• Title, Summary, Keyword: TRAIL

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Importance-Performance Analysis on Managerial Conditions of Trails by Trail Section (등산로(登山路) 관리상태(管理狀態)에 대한 구간별(區間別) 중요도(重要度)-성취도(成就度) 분석결과(分析結果)의 비교(比較))

  • Kim, Sang-Oh
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.94 no.6
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    • pp.351-361
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    • 2005
  • This study compared the results of Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) on trail managerial conditions by trail section in Mudeung-Mountain Provincial Park. The study also examined the validity of using overall survey method (OSM: analyzing IPA from the data collected from all the trails without separating trails by section) by comparing the OSM results with those obtained from the survey by section. A total of 258 users who visited the Park was surveyed using questionnaire in the four designated trail sections during the September of 2000. The result of IPA showed that there are differences in twenty three attributes out of the 26 selected attributes (88.5%) among four trail sections. The overall IPA results obtained from the total of four trail sections were not the same with the IPA results from each trail section in twenty three attributes (88.5%) out of the 26 selected attributes. It suggests that we need to use a survey segmented by trail sections rather than a survey for overall trails to obtain better information for more efficient trail management.

Increased Serum S-TRAIL Level in Newly Diagnosed Stage-IV Lung Adenocarcinoma but not Squamous Cell Carcinoma is Correlated with Age and Smoking

  • Kargi, Aysegul;Bisgin, Atil;Yalcin, Arzu Didem;Kargi, Ahmet Bulent;Sahin, Emel;Gumuslu, Saadet
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.4819-4822
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    • 2013
  • Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Many factors can protect against or facilitate its development. A TNF family member TRAIL, has a complex physiological role beyond that of merely activating the apoptotic pathway in cancer cells. Vitamin D is converted to its active form locally in the lung, and is also thought to play an important role in lung health. Our goal was to investigate the possible clinical significance of serum sTRAIL and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) levels in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: Totals of 18 consecutive adenocarcinoma and 22 squamous cell carcinoma patients with stage-IV non-small cell lung cancer referred to our institute were included in this study. There were 12 men and 6 women, with ages ranging from 38 to 97 (mean 60.5) years with adenocarcinoma, and 20 men and 2 women, with ages ranging from 46 to 80 (mean 65) years with squamous cell carcinoma. Serum levels of sTRAIL and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) were measured in all samples at the time of diagnosis. Results: sTRAIL levels in NSCLC patients were higher than in the control group. Although there was no correlation between patient survival and sTRAIL levels, the highest sTRAIL levels were correlated with age and cigarette smoking in the adenocarcinoma patients. sTRAIL level in healthy individuals were correlated with serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). Conclusions: Serum sTRAIL concentrations were increased in NSCLC patients, and correlated with age and smoking history, but not with overall survival.

Analysis of Physical Characteristics and Deterioration Type of Trail in National Parks (국립공원 탐방로의 물리적 특성 및 훼손유형 분석 - 6개 국립공원을 대상으로 -)

  • Jeong, Won-Ok;Ma, Ho-Seop;Kang, Won-Seok
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the trail deterioration condition and to obtain the information for the desirable maintenance and restoration of trail in national parks. The results obtained from this study were summarized as follows; The physical characteristics of trail were surveyed at the total 778 point for 204.5 km in length. As a result, the average degree of trail was $14.6^{\circ}$, average trail width was 1.5m and average bared trail width was 1.1 m. Major deterioration types of trail were trail deepen (37%), root exposed, widen, diverged, rock exposed and slope erosion in order of frequency. Deterioration class of trail were that non-deterioration was 165.34 km (80.9%), heavy class was 9.08 km, middle class was 12.69 km and light class was 17.39 km and the deterioration rate was 19.1%.

