• Title/Summary/Keyword: Target strength

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Construction of a Data Bank for Acoustic Target Strength with Fish Species, Length and Acoustic Frequency for Measuring Fish Size Distribution (어류 체장의 자동 식별을 위한 어종별, 체장별 및 주파수별 음향 반사 강도의 데이터 뱅크 구축)

  • LEE Dae-Jae;SHIN Hyeong-Il
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.265-275
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    • 2005
  • A prerequisite for deriving the abundance estimates from acoustic surveys for commercially important fish species is the identification of target strength measurements for selected fish species. In relation to these needs, the goal of this study was to construct a data bank for converting the acoustic measurements of target strength to biological estimates of fish length and to simultaneously obtain the target strength-fish length relationship. Laboratory measurements of target strength on 15 commercially important fish species were carried out at five frequencies of 50, 70, 75, 120 and 200 kHz by single and split beam methods under the controlled conditions of the fresh and the sea water tanks with the 389 samples of dead and live fishes. The target strength pattern on individual fish of each species was measured as a function of tilt angle, ranging from $-45^{\circ}$ (head down aspect) to $+45^{\circ}$ (head up aspect) in $0.2^{\circ}$ intervals, and the averaged target strength was estimated by assuming the tilt angle distribution as N $(-5.0^{\circ},\;15.0^{\circ})$. The TS to fish length relationship for each species was independently derived by a least-squares fitting procedure. Also, a linear regression analysis for all species was performed to reduce the data to a set of empirical equations showing the variation of target strength to a fish length, wavelength and fish species. For four of the frequencies (50, 75, 120 and 200 kHz), an empirical model for fish target strength (TS, dB) averaged over the dorsal sapect of 602 fishes of 10 species and which spans the fish length (L, m) to wavelength (\Lambda,\;m)$ ratio between 5 and 73 was derived: $TS=19.44\;Log(L)+0.56\;Log(\Lambda)-30.9,\;(r^2=0.53)$.

Fish length dependance of acoustic target strength for large yellow croaker (부세에 대한 음향반사강도의 체장 의존성)

  • 강희영;이대재
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.239-248
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    • 2003
  • This paper was conducted as an attempt in order to construct the data bank of target strength for acoustic estimation of fish length in the coastal waters of Korea. The fish length dependence of acoustic target strength for 13 large yellow croakers (Pseudosciaena crocea) at 75 kHz was investigated and the prediction of the target strength by using the Kirchhoff-Ray Mode model (KRM model) was compared with target strength measurements. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. In the averaged target strength pattern for 13 large yellow croakers the maximum target strength was -35.13 dB at $-13.35^{\circ}$ on a tilted angle. 2. The relationship between fork length(L, cm) and averaged target strength(TS, dB) was expressed as follows; TS=23. 76log (L) -73.45 (r=0.47) TS=20log(L) -67.35 From this result, the conversion coefficient was -73.45 dB and 6.1 dB lower than the coefficient -67.35 dB where the value of the slope of the regression equation is forced to be 20. 3. Averaged target strength and a length conversion coefficient derived from a target strength histogram for 13 large yellow croakers of mean length 25.59 cm were -41.23 dB, -69.72 dB, respectively. 4. In the range of $$2;{\ll} L (fish length /{\lambda}(wave length);{\ll}40$$, the prediction of the averaged target strength by the KRM model increased gradually with the increasing of $L/{\lambda}$ and was lower than the measured target strength.

Fish length dependence of acoustic target strength for 12 dominant fish species caught in the Korean waters at 75 kHz (한국 연근해에서 어획된 주요 12어종의 75 kHz에 대한 음향 반사 강도의 체장 의존성)

  • Lee, Dae-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.296-305
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    • 2005
  • Acoustic target strength (TS) of 12 commercially important fish species caught in the Korean waters had been investigated and their results were presented. Laboratory measurements of target strength on 12 dominant fish species were carried out at a frequencies of 75 kHz by single beam method under the controlled condition of the water tank with the 241 samples of dead and live fishes. The target strength pattern on individual fish of each species was measured as a function of tilt angle, ranging from $-45^{\circ}$ (head down aspect) to $45^{\circ}$ (head up aspect) in $0.2^{\circ}$ intervals, and the averaged target strength was estimated by assuming the tilt angle distribution as N ($-5.0^{\circ}$, $^15.0{\circ}$). The 75 to fish length relationship for each species was independently derived by a least - squares fitting procedure. Also, a linear regression analysis for all species was performed to reduce the data to a set of empirical equations showing the variation of target strength to fish length and fish species. An empirical model for fish target strength(TS, dB) averaged over the dorsal aspect of 158 fishes of 7 species and which spans the fish length(L, m) to wavelength(${\lambda}$, m) ratio between 6.2 and 21.3 was derived: TS: 27.03 Log(L)-7.7Log(${\kanbda}$)-17.21, ($r^2$=0.59).

