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Director Oshii Mamoru's Recognition and Representation of Modern World Shown in (<스카이 크롤러>를 통해 본 오시이 마모루 감독의 '현대세계' 재현과 인식)

  • Moon, Jae-Cheol;Park, Nam-Ki
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.1-30
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    • 2012
  • Oshii Mamoru attempts to project the perception of reality about his own modern world as it is through animation. The precedent studies on Oshii Mamoru put their focus on the point that his works have a tendency to represent the devastation of reality as the image of 'a ruin.' In addition, they gave an impression that Oshii Mamoru's animation has gradually developed to expose the 'realistic taste[beauty]' from the design perspective. However, this study is going to put its focus on the point that Mamoru's works were created as an attempt at finding the subversive possibility of the suppressed modern world under the modern capitalism in the aspect of 'everyday life' of the modern world. First, for its analytical purpose, this study intends to do that by dividing the work into the three layers such as space, body and everyday life. In Chapter II, this study, in relation with the issue of 'space' representation, analyzed the space in into the modern, mechanical, compactly capitalized space and also the space just like a closed circuit having the nature of 'repetition.' In Chapter III, this analyzed that suggests the body moving freely between a human named 'Kildren' and the inhuman from the aspect of character's body, through which Mamoru represents the capitalized, reified body of the modern world. In addition, this analyzed the extreme anxiety facing the body into the reflection of the phenomena of 'anxiety' and 'placelessness' consequent on the labor flexibility of the modern world. In Chapter IV, this study, on the basis of the analysis of layers of space & body, analyzed that the 'everyday life' of the modern world was represented in the respects of 'memory' and 'habit', and in the aspects of Mise-en-Sc$\grave{e}$ne, design and direction. In Chapter V, this rooted out the fact that Mamoru suggested the attempt at 'appropriation' based on his perception of reality about such a modern world. Such a finding includes unearthing the fact that Oshii Mamoru's work is raising a question about how to desert and appropriate the modern space. In conclusion of Chapter VI, this drew the conclusion that Oshii Mamoru's work represented the layer of 'everyday life' while dealing with the post-modern themes shown by the existing modern SF genre, provided the 'window' through which people can perceive the 'modern world radically by recommending an attempt at 'appropriation', and blazed a trail in a new realm of creation for animations.

Diversity, Spatial Distribution and Ecological Characteristics of Relict Forest Trees in South Korea (한국 산림유존목의 다양성, 공간 분포 및 생태 특성)

  • CHO, Hyun-Je;Lee, Cheol-Ho;Shin, Joon-Hwan;Bae, Kwan-Ho;Cho, Yong-Chan;Kim, Jun-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.105 no.4
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    • pp.401-413
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    • 2016
  • Forest resources utilization and variable disturbance history have been affected the rarity and conservation value of forest relict trees, which served as habitat for forest biodiversity, important carbon stock and cultural role include human and natural history in South Korea. This study was conducted to establish the baseline data for forest resources conservation by clarifying species diversity, spatial distribution and ecological characteristics (individual and habitat) of forest relict trees (DBH > 300 cm) based on the data getting from mountain trail, high resolution aerial photos and field professionals and field survey. As results, 54 taxa (18 family 32 genus 48 species 1 subspecies 3 variety and 2 form) as about 22% of tree species in Korea was identified in the field. 837 individuals of forest relict trees were observed and the majority of the trees was in Pinaceae, deciduous Fagaceae and Rosaceae, which families are abundant in population diversity. High elevation area was important to relict trees as mean altitudinal distribution was 1,200 m a.s.l as likely affected by human activity gradients and mid-steep slope and North aspect was important environment for the trees remain. Many individuals exhibited 'damage larger branch' (55.6%) and consequent relatively lower mean canopy coverages (below 80%). Synthetically, present diversity and abundance of relict forest trees in South Korea were the result of complex process among climate variation, local weather and biological factors and the trees of big and old were estimated to important forest biodiversity elements. In the future, clarifying the role and function of relict trees in forest ecosystem, in- and ex- situ programmes for important trees and habitat, and activities for building the background of conservation policy such as "Guideline for identifying and measurement of forest relict trees".

