• Title, Summary, Keyword: TRA3CM

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A Three-Color Marking Mechanism for Fairness Improvement in the Assured Service of the Diffserv Network (차등 서비스 네트워크의 확신 서비스에서 공평성 향상을 위한 3색 마킹 메커니즘)

  • 모상덕;정광수
    • Journal of KIISE:Information Networking
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.764-775
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    • 2003
  • Previous works for the assured service in the Diffserv network have no sufficient consideration on the fairness of bandwidth share based on RTTs and the target rates of TCP flows. In this paper, in order to solve these problems, we propose a TRA3CM(Target rate and RTT Aware 3 Color Marking) mechanism. The TRA3CM mechanism provides three color marking and fair transmission rates among aggregate flows by considering RTT and target rate simultaneously. In case of higher target rate than bottleneck bandwidth, the TRA3CM mechanism is able to mitigate the RTT effect and provides fair transmission rates. In the results of comparing the performance among existing mechanisms and the TRA3CM, the TRA3CM mechanism was able to mitigate the RTT effect better than the former. The TRA3CM is shown to provide good performance for transmission rates proportional to various target rates.

A Mechanism to Improve the Fairness of the AF Service in Diffserv Network (차등 서비스 네트워크에서 AF 서비스의 공평성 향상 기법)

  • 모상덕;정광수
    • Journal of KIISE:Information Networking
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.469-481
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    • 2004
  • Previous works for the AF(Assured Forwarding) service in the Diffserv network have no sufficient consideration on the fairness of bandwidth share based on RTTs, the target rates, and the impact of UDP against TCP. In this paper, in order to solve these problems, we propose a FDSA(Fair Differentiated Service Architecture) composed of TRA3CM(Target rate and RTT Aware 3 Color Marking) and TRBD(Target Rate Based Dropping) mechanisms. The TRA3CM and TRBD mechanisms provide three color marking and fair transmission rates among aggregate flows by considering RTT, target rate, and UDP flows simultaneously. In the results of comparing the performance among existing mechanisms and the TRA3CM-TRBD, the TRA3CM-TRBD mechanism was able to mitigate the RTT and UDP effect better than the former. The TRA3CM-TRBD is shown to provide good performance for transmission rates proportional to various target rates.

A Fair Bandwidth Distribution Mechanism for the AF Service in a Diffserv Network (차등서비스 네트워크의 AF 서비스를 위한 공정한 대역분배 기법)

  • Mo, Sang-Dok;Chung, Kwang-Sue
    • Journal of KIISE:Information Networking
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.732-744
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    • 2005
  • Previous works for the AE(Assured Forwarding) service in the Diffserv network have no sufficient consideration on the fairness of bandwidth share based on the target rate and the effect or RTT and UDP. Also Previous works act like Best-effort service in the UPN(under-Provisioned Network) condition. In this paper, in order to solve these problems, we propose the PFDSA(Proportionally Fair Differentiated Service Architecture) composed of tmTRA3CM(tcp-microflow based Target rate and an Aware Three color Marking), um3CM(udp-microflow based Three color Marker), TRBD(Target Rate Based Dropper), and target rate adjusting function. In the results of comparing the performance among existing mechanisms and the PFDSA, the PFDSA was able to mitigate the RTT and UDP effect better than the former. The PFDSA was shown to provide good performance for transmission rates proportional to various target rates in the UPN condition.

Ultra shallow $p^{+}$n junction formation using the boron diffusin form epi-co silicide (에피 코발트 실리사이드막으로 부터의 붕소 확산을 이용한 극저층 $p^{+}$n 접합 형성)

  • 변성자;권상직;김기범;백홍구
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics A
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    • v.33A no.7
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    • pp.134-142
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    • 1996
  • The epi-CoSi$_{2}$ layer was formed by alloying a Co(120$\AA$)/Ti(50$\AA$) bilayer. In addition, the ultra shallow p$^{+}$n junction of which depth is about not more than 40nm at the background concentration, 10$^{18}$atoms/cm$^{3}$ could be formed by annealing (RTA-II) the ion implanted epi-silicide. When the temperature of RTA-I is as low as possible and that of RTA-II is moderate, the p$^{+}$n junction that has low leakage current and stable epi-silicide layer could be obtained. That is, when th econdition of TRA-I was 900$^{\circ}C$/20sec and that of RTA-II was 900$^{\circ}C$/10sec, the reverse leakage current was as high as 11.3$\mu$A/cm$^{2}$ at -5V. The surface of CoSi$_{2}$ appeared considerably rough. However, when the conditon of RTA-I was 800$^{\circ}C$/20sec or 700$^{\circ}C$/20sec, the leakage currents were as low as 8.3nA/cm$^{2}$ and 9.3nA/cm$^{2}$, respectively and also the surfaces appeared very uniform.