Fish Tracking with a Split Beam Echo Sounder -Measurements of Swimming Speeds- (Split beam 어군탐지기에 의한 어류의 유영행동 조사연구 -유영속도의 측정-)

  • 이대재
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.301-311
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    • 1999
  • The investigation to evaluate the possible effects of fish behaviour on acoustic target strength was carried out during the 1997 and 1998 hydroacoustic-demersal trawl surveys in the southern waters of Korea.The swimming speed and the target strength of individual, acoustically resolved fished swimming through the sound beam were measured using the split-beam tracking method on board R/V Kaya.The results obtained can be summarized as follows:1. The alongship and athwartship angles between -3dB poionts of a hull mounted 38 kHz split beam tranducer used in these surveys was >$3.76^{\circ}\;and\;6.74^{\circ}$ respectively, and the equal energy contour obtained from the measured beam pattern showed approximately the circular pattern. 2. The swimming speed measured off the south coast of Sorido in 23 January 1997 ranged 0.10 to 0.80 m/s with the average swimming spped of 0.36 m/s, and the target strength ranged -64.8 to -31.7 dB with the average target strength of -52.7 dB. The most dominant species sampled in this survey area were Japanese scaled sardine, Sardinella zunasi and Konoshiro gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus, respectively.3. The swimming speed measured off the east coast of Kojedo in 24 March 1997 ranged 0.10 to 1.10 m/s with the average swimming speed of 0.40 m/s, and the target strength ranged -64.8 to -51.5 dB with the average target strength of -59.2 dB. The most dominant species sampled in this survey area were Swordtip squid, Photololigo edulis, Konoshiro gizzard shad and Japanese flying squid, Toddarodes pacificus, respectively and the swimming activity of these species seems to be controlled at speeds between 0.20 and 0.60 m/s. 4. The swimming speed measured the south coast of Kojedo in 25 March 1997 ranged 0.10 to 1.40 m/s with the average swimming speed of 0.51 m/s and the target strength ranged -64.3 to -47.7 dB with the average target strength of -55.1 dB. The most dominant species sampled in this survey area were Swordtip squid, Blotchy sillage, Sillago maculata and japanese scaled sardine, respectively and the swimming activity of these species seems to be controlled at speeds between 0.20 and 0.70 m/s.5. The swimming speed measured during morning twilight in the southeastern water of Cheju Island in 11 July 1998 ranged 0.20 to 1.0 m/s with the average swimming speed of 0.53 m/s, and the target strength ranged -65.0 to -47.0 dB with the average target strength of -57.1 dB. The most dominant species sampled in this survey area were Swordtip squid, Black scraper, Thamnaconus modesutus and japanese flying squid, respectively and the tile angle ranged$ +28^{\circ}\;to\;+2^{\circ}$ with the average tilt angle of -8.1$^{\circ}$ showing the downward migration.

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Acoustic target strength measurements on immobile riverine shrimp, oriental river prawn(Macrobrachium koreana), in freshwater (담수역 징거미 새우(Macrobrachium koreana)의 음향 반사 강도 특성)

  • Hwang, Bo-Kyu;Shin, Hyeon-Ok;Cho, Sung-Ho;Lee, Dae-Jae;Kang, Don-Hyug
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 2008
  • Assessment and management of fisheries abundance in fresh water like a river or a lake is very important to maintain fisheries itself as well as tourist industry even if their scale is not much large. The species for catch in fresh water are mainly a mandarin fish, a carp, an eel, and others. Because oriental river prawn is a main prey of these species and the change in its abundance is directly related to their abundance change in fresh water, information on the abundance and distribution of the species are necessary. Hydroacoustic survey is known to one of the efficient method among several methodology. Information on acoustic target strength is key parameter to estimate abundance for acoustic survey. In this study, measurements on oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium koreana, were conducted for two high frequencies(200kHz and 420kHz) with tilt angle using automatic rotating system. The results of acoustic target strength obtained from the experiment were compared with those of acoustic scattering model, Distorted Wave Born Approximation(DWBA) model. For 200kHz, the result of acoustic target strength experiments was expressed in terms of the averaged target strength dependence on the body langth(BL, cm) as a following relationship; < $TS_{200kHz}$ > = 45.9log(BL) - 107.4. These results provide basic information for studying acoustic target strength and conducting acoustic survey of oriental river prawn.

