• Title, Summary, Keyword: TRA

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An Alternative Approach to Determinants of Hotel Patronage Intention Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (이성적 행동이론을 이용한 호텔이용의향의 결정요인에 대한 대안적 접근)

  • Yoon, Sung-Joon
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-21
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    • 2007
  • This study seeks to understand the effects of information search activities and brand image on the hotel patronage intention based on the theory of reasoned action. First, it investigates the influence of attitude formed about hotel on the patronage intention. Second, it seeks to develope an alternative to TRA by looking into the effects of hotel image variable on hotel-specific attitude and patronage intention and attempts to substantiate the role of brand image as a substitute to subjective norm to increase the TRA's explanatory power. The main finding of this study are as follow; First, out of the three components of cognitive evaluation of hotel (human service, physical service and information service), human and physicial services were found to have significant influence on patronage intention. Brand image was found to exert notable influence on attitude toward hotel as well as patronage intention. Remarkably, the finding that brand image positively enhanced the TRA model sheds new strategic insight as to the usefulness of brand image as an alternative to overcome the TRA's limitation stemming from subjective norm. Third, it was learned that study subjects gave more weight to external information sources such as TV, radio, newspaper, magazine, and internet than to internal sources such as individual knowledge, experience or self image.

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Esoteric Buddhism and the Cross-cultural Transfiguration of Śūraṃgama-sūtra Faith in Goryeo

  • Kim, Sooyoun
    • Asian review of World Histories
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.169-195
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    • 2014
  • This paper presents an investigation into cross-cultural transfiguration of Buddhist faith in Goryeo Dynasty, with a focus on $\acute{S}\bar{u}$raṃgama-s$\bar{u}$tra that used to be in vogue in East Asia. There are three major types of $\acute{S}\bar{u}$raṃgama-s$\bar{u}$tra faith in Goryeo: the first one was concerned about the scripture itself including its citation and publication and the compilation of its annotation books; the second one involved establishing Buddhist rituals related to the scripture; and the final one was to create Dh$\bar{a}$ran$\bar{i}$ stone poles with Dafoding Dh$\bar{a}$ran$\bar{i}$ in Volume 7 of the scripture engraved in stone. While it was the common practice to engrave Zunsheng Dh$\bar{a}$ran$\bar{i}$ in China, the number of stone poles on which Dafoding Dh$\bar{a}$ran$\bar{i}$ was engraved was overwhelmingly large. There are a couple of reasons behind the difference: first, there was a tendency of Zunsheng Dh$\bar{a}$ran$\bar{i}$ being worshiped at the national level in Goryeo, which probably explains why the percentage of Zunsheng Dh$\bar{a}$ran$\bar{i}$ stone poles designed to pray for a personal mass for the dead by engraving Dh$\bar{a}$ran$\bar{i}$ on a stone pole was considerably low. In addition, there were esoteric sects in Goryeo, and it is estimated that they must have got involved in the establishment of Dafoding Dh$\bar{a}$ran$\bar{i}$ stone poles in the former half of Goryeo. Furthermore, the Zen sects had a deep non-Zen understanding of Esoteric Buddhism and tended to practice Dh$\bar{a}$ran$\bar{i}$ in Goryeo. It is estimated that Dafoding Dh$\bar{a}$ran$\bar{i}$ stone poles were set up in large numbers in Goryeo as the prevalence of $\acute{S}\bar{u}$raṃgama-s$\bar{u}$tra faith that continued on since the former half of Goryeo was combined with the Zen sects' active position about Dh$\bar{a}$ran$\bar{i}$.

Role of Zoo (동물원의 역할)

  • Moon Hong Sik;Oh Chang Young
    • Journal of the korean veterinary medical association
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.261-263
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    • 1977
  • A museum where captive animals and are exhibited to visitor is a zoo. Zoo are maintained for education and enjoyment of visitors and for scientific work with animals. Many of the animals are from parts of the world where the visitors are not likely to tra

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The Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Transnational Consumption Behaviors: Focused on Cross-Border Online Shopping (합리적 행동이론을 적용한 초국가적 소비행동에 관한 연구: 해외직구를 중심으로)

  • Seo, Min Jeong;Jeong, Yu-Jin
    • Family and Environment Research
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.109-122
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    • 2018
  • Cross-border online shopping is an example of non-mobile transnational consumption behavior that has become more popular over the last decade due to the development of technology and transportation. Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action(TRA), this study proposed and tested the hypothesized model that would explain the relationships among consumption beliefs, attitudes toward cross-border online shopping, subjective norms, and purchase intention. Consumption beliefs were measured by global consumption orientation, consumer orientation, and global brand beliefs. In addition, subjective norms included two types: online and offline norms. Descriptive statistics and path analysis were employed for the analysis of the dataset of 174 participants. As a result, the hypothesized model was generally supported. Consistent with the hypothesis, global consumption orientation and global brand beliefs were positively related to positive attitudes toward cross-border online shopping but negatively associated with consumer ethnocentrism. Offline subjective norms positively predicted both the attitudes and purchase intention whereas online subjective norms only predicted purchase intention. The results reflected that TRA was applicable to the intention of cross-border online shopping in a current on-line shopping context. We also discussed the practical applications and limitations of the study.

The Effects of the Bridge Exercise with the Sensory Feedback of Combined Abdominal Drawing-in on Transverse Abdominal and Balance in Patients with Stroke (감각피드백을 이용한 복부 드로잉-인을 결합한 교각 운동이 뇌졸중 환자의 배가로근과 균형에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Gui-Bin
    • PNF and Movement
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.19-29
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study was an investigation of the effects of the bridge exercise with the sensory feedback of combined abdominal drawing-in on transverse abdominal and balance in patients with stroke. Methods: Forty subjects were randomly assigned into two groups. Subjects in the bridge exercise group (BG, n = 20) or feedback drawing-in bridge exercise group (FDBG, n = 20) were studied for 30 minutes each, twice daily, for four weeks. Outcomes were measured using affected weight distribution (AWD), anterior limit of stability (ALOS), posterior limit of stability (PLOS), timed up-and-go test (TUG), the Berg balance scale (BBS), and transverse abdominis thickness (TRA) before and after the four-week intervention period. Results: There were significant effects in the FDBG pre-intervention and post-intervention in AWD, ALOS, PLOS, TUG, BBS, and TRA. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the bridge exercise with sensory feedback combined with abdominal drawing-in could be beneficial for patients with stroke in terms of transverse abdominal and balance.

Investigating the Spatial Focusing Performance of Time Reversal Lamb Waves on a Plate through the Finite Element Method (유한요소법을 통한 판에서 시간반전 램파의 공간집속성능 규명)

  • Choi, Jeong-Hee;Lee, Hae-Sung;Park, Hyun-Woo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.1120-1131
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    • 2011
  • Researches using time reversal acoustics(TRA) for impact localization have been paid attention to recently. Dispersion characteristics of Lamb waves, which restrict the utility of classical nondestructive evaluation based on time-of-flight information, can be compensated through the application of TRA to Lamb waves on a plate. This study investigates the spatial focusing performance of time reversal Lamb waves on a plate using finite element analysis. In particular, the virtual sensor effect caused by multiple wave reflections at the boundaries of a plate is shown to enable the spatial focusing of Lamb waves though a very small number of surface-bonded piezoelectric(PZT) sensors are available. The time window size of forward response signals, are normalized with respect to the number of virtual active sensors. Then their effects on the spatial focusing performance of Lamb waves are investigated.