Analysis of Hibernating Habitat of Asiatic Black Bear(Ursus thibetanus ussuricus ) based on the Presence-Only Model using MaxEnt and Geographic Information System: A Comparative Study of Habitat for Non-Hibernating Period (MaxEnt와 GIS를 활용한 반달가슴곰 동면장소 분석: 비동면 기간 동안의 서식지 비교 연구)

  • JUNG, Dae-Ho;KAHNG, Byung-Seon;CHO, Chae-Un;KIM, Seok-Beom;KIM, Jeong-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.102-113
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    • 2016
  • This study analyzes the geographic information system (GIS) and machine learning models to understand the relationship between the appearance of hibernation sites and habitats in order to systematically manage the habitat of Asiatic Black Bear(Ursus thibetanus ussuricus) inhabiting Jirisan National Park, South Korea. The most important environmental factors influencing the hibernation sites was found to be the inclination(41.4%), followed by altitude(20.4%), distance from the trail(10.9%), and age group(7.7%) in the order of their contribution. A comparison between the hibernation habitat and the normal habitat of Asiatic Black Bear indicated that the average altitude of the hibernation sites was 63m, whereas the average altitude of the normal habitat was approximately 400m. The average inclination was found to be $7^{\circ}$, and a preference for the steeper inclination of $12-43^{\circ}$ was also observed. The average distance of the hibernation site from the road was approximately 300m; the range of separation distance was found to be 1,300-2,400m. This was thought to be the result of a safer selection of winter hibernation site by preventing human contact and outside invasion. This study analyzes the habitat environmental factors for the selection of hibernation sites that prevent severe cold and other threats during the hibernation period in order to provide fundamental data for hibernation ecology and habitat management of Asiatic Black Bear.

A Study on the Design Guidelines of Healing Landscape in Housing Complexes (공동주택에서 치유조경계획을 위한 가이드라인 연구)

  • Chun, Hyunwoo;Lee, Shiyoung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.26-37
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    • 2016
  • As activities and convenience of residents in outdoor spaces in apartment houses have been considered important, strategies for making outdoor spaces in apartment houses healing spaces have emerged as a major interest. The purpose of this study is to draw elements for planning healing to create healing spaces in collective housing areas and to present design guidelines. The findings of this study are as follows. Functional elements of a healing environment were classified into safe environment, therapeutic environment, ancillary environment, orientation-reinforcing environment, amenities, and social environment. Outdoor spaces in collective housing areas were divided into collective housing entrance areas, internal and external spread areas, outdoor activity areas, and areas by theme. First, collective housing entrance areas should be planned in such a manner that residents can feel the area is private and easy to recognize. Second, internal and external spread areas should be planned in such a manner that they are easy to access and communicate with neighbors. Third, outdoor activity areas should be divided into an open space, resting space, playing space, and sports space. Open spaces should be planned in such a manner that they can command a fine view and respect the privacy of nearby residents. Resting spaces should be equipped with a shelter that protects users from direct sunlight, rain, and snow as well as include a movable bench. Playing spaces should be built considering development of children's curiosity, adventurous spirit, character, stimulation, and physical health. Playing spaces should be designed in such a manner that roadways and sidewalks can be separated for safe traffic. Sport spaces should be planned in such a manner that they can be associated with a pavilion and trail that provide residents with an opportunity to communicate with each other and rest. Fourth, spaces by theme are classified into sense garden, therapeutic garden, experiential garden, and learning garden. Sense gardens are a small garden based on the five senses. Sense gardens should be designed in such a manner that they can improve users' mental and physical health through programs that stimulate the sense of sight, auditory sense, and olfactory sense. Therapeutic gardens should be designed in such a manner that they can provide a comfortable and relaxing space by minimizing noise. It is advisable for therapeutic gardens to be equipped with a medicinal herb garden, meditation garden, and sense garden. Experiential and learning gardens should be designed in such a manner that they can provide users with a space in which they can enjoy nature and leisure activities. It is advisable for experiential and learning gardens to be equipped with a tea garden, vegetable garden, and camping garden. Healing programs should be designed in such a manner that users can feel relaxed by providing a healing environment, making the most of the natural environment. Further research on evaluating whether the findings of this study are effective in healing in a qualitative and quantitative manner is needed.

