• Title, Summary, Keyword: Tamworth

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Comparison of growth performance of Berkshire purebreds and crossbreds sired by Hereford and Tamworth breeds raised in alternative production system

  • Park, Hyeon-Suk;Spann, Kristal;Whitley, Niki;Oh, Sang-Hyon
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.1358-1362
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare growth performance of Berkshire purebred pigs (BB), Hereford (HB) and/or Tamworth (TB) sired Berkshire crossbred pigs reared in a hoop structure in two experiments. Methods: In the first experiment, BB was compared to TB while HB and TB were compared in the second. Body weights (BW) were recorded at 3 days of age and every 28 days from birth until 140 days of age. There was no significant difference between the BW of BB and TB, but HB was heavier than TB by 84 days of age. Least square means of average daily gain (ADG) were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance. Results: The mean parity (${\pm}$standard deviation) of the sows was $3.42{\pm}2.14$ and a total of 45 farrowing occurred from year 2012 to 2014. The mean number of total born, number born alive, number of mummies, and number weaned were $9.23{\pm}2.52$, $7.87{\pm}2.53$, $0.04{\pm}0.21$, and $5.94{\pm}2.74$, respectively. Parity did not have a significant effect on the growth performance of the pigs. For BB and TB, there was only one time frame in which there was a significant difference in the ADG: between 28 and 56 days of age. For HB and TB, the overall ADG of HB was significantly greater than the total ADG of TB. Conclusion: The breed of the sire did not affect the growth performance of the progeny between Berkshire purebreds and Tamworth${\times}$Berkshire crossbreds. The breed of the sire did have an effect between Hereford and Tamworth sired Berkshire crossbreds (p<0.05). The Hereford sired pigs were found to have increased growth performance compared to Tamworth sired.

Comparison of Growth Performance of Antibiotic-free Yorkshire Crossbreds Sired by Berkshire, Large Black, and Tamworth Breeds Raised in Hoop Structures

  • Whitley, N.;Morrow, W.E.M.;See, M.T.;Oh, S.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.10
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    • pp.1351-1356
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to compare body weight, ADG, and feed:gain ratio of antibiotic-free pigs from Yorkshire dams and sired by Yorkshire (YY), Berkshire (BY), Large Black (LBY) or Tamworth (TY) boars. All the crossbred pigs in each of three trials were raised as one group from weaning to finishing in the same deep-bedded hoop, providing a comfortable environment for the animals which allowed rooting and other natural behaviors. Birth, weaning and litter weights were measured and recorded. From approximately 50 kg to market weight (125 kg), feed intake and body weights were recorded manually (body weight) or using a FIRE (Feed Intake Recording Equipment, Osborne Industries Inc. Osborne, Kansas) system with eight individual feeding stations. Feed intake data for 106 finishing pigs between 140 and 210 d of age and the resulting weights and feed conversion ratios were analyzed by breed type. Least square means for body weights (birth, weaning and to 240 d) were estimated with Proc Mixed in SAS 9.2 for fixed effects such as crossbreed and days of age within the sire breed. The differences within fixed effects were compared using least significant differences with DIFF option. Individual birth weights and weaning weights were influenced by sire breed (p<0.05). For birth weight, BY pigs were the lightest, TY and YY pigs were the heaviest but similar to each other and LBY pigs were intermediate. For weaning weights, BY and LBY pigs were heavier than TY and YY pigs. However, litter birth and weaning weights were not influenced by sire breed, and average daily gain was also not significantly different among breed types. Tamworth sired pigs had lower overall body weight gain, and feed conversion was lower in TY and YY groups than BY and LBY groups (p<0.05), however, number of observations was somewhat limited for feed conversion and for Tamworth pigs. Overall, no convincing differences among breed types were noted for this study, but growth performance in the outdoor environment was satisfactory.

Risk Awareness on Uterine Cancer among Australian Women

  • George, Mathew;Asab, Nihad Abu;Varughese, Elizabeth;Irwin, Matthew;Oldmeadow, Christopher;Hollebone, Keith;Apen, Kenneth;Renner, Stefan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10251-10254
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    • 2015
  • Uterine cancer is the most common invasive gynaecological cancer in Australia. Early detection is a key predictive factor achieved by increasing public awareness and participation in screening. This observational study measures awareness of gynaecological malignancies, particularly uterine, among women in two rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. Patients presenting to gynaecology clinics in January to March 2014 were invited to complete a structured questionnaire. Women with a history of cancer and incomplete questionnaires were excluded. Of the 382 patients invited to participate, 329 (86%) responded with complete feedback. Most respondents were younger than than 50 years (66%) and married with at least 2 children (74%). The majority (94%) of participants had no awareness of uterine cancer and many (46%) were unable to identify common risk factors including obesity, diabetes and hypertension. The ability to identify risk factors was correlated to age, marital status and obesity. The study identifies poor awareness on uterine malignancies in two typical areas of rural Australia. Although external validity is limited by sociological factors, poor awareness of uterine cancer among rural patients in this study represents a valid public health concern. It is imperative to improve awareness of uterine cancer and available screening programs to facilitate early detection and cure.

