• Title, Summary, Keyword: TRA

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Biodiesel Refining and Glycerin Recovering Process of Transesterification from Tra Catfish Fat

  • Huong, Le Thi Thanh;Tan, Phan Minh;Hoa, Tran Thi Viet;Lee, Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2009
  • Nowadays, Tra catfish fat is given attention as an appropriate material for biodiesel production in Vietnam. The aim of this work is to investigate the optimal conditions of refining biodiesel and recovering glycerin by the transesterification from Tra catfish fat using KOH catalyst. As our results, the yield of transesterification was achieved to 94.17% at $50^{\circ}C$ for 45 min with 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to fat in the presence of 0.8% KOH catalyst, and wherein the biodiesel was refined by washing with distilled water at $70^{\circ}C$ and dried in a microwave oven. The yield of raw glycerin recoveries from the transesterification process was 78.58%. The purity of raw glycerin was 84.14% by the conditions of neutralization state with $H_{3}PO_{4}$ solution (pH = 5), $70^{\circ}C$, and 60 min. Activated carbon (3.0 wt.%) was used for the bleaching process at $80^{\circ}C$ for 20 min. The biodiesel was obtained in accordance with for ASTM D 6751 (biodiesel standard). The ash and water of raw glycerins were 7.32 and 8.01%, respectively, and implied that the raw glycerin is very promising candidate to be used as a raw material for textile and cosmetic industries.

A Study on the System Readiness Assessment Procedure Development through a case study in Defense R&D Programs (국방연구개발 사례 연구를 통한 통합성숙도평가 절차 연구)

  • Woo, Soon;Lee, Jong Ho;Lim, Jae Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Quality Management
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.111-127
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: Simple part or equipment is necessary TRA(Technology Readiness Assessment) or MRA(Manufacturing Readiness Assessment). But sole maturity like TRA, MRA has limit complex systems or SoS(System of System). Especially complex weapon system need from the System Maturity Point of view. This research shows necessity of SRA(System Readiness Assessment). Methods: In case of complex systems, it is essential to SRA(System Readiness Assessment). For the purpose of calculating SRL(System Readiness Level), TRL and IRL must be calculated. And then SRL can obtain know from equation of TRL and IRL. To prove SRA effectiveness, it is calculated SRL of JTDLS(Joint Tactical DataLink System) programs. Results: SRA procedure is proposed and case study shows as examples of JTDLS programs. Although result of TRA is TRL6, result of SRA is not 0.6. From this research, we can know necessity of SRA. Especially complex systems or SoS(System of System) is essential to SRA. Conclusion: SRA(System Readiness Assessment) is required to overcome limitation of sole maturity and to achieve a successful acquisition of high quality weapon system. This research intended to suggest SRA procedure and case study in complex defense system.

A Study on The Effective Technology Readiness Assessment Method for System Development Project (체계개발 사업의 효과적인 기술성숙도 평가방법에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyun Woo;Ko, Jeong Hwan;Chung, Eui Seung
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.144-149
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the effective technology readiness assessment (TRA) method for system development project is suggested. We analyze the domestic and foreign TRA practice and derive the new idea to resolve the problems found from the analysis. Domestic and foreign organizations develop and use checklist for the precise TRA, but the checklist has some problems in type of questions and analysis of assessment. TRA method using the original TRL definition or the checklist should be selected depending on the project characteristic. Questions of the checklist should be classified into critical or non-critical according to their importance. Finally, Test and evaluation master plan (TEMP) in system engineering process can provide an obvious criteria to assess technology readiness level (TRL) of critical technology elements (CTE) composing the system.