Development Process and Methods of Audit and Certification Toolkit for Trustworthy Digital Records Management Agency (신뢰성 있는 전자기록관리기관 감사인증도구 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Rieh, Hae-young;Kim, Ik-han;Yim, Jin-Hee;Shim, Sungbo;Jo, YoonSun;Kim, Hyojin;Woo, Hyunmin
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.25
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    • pp.3-46
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    • 2010
  • Digital records management is one whole system in which many social and technical elements are interacting. To maintain the trustworthiness, the repository needs periodical audit and certification. Thus, individual electronic records management agency needs toolkit that can be used to self-evaluate their trustworthiness continuously, and self-assess their atmosphere and system to recognize deficiencies. The purpose of this study is development of self-certification toolkit for repositories, which synthesized and analysed such four international standard and best practices as OAIS Reference Model(ISO 14721), TRAC, DRAMBORA, and the assessment report conducted and published by TNA/UKDA, as well as MoRe2 and current national laws and standards. As this paper describes and demonstrate the development process and the framework of this self-certification toolkit, other electronic records management agencies could follow the process and develop their own toolkit reflecting their situation, and utilize the self-assessment results in-house. As a result of this research, 12 areas for assessment were set, which include (organizational) operation management, classification system and master data management, acquisition, registration and description, storage and preservation, disposal, services, providing finding aids, system management, access control and security, monitoring/audit trail/statistics, and risk management. In each 12 area, the process map or functional charts were drawn and business functions were analyzed, and 54 'evaluation criteria', consisted of main business functional unit in each area were drawn. Under each 'evaluation criteria', 208 'specific evaluation criteria', which supposed to be implementable, measurable, and provable for self-evaluation in each area, were drawn. The audit and certification toolkit developed by this research could be used by digital repositories to conduct periodical self-assessment of the organization, which would be used to supplement any found deficiencies and be used to reflect the organizational development strategy.

Study on Deriving the Items related to Investigation and Planning for the Comprehensive Maintenance Plan of Scenic Sites (명승 종합정비계획 수립을 위한 조사 및 계획 항목의 도출에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Yong
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.88-103
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to excavate the items of the comprehensive maintenance plan for scenic sites considering sustainability and analyze the needs of them. In this sense, based on 35 reports of the comprehensive maintenance plan established between 2006, when scenic sites started to be designated, and 2017, the items used in 'investigation field' and 'planning field' were examined, and then a survey regarding the needs of the items was conducted using a "5-point Likert Scale", targeting officials at 60 local governments in the whole country. Of 60 local governments, opinions from 48 officials at 45 local governments were analyzed. In order to verify the consistency of their opinions, "Reliability Analysis" was conducted, and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.968 and 0.970 for 'investigation field' and 'planning field', respectively, showing high reliability. As a result of the survey, most opinions generally expressed the needs of 6 items of 'investigation field' of the comprehensive maintenance plan. Especially, the needs to investigate 'historical environment', 'natural environment', 'humanistic environment', and 'landscape' turned out to be high. In addition, as for 'general environment' and 'users', the needs of specific items such as 'distribution of main cultural properties and historic sites' (4.04) and 'acceptance of opinions from local residents and interested parties' (4.15) were found to be high. Besides, the items of 'planning field' also turned out to be needed in general (4.0). Particularly, the needs of 'enhancement of designated value and status' (4.26) and 'the comprehensive maintenance plan for designated areas of cultural properties and historic and cultural environment preservation areas' (4.25) in 'historical environment', 'maintenance of historic buildings at scenic sites' (4.28) in 'humanistic environment', and 'landscape trail planning' (4.28) in 'landscape' were found to be high. In conclusion, the practical items related to investigation and planning of the comprehensive maintenance plan for scenic sites are expected to contribute to effective conservation and management of scenic sites in the future.

