• Title, Summary, Keyword: TRA

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A Design of Bipolar Transresistance Amplifiers (바이폴라 트랜스레지스턴스 증폭기 설계)

  • Cha, Hyeong-U;Im, Dong-Bin;Song, Chang-Hun
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.38 no.11
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    • pp.828-835
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    • 2001
  • Novel bipolar transresistance amplifier(TRA) and its offset-compensated TRA for high-performance current-mode signal processing are described. The TRA consist of two current follower for a current inputs, a current summer for the current-difference, a resistor for the current to voltage converter, and a voltage follower for the voltage output. The offset-compensated TRA adopts diode-connected npn and pnp transistor to reduce offset voltage in the TRA. The simulation results show that the TRA has impedance of 0.5 Ω at the input and the output terminal. The offset voltages at these terminals is 40 mV The offset-compensated TRA has the offset voltage of 1.1 mV and the impedance of 0.25 Ω. The 3-dB cutoff frequency is 40 MHz for the two TRA's when used as a current to voltage converter with unit-gain transresistance. The power dissipation is 11.25 mW.

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Factors Influencing Family Business Decision for Borrowing Credit from Commercial Banks: Evidence in Tra Vinh Province, Viet Nam

  • NGUYEN, Ha Hong;LIEN, Trinh To
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.119-122
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    • 2019
  • The study aims to investigate factors influencing business households' decision for borrowing credit: the case of commercial banks in Tra Vinh Province, VietNam. The study was conducted by collecting data from 300 business households traded at four commercial banks in Tra Vinh province (Viet Nam bank for agriculture and rural development, Tra Vinh Branch; Viet Nam jointstock commercial bank industry and trade, Tra Vinh Branch; Asia joinstock commercial bank, Tra Vinh Branch; Viet Nam jointstock commercial bank for foreign trade, Tra Vinh Branch). By the use of the Binary Logistic regression method, the research found out that the factors influencing to borrow c redit of household business's decision including: banks brand names, loan interest rates, service attitude, and loan procedures. Of those, the banks brand names and lending interest rates have the strongest impacts on borrow credit decision of business households at commerc ials banks in Tra Vinh province. Since then, the study has proposed solutions to improve access to credit of business households in commercial banks in Tra Vinh province in the coming time, such as: developing a bank brand; the development of flexible lending interest rate policies; improve service style of bank staff; at the same time, simplifying lending procedures.

Factors Affecting Employee Loyalty: A Case of Small and Medium Enterprises in Tra Vinh Province, Viet Nam

  • NGUYEN, Ha Hong;NGUYEN, Trung Thanh;NGUYEN, Phong Thanh
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.153-158
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    • 2020
  • The study aims to identify the factors affecting employee loyalty in the case of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Tra Vinh province, Viet Nam and to find out critical factors affecting the loyalty of employees in SMEs. This is implemented with the method of collecting primary data of 320 employees working at SMEs in 5 districts including: Cau Ngang, Tra Cu, Chau Thanh, Cang Long, Tieu Can) and Tra Vinh City, Viet Nam. Using the multivariate regression method, the researchers have found 6 factors affecting employee loyalty: colleagues, leaders, job characteristics, remuneration policies, organizational culture, and working environment. Particularly, learning opportunities may not be not statistically significant for employees' loyalty towards small and medium-sized enterprises in Tra Vinh province. From the above research results, the authors have proposed implicational piolicies such as: focusing on colleague relationships, improving leadership of business owners, attaching importance to appropriate work arrangement, having appropriate remuneration policies for laborers, building effective organizational culture and working environment to improve employee loyalty at SMEs. From the above policy implications, helping business owners realize the aspirations of workers in small and medium-sized enterprises more closely in the future, in order to sustainably develop the business system in Vietnam.