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Effect of Additive on the Chemical Composition of Tra Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) By-product Silages and Their Nutritive Value for Pigs

  • Thuy, Nguyen Thi;Lindberg, Jan Erik;Ogle, Brian
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.762-771
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    • 2010
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine i) the fermentation characteristics of catfish by-product (C) ensiled with rice bran (RB) or sugarcane molasses (M) in different ratios, and ii) the digestibility of the silages in growing pigs. In the ensiling experiment, there were three ratios of C, ensiled with RB or M, of 8:2, 7:3 and 6:4 (wet basis for C and air-dry basis for RB and M). The six treatments were CRB8:2, CRB7:3, CRB6:4, CM8:2, CM7:3 and CM6:4, with 3 replications per treatment and seven sampling times. The pH of CRB7:3 and CRB6:4 decreased (p<0.05) from the first week and stayed stable until 8 weeks of ensiling, but the pH did not decrease in CRB8:2. The pH of CM8:2, CM7:3 and CM6:4 decreased rapidly from the first week until week 8. Dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) contents were slightly lower when catfish by-product was ensiled with RB than with M. Ammonia content in all treatments increased (p<0.05) during ensiling. Lactic acid content in silages with molasses increased from the first week, with the highest value at week 4. However, the lactic acid content in CRB8:2 did not increase with time and had the lowest value of all treatments. Acetic acid proportions of total volatile fatty acids were low at day 0, with the highest value at day 7, decreasing slowly until 8 weeks. The butyric acid proportion was highest at day 0 and decreased up to week 8. The proportion of propionic acid increased during ensiling. The digestibility experiment had a 4${\times}$4 Latin-square design and included 4 castrated crossbreed (Yorkshire${\times}$Landrace) male pigs fed four diets. The basal diet (BD) included rice bran, broken rice and maize meal, and the other three diets included fish meal (FMD) or catfish by-product ensiled with rice bran (CRBD) or sugarcane molasses (CMD). The silages chosen were those which gave the best results in the ensiling experiment for each additive. The coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of DM and organic matter (OM) was not significantly different among treatments. The CTTAD of CP was not different among the silage diets, but was lower in BD (p<0.01). The CTTAD of ether extract (EE) was higher in the catfish by-product silage diets than in FMD and BD. There was no significant difference in the digestibility of DM, OM, CP and EE between the fish meal and the by-product silages. In conclusion, catfish by-product can be successfully preserved by ensiling. Moreover, the total tract apparent digestibility of OM, CP and EE in ensiled catfish by-product was comparable with that of fish meal.

Biceps long head tendon revisited: a case report of split tendon arising from single origin

  • Kim, Kyung-Cheon;Rhee, Kwang-Jin;Shin, Hyun-Dae;Byun, Ki-Yong
    • The Academic Congress of Korean Shoulder and Elbow Society
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    • pp.165-165
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    • 2008
  • A 27-year-old, right-hand-dominant woman with a posttraumatic anterior shoulder dislocation 3 months earlier after traYc accident presented because of pain and limited range of motion in the right shoulder. On physical examination, the patient had negative instability tests and a sulcus sign. On arthroscopic examination, a bifurcate long biceps tendon with two limbs was observed about 1 cm distal to the origin in the supraglenoid tubercle. We found no evidence of a tear in the long biceps tendon on probing, and the margin of each limb was smooth and round. Although this anatomic variant may be benign, its presence might be associated with other shoulder pathology. It is interesting to speculate whether the aberrant biceps anatomy in our patient contributed to transfer of injury at dislocation to the rotator cuff rather than to the classic anterior-inferior capsulolabral complex. In addition, recognition of the described anatomic variant on arthroscopy can aid the shoulder surgeon in focusing treatment on the actual pathology.

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