Induction of Apoptosis by Ethanol Extract of Lythrum anceps (Koehne) Makino in Human Leukemia U937 Cells (인체백혈병 U937 세포에서 부처꽃 에탄올추출물에 의한 apoptosis 유도)

  • Jeong, Jin-Woo;Kim, Chul Hwan;Lee, Young-Kyung;Hwang, Yong;Lee, Ki Won;Choi, Kyung-Min;Kim, Jung Il
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 2020
  • Purple loosestrife-Lythrum anceps (Koehne) Makino is a herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the Lythraceae family. It has been used for centuries in Korea and other Asian traditional medicine. It has been showed pharmacological effects, including anti-oxidant and anti-microbial effects. However, the mechanisms underlying its anti-cancer effect are not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of apoptosis signaling pathways by ethanol extract of Lythrum anceps (Koehne) Makino (ELM) in human leukemia U937 cells. Treatment with ELM significantly inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis, as evidenced by the formation of apoptotic bodies (ApoBDs), DNA fragmentation and increased populations of sub-G1 ratio. Induction of apoptosis by ELM was connected with up-regulation of death receptor (DR) 4 and DR5, pro-apoptotic Bax protein expression and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family proteins, depending on dosage. This induction was associated with Bid truncation, mitochondrial dysfunction, proteolytic activation of caspases (-3, -8 and -9) and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase protein. Therefore, our data indicate that ELM suppresses U937 cell growth by activating the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways, and thus may have applications as a potential source for an anti-leukemic chemotherapeutic agent.

Metamorphic Evolution of the central Ogcheon Metamorphic Belt in the Cheongju-Miwon area, Korea (청주-미원지역 중부 옥천변성대의 변성진화과정)

  • 오창환;권용완;김성원
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.106-124
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    • 1999
  • In the Cheongju-Minwon area which occupies the middle part of the Ogcheon Metamorphic Belt, three metamorphic events(M1, M2, M3) had occurred. Intermediate P/T type M2 regional metamorphism formed prevailing mineral assemblages in the study area. Low PIT type M3 contact metamorphism occurred due to the intrusion of granites after M2 metamorphism. M1 metamorphism is recognized by inclusions within garnet. During M2 metamorphism, the metamorphic grade increased from the biotite zone in the southeastern part to the garnet zone in the northwestern part of the study area. This result is similar to the metamorphic evolution of the southwestern part of the Ogcheon Metamorphic Belt. Garnets in the garnet zone are classified into two types; Type A garnet has inclusions whose trail is connected to the foliation in the matrix and Type B garnet has inclusion rich core and inclusion poor rim. Type A garnet formed in the mica rich part with crenulation cleavage whereas Type B garnet formed in the quartz rich part with weak crenulation cleavage. In some outcrops, two types garnets are found together. Compared to the rim of Type A garnet, the rim of Type B garnet is lower in grossular and spessartine contents but higher in almandine and pyrope contents. In some Type B garnets, the inclusion poor part is rimmed by muddy colored or protuberant new overgrowth. In the inclusion poor part and new overgrowth, a rapid increase in grossular and decrease in spessartine is observed. However, the compositional patterns of Type A and B are similar; Ca increases and Mn decreases from core to rim. Two types garnets formed mainly due to the difference of bulk chemistry instead of metamorphic and deformational differences. The metamorphic P-T conditions estimated from Type A garnets are 595-690 OC15.7-8.8 kb, which indicates M2 metamorphism is intermediate P/T type metamorphism. On the other hand, a wide range of P-T conditions is calculated from Type B garnets. The P-T conditions from most Type B garnet rims are 617-690 OC16.2-8.9 kb which also indicates an intermediate P/T type metamorphism. However, at the rim part with flat end or weak overgrowth, grossular content is low and 573-624OC14.7-5.8 kb are estimated. The P-T conditions calculated from plagioclase and biotite inclusions in garnet are 460-500 0C/1.9-3.0 kb. The P-T conditions from rim part with weak overgrowth and inclusions within garnet, indicate that low P/T type M1 regional metamorphism might have occurred before intermediate P/T type M2 regional metamorphism. The P-T conditions estimated from samples which had undergone low PIT type M3 metamorphism strongly, are 547-610 0C/2.1-5.0 kb.