Evaluation of the Genetic Diversities and the Nutritional Values of the Tra (Pangasius hypophthalmus) and the Basa (Pangasius bocourti) Catfish Cultivated in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam

  • Men, L.T.;Thanh, V.C.;Hirata, Y.;Yamasaki, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.671-676
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    • 2005
  • A total of 50 individual catfish, the Tra (Pangasius hypophthalmus) cultivated in either floating cages (Tra-c) or in ponds (Tra-p) and the Basa (Pangasius bocourti) raised in three floating cages, were collected in two of the Mekong Delta provinces. The caudal fin of each individual fish was used for protein electrophoresis employing the SDS-PAGE method. The one fillet sides were used as a representative sample to determine the dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and amino acids (AAs). The catfish oil was extracted from the belly fats, and the fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed. There were 21 bands of the Tra and the Basa. Protein bands of the two varieties were 28.6-33.3% polymorphic, while polymorphic individuals of the Tra ranged from 80.0 to 100.0%, and the Basa was 90.0% polymorphic. The phenotypic diversity (Ho) of the Tra ranged from 1.71 to 1.80, while the Basa ranged as high as 2.14%. Diversity values (H$_{EP}$) for genetic diversity markers were equal in the Tra and the Basa. The sum of the effective number of alleles (SENA) of both varieties ranged from 3.40 to 3.83 for the Basa and the Tra, respectively. The lower values of Ho and SENA, as compared with those of the fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium equidens) in the area, would suggest that the species with the low values will become extinct due to inbreeding; the gene pools of each observed population were below a suitable threshold. Many of the differences in the nutritional values of the Tra-c, the Tra-p and the Basa were measured; their nutrient values were comparable to fishmeal or fish oil. Most of the DM, CP, and EE were higher in the Tra, especially in the Tra-c. The essential AA content, especially that of lysine, was highest in the Tra-c, next highest in the Tra-p, and lowest in the Basa. Therefore, the amino acid patterns were closer to the ideal patterns in the same sequences. In contrast, the essential FAs were concentrated in the Basa fish oil. It was found that suitable selection of parents for seed production is required to avoid inbreeding. Catfish may be valuable sources of nutrition for both humans and animals, and the differences in their nutritional values by variety and/or management must be taken into account.

A Three-Color Marking Mechanism for Fairness Improvement in the Assured Service of the Diffserv Network (차등 서비스 네트워크의 확신 서비스에서 공평성 향상을 위한 3색 마킹 메커니즘)

  • 모상덕;정광수
    • Journal of KIISE:Information Networking
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.764-775
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    • 2003
  • Previous works for the assured service in the Diffserv network have no sufficient consideration on the fairness of bandwidth share based on RTTs and the target rates of TCP flows. In this paper, in order to solve these problems, we propose a TRA3CM(Target rate and RTT Aware 3 Color Marking) mechanism. The TRA3CM mechanism provides three color marking and fair transmission rates among aggregate flows by considering RTT and target rate simultaneously. In case of higher target rate than bottleneck bandwidth, the TRA3CM mechanism is able to mitigate the RTT effect and provides fair transmission rates. In the results of comparing the performance among existing mechanisms and the TRA3CM, the TRA3CM mechanism was able to mitigate the RTT effect better than the former. The TRA3CM is shown to provide good performance for transmission rates proportional to various target rates.

Inhibitory Effect of Rhus Verniciflua Extract on Lipid Peroxidation and Inflammatory Cytokines during Endurance Exercise Training (지구성 운동시 옻나무 추출액의 지질과산화 및 염증성사이토카인 억제효과)

  • Lee, Youn-Kyung;Kwon, Oh-Seon;Song, Young-Ju;Kim, Sea-Hyun;Kim, Pan-Gi;Ryu, Sung-Pil
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.99 no.1
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    • pp.102-110
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    • 2010
  • This study was performed to find out the inhibitory effect of Rhus Verniciflua extract on lipid peroxidation and inflammatory cytokines during endurance exercise training for 8 weeks in rats. For this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups; sedentary (SED), exercise training (TRA), RVS extract ingestion (RVE), and RVS extract ingestion and exercise training (RVE-TRA). TRA and RVE-TRA were trained on treadmill with increasing speed gradually and administered 10 mL/kg/d of Rhus Verniciflua extract orally to RVE and RVE-TRA. In order to analyze antioxidant function, blood SOD (superoxide dismutase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), and MDA (malondialdehyde) were examined. And, analysis of inflammatory cytokines were examined using IL-6 (interleukin-6), TNF-${\alpha}$ (tumor necrosis factor-alpha), CRP (C-reactive protein), and NO (nitric oxide). SOD in TRA was significantly higher than SED and RVE (p<0.05), and RVE-TRA was highest among the groups (p<0.05). The MDA content of TRA, RVE and RVE-TRA were significantly lower than SED. GSH-Px activity of SED was significantly lower than other groups (p<0.05). IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ content of RVE and RVE-TRA were significantly lower than SED and TRA (p<0.05). CRP concentration of SED was the lowest among groups (p<0.05). Finally, NO concentration of SED and TRA were higher than RVE and RVE-TRA (p<0.05). These results suggested that it is efficient for rats to reduce lipid peroxidation and induce anti-inflammatory by taking RVS extract during exercise training. Afterwards, if studies on the properties of RVS extract can be made with various ways, use of Rhus Verniciflua trees might be made widely which are growing naturally in mountains in Korea.