Analysis on Trail Deterioration in Wolseong, Gyeongju-si - Focused on Assessing Impact Rating Class - (경주 월성의 산책로 훼손실태 분석 - 환경피해도 평가를 중심으로 -)

  • Kang, Tai-Ho;You, Ju-Han;Zhao, Hong-Xia;Li, Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study is to present the raw data for establishing the conservation and restoration trail about Wolseong by objective and systematical trail deterioration in Wolseong as UNESCO, world heritage site, Gyeongju-si, Korea. To accomplish the purpose, not only trail condition such as altitude, entire width, bare width, maximum depth and slope of trail, but also deterioration types of trail were surveyed at the total 97 points for 2.145km in length on the 11 access trails to Wolseong. Major deterioration types of trail were root exposure(48%), rock exposure(40%), trail deeping(9%) in order of frequency. To grasp the deterioration condition of the trail, assessment on impact rating class of trail that the 11 access trail were investigated. Putting these results together informs us that the deterioration condition of the trail in Wolseong is reached the level of grave concern yet, prompt countermeasure to maintain the existing condition has to be considered with regard for the conditions of location and the containing amounts of use.

The Post Occupancy Evaluation of the Universal Design Project on Geonjisan Forest Trail Jeonju City, South Korea (전주시 건지산 숲길 Universal Design 사업 이용후 평가)

  • Park, Sun-A;Lee, Myung-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.60-69
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    • 2012
  • The project on Geonjisan Universal Design Forest Trail in Jeonju City was designed and constructed by an NGO called 'Jeonbuk Forest for Life' which was a winner for the '2008 Open Competition by the 'Committee for Greening Society' established in Korea Land Corporation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the design satisfaction of UD forest trail. Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) method was applied to measure the user satisfaction and the total number of users. The main result of the study were as follows: the major users of the Geonjisan UD forest trail were people aged over 60 years old(37%) and the main purpose of trail usage were to 'walk and rest'(51.5%) and to 'exercise and rehabilitation' (40.6%). Furthermore, the overall user rating for the UD forest trail design was "satisfied"(3.91 point in 5-point Likert Scale). The three most influencing factors of the overall user satisfaction were facility management, user conflict, and trail width and slope. About forty-five people were found to be End-user in the UD forest trail while six people were found as End-user in non-UD trails. Most importantly, the number of End-user observed on the UD forest trail was greater than the number found in non-UD forest trail. The result implies that the UD forest trail attracts more End-users and provides opportunity for gathering and interaction with the other users. Moreover, the satisfaction rate for the UD forest trail landscape is found to be high in Likert scale, which we can assume that the well-grown existing trees and topographic features as well as appropriately designed wood-paths influence the high satisfaction rate of the users. The POE of UD forest trail revealed the importance of universal design concept due to its convenient uses of the handicapped, old, weak, pregnant woman or children.

Potentiation of the Cytotoxic Effects of Imatinib and TRAIL by Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs on Human Cancer Cells (비스테로이드소염제(Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug, NSAID)에 의한 인간 암세포의 imatinib 및 TRAIL의 세포 독성 증강 기전 연구)

  • Moon, Hyun-Jung;Kang, Chi-Dug;Kim, Sun-Hee
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.661-671
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    • 2020
  • The resistance of cancer cells to anti-cancer drugs is the leading cause of chemotherapy failure. The clinical use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been gradually extended to cancer treatment through combination with anti-cancer drugs. In the current study, we investigated whether NSAIDs including celecoxib (CCB), 2,5-dimethyl celecoxib (DMC), and ibuprofen (IBU) could enhance the cytotoxic effects of imatinib and TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) on human cancer cells. We found that the NSAIDs potentiated TRAIL and imatinib cytotoxicity against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines SNU-354, SNU-423, SNU-449, and SNU-475/TR and against leukemic K562 cells with high level of CD44 (CD44highK562), respectively. More specifically, CCB induced endoplasmic reticulum stress via up-regulation of ATF4/CHOP which is associated with the induction of autophagy against HCC and CD44high K562 cells. NSAID-induced autophagic activity accelerated TRAIL cytotoxicity of HCC cells through up- and down-regulation of DR5 and c-FLIP, respectively. The NSAIDs also potentiated imatinib-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis through down-regulation of markers in CD44highK562 cells that express a stemness phenotype. Our results suggest that the ability of NSAIDs to induce autophagy could enhance the cytotoxicity of TRAIL and imatinib, leading to a reverse resistance to these drugs in the cancer cells. In conclusion, NSAIDs in combination with low-dose TRAIL or imatinib may constitute a novel clinical strategy that maximizes therapeutic efficacy of each drug and effectively reduces the toxic side effects.