Ultrasonic Target Strength of Cyprinus Carpio in Accordance with Body Length and Body Weight (이스라엘 잉어 Cyprinus Carpio의 체장 , 체중별 초음파 표적강도에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Hyoung-Ho;Yoon, Gab-Dong;Park, Hae-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.191-199
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    • 1989
  • Research on the acoustic properties of fish has been carried out by a number of scientific workers from the earliest days of applying acoustic techniques to fish biomass estimates. This paper describes measurements of the target strength of Cyprinus Carpio, which measurements made at 50KHz in the experimental water tank. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The target strength(dB) of the fish has a directivity pattern quite similar to that of a transducer. The maximum value of target strength(dB) is obtained when the fish is insonified to its head-tail axis either from the dorsal or from the ventral side. 2. Empirical relationship between target strength(dB) and body length(cm) of the fish can be estimated as TS=20 Log L-65.4 where TS is the target strength of the fish and L is the body length of the fish. 3. The relationship between target strength(dB) and body weight(g) of the fish can be estimated as TS=6.7 Log W-53.7 where W is body weight of the fish.

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Fish length dependence of target strength for black porgy and fat greenling at two frequencies of 70 and 120kHz (70 및 120kHz에서 쥐노래미와 감성돔에 대한 음향 반사 강도의 체장 의존성)

  • Lee, Dae-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.137-146
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    • 2012
  • Black porgy and fat greenling are commercially important fish species due to the continuously increasing demand in Korea. When estimating acoustically the fish length by a fish sizing echo sounder, it is of crucial importance to know the target strength (TS) to length dependence. In relation to these needs, the target strength experiments for live fishes were conducted in an acrylic salt water tank using two split-beam echo sounders operating at 70 and 120kHz. The target strength under well-controlled laboratory conditions was simultaneously measured with the swimming movement by digital video recording (DVR) system and analyzed as a function of fish length (L) and frequency (or wavelength ${\lambda}$). Equations of the form TS-alog (L)+blog (1)+c were derived for their TS-length dependence. The best fit regression of TS on fork length for black porgy was TS=20.62 log (L, m)-0.62 log (${\lambda}$, m)-30.68 ($r^2$=0.77). The best fit regression of TS on fork length for fat greenling was TS=12.06 log (L, m)-5.85 log (${\lambda}$, m)-22.15 ($r^2$=0.44).

Target Strength Prediction of Scaled Model by the Kirchhoff Approximation Method (Kirchhoff 근사 방법을 이용한 축소모델의 표적강도 예측)

  • 김영현;주원호;김재수
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.442-445
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    • 2004
  • The acoustic target strength (TS) of submarine is associated with its active detection, positioning and classification. That is, the survivability of submarine depends on its target strength. So it should be managed with all possible means. An anechoic coating to existing submarine or changing of curvature can be considered as major measures to reduce the TS of submarine. It is mainly based on the prediction of its TS. Under this circumstances, a study on the more accurate numerical methods becomes big topic for submarine design. In this paper, Kirchhoff approximation method was adopted as a numerical tool for the physical optics region. Secondly, the scaled models of submarine were built and tested in order to verify its performance. Through the comparison, it was found out that the Kirchhoff approximation method could be good design tool for the prediction of TS of submarine.

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Acoustic Target Strength of the Pelagic Fish in the Southern Waters of Korea I. In situ Measurement of Target Strength of Anchovy (Engraulis japonica) (한국 남해안 부어류의 음향반사강도에 관한 연구 I. 멸치 (Engraulis japonica)의 in situ 반사강도 측정)

  • YOON Gab Dong;KIM Zang Geun;CHOI Young Min
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.107-114
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    • 1996
  • The in situ target strength for the anchovy (Engraulis japonica) were measured by the split beam echo sounder system at 38 kHz. This study allowed us to detect the single echos from anchovy shoals which were dispersed during trawling operation in day time. The results of our study were as fellows: We found that the anchouy occupied about $95\%$ of the total catch from the detected shoals from which target strength data were collected. Length distribution of anchovy showed a mode and ranged from 13.6 to 15.4cm with a mean of 14.4cm and a standard deviation of 0.45cm, and weight distribution showed a mode and ranged from 16 to 28 g witha mean of 21.9 g and a standard deviation of 2.7 g. The target strength distribution of anchovy ranged from -40.7 dB to -69.2 dB in the water layer of ,$10\~30\;m$ -42.19 to -67.7 dB in the $30\~50\;m$ and -42.2 to -67.7 dB in $10\~50\;m$, showing 2 modes in each layer, respectively. Overall mean target strengths were -49.7 dB/fish and -33.1 dB/kg, averaged by area backscattering cross section $(\sigma)$, and the confidence interval for target strength was less than 1 dB. With the mean total length and the mean target strength, we drived the target strength-length relationship as $TS(\sigma)=20\;Log\;L-72.9$.

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