Psychosocial Analysis of Cancer Survivors in Rural Australia: Focus on Demographics, Quality of Life and Financial Domains

  • Mandaliya, Hiren;Ansari, Zia;Evans, Tiffany;Oldmeadow, Christopher;George, Mathew
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.2459-2464
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cancer treatments can have long-term physical, psychological, financial, sexual and cognitive effects that may influence the quality of life. These can vary from urban to rural areas, survival period and according to the type of cancer. We here aimed to describe demographics and psychosocial analysis of cancer survivors three to five years post-treatment in rural Australia and also assess relationships with financial stress and quality of life domains. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 65 participants visiting the outpatient oncology clinic were given a self-administered questionnaire. The inclusion criteria included three to five years post-treatment. Three domains were investigated using standardised and validated tools such as the Standard Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors Scale (QLACS) and the Personal and Household Finances (HILDA) survey. Included were demographic parameters, quality of life, treatment information and well-being. Results: There was no evidence of associations between any demographic variable and either financial stress or cancer-specific quality of life domains. Financial stress was however significantly associated with the cancer-specific quality of life domains of appearance-related concerns, family related distress, and distress related to recurrence. Conclusions: This unique study effectively points to psychosocial aspects of cancer survivors in rural regions of Australia. Although the majority of demographic characteristics were not been found to be associated with financial stress, this latter itself is significantly associated with distress related to family and cancer recurrence. This finding may be of assistance in future studies and also considering plans to fulfil unmet needs.

Comparison of Pork Quality and Sensory Characteristics for Antibiotic Free Yorkshire Crossbreds Raised in Hoop Houses

  • Whitley, N.;Hanson, D.;Morrow, W.;See, M.T.;Oh, S.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.11
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    • pp.1634-1640
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to compare pork characteristics and to determine consumer acceptability of pork chops from antibiotic free Yorkshire crossbreds sired by Berkshire (BY), Large Black (LBY), Tamworth (TY) or Yorkshire (YY) boars and reared in hoop houses. The experiments were conducted at the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University (NCA&TSU) Farm in Greensboro, NC and the Cherry Research Station Center for Environmental Farming Systems (CEFS) Alternative Swine Unit in Goldsboro, NC (source of antibiotic free Yorkshire sows used at both places). Twenty-four sows were artificially inseminated at each location in each of three trials. Litters were weaned at 4 wks old, and reared within deep-bedded outdoor hoop houses. To compare pork characteristics, 104 randomly selected animals were harvested at a USDA-inspected abattoir at approximately 200 d of age. Variables measured included pH, color score, $L^*$, $a^*$, $b^*$, marbling score, drip loss, hot carcass weight, backfat thickness (BF), loin muscle area (LMA), and slice shear force. Sensory panel tests were also conducted at two time periods. The data was analyzed with GLM in SAS 9.01 including location, trial, and sire breed as fixed effects. Backfat thickness, LMA, color score and $a^*$ were different among breeding groups (p<0.05). The LBY pigs had thicker backfat and smaller LMA than the other breed types. The TY and YY had less backfat than all other breed groups. Color score was lower for YY than BY and LBY but intermediate for TY. The $a^*$ was lower for TY than other breeds except LBY which was intermediate. For one sensory panel test, YY pork was more preferred overall as well as for juiciness and texture compared to BY and LBY (p<0.05), but no impact of breed type was noted for the other test, with values similar for BY, LBY, TY and YY pork. This information may help small farmers make decisions about breed types to use for outdoor production.

Insomnia in Cancer - Associations and Implications

  • George, Mathew;Elias, Alby;Shafiei, Mohsen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6711-6714
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    • 2015
  • Background: Insomnia is a common condition in cancer patients. In spite of the high prevalence its associations have not been well studied. Existing data suggests that insomnia is related to depression and pain. However, the impact of ongoing chemotherapy on sleep is not investigated. Aim: To study the relationship between insomnia and chemotherapy after analysing confounding variables. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients who visited New England Oncology Clinic in Tamworth were recruited. Insomnia was assessed with the Bergen insomnia scale. The Montgomery Asberg Depression rating scale was used to measure depression. Pain was assessed with the Brief Pain inventory. Chronic medical conditions, type of cancer, side effects to chemotherapy, role of steroids and other drugs were studied as confounders. Results: A total of 56 patients participated in the study. Age ranged from 33 to 83 years (mean: 63.6, SD=10.97). There were 29 men and 27 women. 42 patients received at least one form of chemotherapy and 15 were receiving radiotherapy at the time of assessment. Mean insomnia score was significantly higher in those receiving chemotherapy than in those without chemotherapy (8.92 vs 17.2, two tailed p=0.005, 95% CI=2.63-13.71). There was no significant variation in insomnia scores in terms of chronic medical condition, type of cancer, psychiatric history, use of steroids or adverse effects of chemotherapy. However, total insomnia score was correlated with depression rating score (Pearson correlation, r=0.39, p=0.003) and magnitude of pain (r=0.37, p=0.006). On regression analysis only pain was found to be predictive of insomnia. Conclusions: Insomnia in patients with cancer is found to be associated with concurrent chemotherapy and correlated with degree of depression and pain. Identifying factors related to insomnia in cancer population has implications in its management and patient education.