• Title, Summary, Keyword: Taiwan

Search Result 1,484, Processing Time 0.049 seconds

Monitoring Nutritional Status of Dairy Cows in Taiwan Using Milk Protein and Milk Urea Nitrogen

  • Hwang, Sen-Yuan;Lee, Mei-Ju;Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.13 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1667-1673
    • /
    • 2000
  • The climate and marketing system of raw milk in Taiwan create problems in balance feeding of protein and energy in lactating cows in Taiwan. Level of urea nitrogen both in bulk milk and serum reflects ruminal protein degradation and post-ruminal protein provision, whereas milk protein concentration responds to dietary energy intake and bacterial protein production in the rumen. Establishment of a range of reference standards in milk protein and urea nitrogen levels can be applied as a noninvasive economical feeding guide to monitor the balance of protein and energy intake. Standard reference levels of 3.0% milk protein and 11-17 mg/dL milk urea nitrogen (MUN) were established. Level of milk protein below 3.0% is regarded as indicating inadequate dietary energy whereas MUN below or above the range is regarded as a deficiency or surplus in dietary protein. Results from analysis of bulk a milk samples collected from 174 dairy herds over Taiwan showed that only one quarter (25.29%) of the herds received a balanced intake of protein and energy, 33.33% adequate protein with energy inadequate, 22.99% herds in protein surplus with energy inadequate, 10.35% herds in protein surplus with energy adequate, 4.6% protein deficiency with energy adequate, and 3.45% herds with both protein and energy inadequate. Energy inadequate herds accounted for 60% of the total dairy herds in Taiwan with 56% adequate, 38% surplus and 6% inadequate in protein. In comparing milk sampled from bulk milk on different seasons from Lee-Kang area in the southern Taiwan, the concentrations of milk fat and milk protein were significantly higher in the cool season (February) than in the warm season (August) (p<0.05), whereas the urea nitrogen in the milk was significantly lower in the cool season than in the warm season (p<0.05). This indicated that lactating cows had excess protein and/or inadequate energy intake in the warm season in this area. It appears that the major problem feeding in lactating cows is energy intake shortage, especially during the warm season in Taiwan.


  • Chiau, Wen-Yan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.29-44
    • /
    • 2002
  • Wetlands provide vital habitats for fish and wildlife while offering numerous other benefits. As in some other countries, however, Taiwan has witnessed the loss of a significant portion of its coastal wetlands due to large-scale reclamation projects along the coast. Most of the wetlands that still remain are seriously being threatened by both human activities and natural changes, such as drainage for agricultural production, filling for industrial development, discharge of wastes and drought. The administrative performance of the existing authorities and legislation in Taiwan has mostly been ineffective in protecting these precious, sensitive areas. This paper introduces the distribution of wetlands in Taiwan and highlights their invaluable functions and potential economic value. It also discussed the recent activities, both initiated by the government and the NGOs, to protect wetlands in Taiwan. Based on the above discussion, the paper identifies the wide-range of current problems related to their management and proposes the vision should have to save wetlands for the future. It argues that establishing clear policies and effective institutional mechanisms on wetland protection and conservation, classifying the wetlands for better management, and fully promoting public awareness and consciousness of the importance of the wetlands will not only be beneficial but will also address the urgent need to safeguard the wetlands in Taiwan. Additionally, the paper recognizes that international cooperation and collaboration on wetland restoration is essential and most challenging.

  • PDF