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Bioacoustics and Habitat Environment Analysis of Cicadas in Taebaeksan National Park (태백산국립공원에 서식하는 매미류의 생물음향 및 서식환경 분석)

  • Kim, Yoon-Jae;Jung, Tae-Jun;Ki, Kyong-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.664-676
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    • 2019
  • This study aimed to analyze the bioacoustics and habitat environment of the cicadas inhabiting Taebaeksan National Park, an sub-alpine region in Korea. The mating calls of the cicadas were recorded for approximately 3 months, between July and September of 2018. The recording devices were installed in Daedeoksan valley and Baekcheon valley, inside Taebaeksan National Park, and the sounds were recorded 24 hours a day. In order to obtain the habitat distribution data of the cicadas, the sounds were recorded from 111 spots located in the Taebaeksan National Park trail in August 2018. The daily weather data was obtained from the Taebaek city weather center. The results of the study demonstrated that 5 species of cicadas inhabit Taebaeksan National Park, namely, Leptosemia takanonis, Lyristes intermedius, Kosemia yezoensis, Hyalessa fuscata, and Meimuna opalifera. The time of appearance for L. takanonis was early July to mid-July, and that for L. intermedius, K. yezoensis, H. fuscata, and M. opalifera was mid-July to early September. Analysis of the circadian rhythm revealed that L. intermedius, K. yezoensis, and H. fuscata started producing mating calls between 6:00 and 7:00, which ended at around 19:00 for all the three species. The peak time for producing mating calls was 11:00 for L. intermedius, 12:00 for H. fuscata, and around 13:00 to 14:00 for K. yezoensis. The environmental factors influencing the mating calls of the cicadas inhabiting Taebaeksan National Park were analyzed by logistic regression. The results showed that the probability of producing mating calls increased by 1.192 and 1.279 times in L. intermedius and K. yezoensis, respectively, when the average temperature increased by one degree. When the duration of sunlight increased by one hour, the probability of producing mating calls increased by 4.366 and 2.624 times in L. intermedius and H. fuscata, respectively. Analysis of the interspecific effects revealed that when H. fuscata produced a single mating call, the probability of producing mating calls increased by 14.620 and 2.784 times in L. intermedius and K. yezoensis, respectively. When K. yezoensis and L. intermedius produced mating calls, the probability of producing mating calls in H. fuscata increased by 11.301 and 2.474 times, respectively. L. intermedius and K. yezoensis did not have any effects on each other with respect to the production of mating calls. Analysis of the habitat environment of each species revealed that their habitats were located at altitudes of 1,046 m (780~1,315 m) for L. intermedius, 1,072 m (762~1,361 m) for K. yezoensis, and 976 m (686~1,245 m) for H. fuscata. Unlike H. fuscata, which was found at a low altitude, K. yezoensis and L. intermedius were not found at altitudes lower than 700 m. Analysis of the average aspect of the habitats of each of the cicada species revealed that L. intermedius was found at 166° (125~207°), K. yezoensis was found at 100° (72~128°), and H. fuscata was found at 173° (118~228°). Examination of the distribution of each of the cicada species revealed that they were predominantly distributed in the ridges and slopes located in the southeastern region of Munsubong in Taebaeksan. In summary, L. intermedius and K. yezoensis was found to inhabit higher altitudes in Taebacksan National Park than H. fuscata, which was found throughout the Korean peninsula. Additionally, the main aspect of the cicada habitat was found to be the southeastern region (100~173°), which has good access to daylight.