Application of Theory of Reasoned Action in u-Tour System (유투어 시스템에서의 합리적 행동이론 적용)

  • Kim, Mincheol
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.12 no.12
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    • pp.217-225
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study is to propose the implications using theory of reasoned action(TRA) on u-Tour system. This research model through TRA is consisted as three constructs: user-friendliness(cognitive), perceived usefulness(cognitive) and purchase intention(affective). This study analyzes with a total of 153 respondents and used PLS-SEM method considering the small number of samples. Also, with the analysis, WarpPLS software is used in order to ferret out non-linear relationship between the constructs of research model. As a result of analysis, this research model shows statistical level significantly on proposed hypotheses and the applicability of TRA model in u-Tour system. Furthermore, additional analysis presents the possibility of non-linear relationship on each path between the constructs of research model showing J-shape. Also, the result showes the fact that the relationship had partly negative (-) effect on dependent factor. Additional analysis proposes that income variable as base of purchase intention has a moderating effect on all paths of research model.

Factors Related to the Health Behavior of Urban Resident on the Basis of Theory of Reasoned Action (이성적 행동이론에 의한 도시지역 주민들의 일부 건강증진행태 관련요인 분석)

  • Jo, Ueui-Sug;Lee, Sun-Hee
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.183-190
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    • 1999
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyse factors related to the health promotion behavior or the basis of theory of reasoned action(TRA). Methods: 509 residents in the city of Kyunggi-do were selected through multistage random sampling. A structured questionnaire was developed or the basis of Triandis model and collected by interviewing. Results: Expectation toward act and social normative influence and age showed significant relationship to health promotion behavior, Also, facilitating factors, affective attitude, education level are indirectly related to health promotion behavior. Conclusions: The result suggest that TRA is useful in understanding the mechanism of health promotion behavior.

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Pure Land Represented on the Korean Buddhist Temples - Based on the Amitāyurdhyāna Sūtra - (한국사찰에 현현된 극락정토 - 관무량수경의 의보관을 중심으로 -)

  • Hong, Kwang Pyo;Kim, Jung Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.159-169
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    • 2011
  • This research aims to discover how the pure land(Sukkavati), which had the greatest impact on ordinary people since the Shilla period, are represented in the Buddhist temples. This study first looked into the seven landscapes of the pure land, which are written on the $Amit{\bar{a}}yurdhy{\bar{a}}na$ $S{\bar{u}}tra$ a reliance on $s{\bar{u}}tras$ of the Pure Land School. Then, their meaning in the modern world were interpreted. Next the research moved on to the next step to see how the spirit and ideas of the pure land are shown in temples of the Pure Land School. Korean temples of the Pure Land School were found to faithfully embody the landscapes of the pure land in the $Amit{\bar{a}}yurdhy{\bar{a}}na$ $S{\bar{u}}tra$. One might say that those landscape traits of the temples surveyed are common among all Korean buddhist temples, but in the temples of the Pure Land School. those traits consistently reflect special concepts, forming their landscape identity. But ponds, on which the $Amit{\bar{a}}yurdhy{\bar{a}}na$ $S{\bar{u}}tra$ and the picture of $Amit{\bar{a}}yurdhy{\bar{a}}na$ $S{\bar{u}}tra$ put huge emphasis and drawn without an exception, were hard to find among the temples surveyed. This means that previous idea that a pond was an indispensible part in the temples of the Pure Land School needs to be corrected.

Occupational Exposure Assessment for Benzene Using Exposure Models (ECETOC TRA and Stoffenmanager) and Applicability Evaluation of Exposure Models in K-REACH (노출 모델의 화평법 적용성: ECETOC TRA와 Stoffenmanager Tier 1 노출 모델을 활용한 벤젠의 작업자 노출 평가)

