity with miR-21-3p based on the minimum free energy value. The PPIL2 gene showed high expression levels in testis tissue of the olive flounder, whereas miR-21-3p showed rather ubiquitous expression patterns except in testis tissue, indicating that miR-21-3p seems to control the PPIL2 gene expression in a complementary repression manner in various tissues of olive flounder. Taken together, this current study contributes to infer the target gene candidates for the miR-21-3p using bioinformatics tools. Furthermore, our data offers important information on the relationship between miR-21-3p and target gene for further functional study.

Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ${\gamma}$ Is Not Associated with Adipogenesis in Female Mice

  • Yoon, Mi-Chung;Jeong, Sun-Hyo
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 2008
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ $(PPAR{\gamma})$ plays a central role in adipogenesis and lipid storage. The $(PPAR{\gamma})$ ligands, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), enhance in vitro adipogenesis in several cell types, but the role of the TZDs on in vivo adipogenesis is still poorly understood. To investigate how $PPAR{\gamma}$ ligand troglitazone regulates adipogenesis in female mice, we examined the effects of the troglitazone on adipose tissue mass, morphological changes of adipocytes, and the expression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ target and adipocyte-specific genes in low fat diet-fed female C57BL/6 mice. Administration of troglitazone for 13 weeks did not change body and total white adipose tissue weights compared with control mice. Troglitazone treatment also did not cause a significant decrease in the average size of adipocytes in parametrial adipose tissue although it is reported to increase the number of small adipocytes in male animals. Troglitazone did not affect the mRNA expression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ and its target genes as well as adipocyte-specific genes in parametrial adipose tissue. These results suggest that $PPAR{\gamma}$ does not seem to be associated with adipogenesis in females with functioning ovaries and that its inability to induce adipogenesis may be due to sex-related factors.

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Regulation of PPAR and SREBP-1C Through Exercise in White Adipose Tissue of Female C57BL/6J Mice

  • Jeong, Sun-Hyo
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.227-236
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    • 2012
  • Previous study showed that swimming improved obesity but was not through $PPAR{\alpha}$ activation in liver and skeletal muscle in high fat diet-fed female mice with functioning ovaries as an animal model of obese premenopausal women. Thus, this study was aimed at investigation of the effects of swimming on the promotion of health and its molecular mechanism in adipose tissue of high fat diet-fed female mice. Eight-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups (a non-swim control group and a swim group, n=8/group). Mice in the swim group swam for 2 h daily for 6 weeks in water bath with temperature of $35{\pm}1^{\circ}C$. All the animals received high fat diet (45% kcal fat) for 6 weeks. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to elucidate the molecular mechanism. Female mice subjected to swimming had significantly decreased body weight gain and white adipose tissue mass compared with the female control mice. Histological studies illustrated that swimming decreases the hepatic lipid accumulation. As expected, swimming did not affect the expression of mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ${\alpha}$ and $PPAR{\alpha}$ target genes responsible for mitochondrial fatty acid ${\beta}$-oxidation, such as carnitine palmitoyltransgerase-1 and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in the white adipose tissue. However, mice that underwent 6-weeks of swimming exercise had decreased the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes, such as sterol regulatory element-binding proteins-1C and fatty acid synthase in comparison to sedentary control mice, with decreased $PPAR{\gamma}$ target genes involved in adipocyte-specific marker genes, such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein and leptin in the white adipose tissue. These results suggest that swimming can effectively prevent obesity induced by high fat diet-fed, in part through down-regulation of adipogenesis and lipogenesis in white adipose tissue of female obese mice. Moreover, these results suggest that swimming maybe contributing the promotion of health through regulation of adipogenesis and lipogenesis in overweight premenopausal women.

Swim Training Improves Fitness in High Fat Diet-fed Female Mice

  • Jun, Jong-Kui;Lee, Wang-Lok;Lee, Young-Ran;Jeong, Sun-Hyo
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.151-159
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    • 2010
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor $\alpha$ (PPAR$\alpha$) is a nuclear transcription factor that plays a central role in lipid metabolism and obesity. Exercise also is a powerful modifier of the manifestations of the lipid metabolism and obesity in animal models and humans with obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, effects of exercise on lipid metabolism and obesity in normal-weight younger female subjects, having functional ovaries and not metabolic disease, remain unexplained. To explore the effects of exercise on the development of obesity and its molecular mechanism in high fat diet-fed female C57BL/6J mice, we experimented the effects of swim training on body weight, adipose tissue mass, serum lipid levels, morphological changes of adipocytes and the expression of PPAR$\alpha$ target genes involved in fat oxidation in skeletal muscle tissue of female C57BL/6J mice. Swim-trained mice had significantly decreased body weight, adipose tissue mass, serum triglycerides compared with female control mice. Histological studies showed that swim training significantly decreased the average size of adipoctyes in parametrial adipose tissue. Swim training did not affect the expression of PPAR$\alpha$ mRNA in skeletal muscle. Concomitantly, swim training did not increase mRNA levels of PPAR$\alpha$ target genes responsible for fatty acid $\beta$-oxidation, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and thiolase in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, these results indicate that swim training regulates lipid metabolism and obesity in high fat diet fed-female mice although swim training did not increase mRNA levels of PPAR$\alpha$ target genes involved in fatty acid $\beta$-oxidation in skeletal muscle, suggesting that swim training may prevent obesity and improve fitness through other mechanisms in female with ovaries, not through the activation of skeletal muscle PPAR$\alpha$.