The Development of ZVZCS type Battery Charger for High Speed Trail Car with Ni-Cd Battery Charging Algorithm (Ni-Cd전지용 충전 알고리즘을 이용한 고속전철용 ZVZCS형 충전장치개발)

  • 김연준
    • Proceedings of the KIPE Conference
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    • pp.548-551
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    • 2000
  • The battery charger for high speed trail car is very important power source for the purpose of safty and system stability. it provides control power of VVVF, CVCF, DC/DC converter and inverter for traction motor. This paper included power circuit of the ZVZCS type battery charger for high speed trail car and battery included power circuit of the ZVZCS type battery charger for high speed trail car and inverter for traction motor. This paper included power circuit of the ZVZCS type battery charger for high speed trail car an battery charging algorithm. Also the optimum parallel operation of 50Kw battery charger for high speed trail car and charging control method of Ni-Cd battery illustrates validity and effectiveness through the experiments.

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Over Expression of BCL2 and Low Expression of Caspase 8 Related to TRAIL Resistance in Brain Cancer Stem Cells

  • Qi, Ling;Ren, Kuang;Fang, Fang;Zhao, Dong-Hai;Yang, Ning-Jiang;Li, Yan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.4849-4852
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    • 2015
  • Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been investigated as an effective agent to treat various cancers. Cancer stem cells are resistant to TRAIL treatment, but the mechanism of TRAIL resistance remains unknown. In this study, brain cancer stem cells were isolated by CD133 magnetic sorting, and the number of CD133 positive cells detected by flow cytometry. The self-renewing capacity of brain cancer stem cells was examined by a neurosphere formation assay, and the percentage of cell death after TRAIL treatment was examined by an MTS assay. Expression of DR5, FADD, caspase 8 and BCL2 proteins was detected by western blot. The amount of CD133 positive cells was enriched to 71% after CD133 magnetic sorting. Brain cancer stem cell neurosphere formation was significantly increased after TRAIL treatment. TRAIL treatment also reduced the amount of viable cells and this decrease was inhibited by a caspase 8 inhibitor or by the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD (P<0.05). Brain cancer stem cells expressed lower levels caspase 8 protein and higher levels of BCL2 protein when compared with CD133 negative cells (P<0.05). Our data suggest that TRAIL resistance is related to overexpression of BCL2 and low expression of caspase 8 which limit activation of caspase 8 in brain cancer stem cells.

User Satisfaction and Motivation to Forest Trail near Metropolitan City of Korea - Focused on the Forest Trail of Daegu - (대도시 생활권 숲길 이용자의 방문동기 및 이용만족 - 대구광역시 숲길을 중심으로 -)

  • Kwon, Tae-Ho;Lee, Dukjae
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.405-412
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    • 2013
  • The aim of this study was to suggest fundamental data for managing forest trail efficiently from the aspect of users near metropolitan city of Daegu, and to reveal the differences in visiting motivation and satisfaction on forest trail between regional users and distant users, which based upon the convenience of accessibility. As a result of questionnaire survey on the users of forest trail, it was revealed that they mostly visited recreational and therapeutic purposes. Most users were also satisfied with forest trail experiences without any differences between groups. Regarding to trail facilities, however, regional users within 30 minutes distances from the trail were significantly dissatisfied with the facilities. It was suggested that improving facilities and programs for recreational and therapeutic purposes should be established for regional users in the policy of self governing body.

User′s Impacts on Trail Deteriorations and Edge Vegetation in Sokri Mountain National Park (속리산 국립공원의 등산로 훼손과 주연부식생에 미치는 영향)

  • 권태호;오구균;이준우
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.63-68
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    • 1990
  • User's impacts on trail deteriorations and edge vegetation were studied in Sokri Mountain National Park in 1990. The entire width, bare width and maximum depth of trail as the trail condition were significantly greater on the more heavily used trail. Deteriorations of trail which were surveyed at the total of 52 were significantly different from those of non-deteriorated points. The dominant trees in the crown layer of trail edge are as follows. According as the altitude rises, the changes happen from Quercus serrata to Quercus variabilis, Pinus densiflora, and to Quercus mongolica at Joongsajaam course, and from Pinus densiflora, Quercus variabilis to Quercus mongolica at Birosanjang course. And Stephanandra incisa, Symplocos chinesis for. pilosa show high relative dominant value at Joongsajaam course, Lindera obtusiloba, Fraxinus sieboldiana show one at Birosanjang course.

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