  • Moon, Joonsik;Ock, Jeongwon;Jung, Uk-Hyun;Ra, Jin-Sung;Kim, Ki-Tae
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.460-467
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The objectives of this study are to estimate the inhalation exposure level of benzene for workers using Tier 1 exposure models ECETOC TRA (European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Target Risk Assessment) and Stoffenmanager, and to investigate their reliability for exposure assessment in K-REACH. Methods: Two exposure scenarios, 'manufacture of benzene' and 'use as solvents,' were developed for assessment of workers' exposure to benzene. The Process Category (PROC) for ECETOC TRA was collected from the European Chemical Agency (ECHA) registration dossier, and the Activity for Stoffenmanager was converted from PROC using translation of exposure models (TREXMO). The information related to exposure, such as working duration, Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE), Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV), and Risk Management Measure (RMM) were classified into high, medium, and low exposure conditions. The risk was determined by the ratio of the estimated exposure and occupational exposure limits of benzene. Results: Under high exposure conditions, the worker exposure level calculated from all PROCs and Activities exceeded the risk level, with the exception of PROC 1 and Activity 1. In the medium exposure condition, PROC 8a, 8b, and 9 and Activity 3, 7, and 8 all exceeded the risk, whereas in the low condition, all PROCs and Activities were determined to be safe. As a result, action corresponding with the low exposure condition is required to reduce the risk of exposure among workers in workplaces where benzene is manufactured or used as a solvent. In addition, the predicted exposure levels derived from the exposure models were lower than measured levels. The exposure levels estimated from Stoffenmanager were more conservative than those from ECETOC TRA. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of exposure models for exposure assessment through the example of occupational inhalation exposure assessment for benzene. For more active utilization of exposure models in K-REACH, the exact application of collected information and accurate interpretation of obtained results are necessary.

High-Accuracy Bipolar Transresistance Amplifier (고정도 바이폴라 트랜스레지스턴스 증폭기)

  • 김동용;김종필차형우정원섭
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.667-670
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    • 1998
  • Novel bipolar transresistance amplifier(TRA) for high-accuracy current-mode signal processing is described. The TRA consists of two current follower for the current inputs, a current summer for curent-differential, and a voltage follower for the voltage output. The simulation results show that the impedence of the current input and the voltage output is 0.5 $\Omega$ and the 3-dB cutoff frequency when used as a current to voltage converter extends beyond 40 MHz.

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The framework of Technology Readiness Level(TRL) Assessment and Case Study (기술성숙도(TRL)평가방법 수립 및 적용사례)

  • Park, Kyoung Jin
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Systems Engineering
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.43-48
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    • 2009
  • This paper aims to develop the framework for evaluating the technology maturity by utilizing TRA(Technology Readiness Assessment) approach. In this context, we will provide the directions through analyzing the domestic acquisition process and re lated regulations, and clarify the scenarios to apply the proposed framework to the defense R&D programs. The paper will conclude with the case study for the evolution of the proposed framework.

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A Study on the Style Change of Koran Women's Traditional Costume (한국여성 전통복식의 양식변화에 관한 연구-개화기 이후의 복식을 중심으로-)

  • 황의숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.26
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    • pp.289-310
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    • 1995
  • The present study aims at investigating the style change of the Korean women's traditional costume and analyzing its character in accordance with the social changes during the period from the civilization in 1884 to the present. The design of the tranditional costume which might be formed in the era of the Three Kingdoms had been slowly modified, and the Korean jacket and skirt design was settled in the Chosun period. In the end of the Chosun period, the drastic social changes such as civilization and revolution, together with the introduction of western dresses, affected strongly the traditional costume design. This led to a change from the old dress design to the stylish and practical one because civilized women and high school girls wore the modified costume composed of long jacket and short skirt or western style dresses. In recent years after 1960's Korean women usually wore traditional costumes as ceremonial dresses be-cause the western style dresses replaced the tra-ditional costume in everyday life. After 1970's, however, the A-line silhouette, combined with ornaments, adapted to the traditional costume in order to emphasize women's beauty, thereby resulting in remarkable modification in the tra-ditional costume. In those days, the large pro-duction of various textiles such as nylon and tetron and the appearance of the traditional costume designers played an important role in developing beautiful traditional costume designs and bringing closer together with general public women. These recent design changes might be classified generally by the following three stages ; (1) "the period of settlement" (1965 1975), (2) "the period of maturity" (1976 1985), and (3) "the period of stabilization" (1986 1995). The costume design of each period was discussed and compared in detail according to historical events. From this study, inherent beauty of the Korean traditional costume can be recognized again, and clarified its position as our folkdress. It is also suggested that in future its modification should be achieved continuously in accordance with tra-dition and modern sense.h tra-dition and modern sense.

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