Enhancement of Occupational Exposure Assessment in Korea through the Evaluation of ECETOC TRA according to PROCs (공정 범주에 따른 ECETOC TRA 모델 평가로부터 도출한 한국 작업장 노출 평가 개선 방안)

  • Kim, Ki-Eun;Kim, Jongwoon;Jeon, Hyunpyo;Kim, Sanghun;Cheong, Yeonseung
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.173-185
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The objectives of this study are to evaluate the accuracy and precision of exposure model ECETOC TRA v.3.1 by comparing model predictions with repeated exposure measurements in Korean workplaces and to investigate the applicability of ECETOC TRA to Korean workplace exposure assessment in K-REACH. Methods: Measured values and work conditions for 14 kinds of chemicals collected from exposure field surveys conducted at 10 companies in Korea were utilized for this study. All possible process categories (PROCs) considered to be relevant to each work process classification were selected and applied to ECETOC TRA as major determining parameters. In order to quantify the accuracy of the model, the lack of agreement (bias, relative bias, precision) was calculated and the risk ratios for each exposure situation between estimated and measured were also compared. Results: The estimated values varied between five and 25 times according to the PROCs for all exposure situations (ESs) based on tasks/chemicals. The results showed that most of the estimated values were below the measured values, and just 13 of 53 tasks were above the measured values. The overall bias and precision were $-2.91{\pm}1.62$ with ECETOC TRA, and we found that ECETOC TRA showed a low level of conservatism when applied to Korean workplaces, similar to previous studies. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the existed PROC codes have limitations in fully covering various ESs in Korea. In order to improve the applicability of ECETOC TRA in K-REACH, the addition of new PROCs for Korean industries are necessary.

Biodiesel Production From Fat of Tra Catfish and Basa Catfish (Viet Nam) Using Alkaline Catalysts

  • Huong, Le Thi Thanh;Tan, Phan Minh;Hoa, Tran Thi Viet;Lee, Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.299-312
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    • 2008
  • The fat of Tra and Basa catfish (Mekong Delta, Viet Nam) was evaluated for the first time as the potential feedstock for biodiesel production, due to its abundance, availability and cheap cost. The unsaturated fatty acid contents of Tra and Basa fat were 57.97% and 64.17%, respectively. Biodiesel was prepared from Tra and Basa fat by methanolysis reaction using alkali catalysts like sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. Effects of various process parameters on biodiesel production, such as molar ratio of methanol to fat, catalyst concentration, temperature and time were investigated. As those results, the transesterification can be performed under moderate conditions, and the biodiesel yields were shown more than 90%. KOH catalyst was the best catalyst for biodiesel production from both Basa and Tra fat. As the feedstock aspect, Basa fat was indicated more efficiency than that of Tra fat. The maximum yield could be achieved by the transesterification from Basa fat with 5:1 molar ratio of methanol to fat, 0.8% KOH catalyst, $50^{\circ}C$, and 50 min. For Tra fat, the optimal condition were at 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to fat, 0.8% KOH catalyst, $50^{\circ}C$, and 45 min. Nowadays, due to cheaper cost and abundance, Tra fat is a promised resource for cheap biodiesel production in Viet Nam.

A Mechanism to Improve the Fairness of the AF Service in Diffserv Network (차등 서비스 네트워크에서 AF 서비스의 공평성 향상 기법)

  • 모상덕;정광수
    • Journal of KIISE:Information Networking
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.469-481
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    • 2004
  • Previous works for the AF(Assured Forwarding) service in the Diffserv network have no sufficient consideration on the fairness of bandwidth share based on RTTs, the target rates, and the impact of UDP against TCP. In this paper, in order to solve these problems, we propose a FDSA(Fair Differentiated Service Architecture) composed of TRA3CM(Target rate and RTT Aware 3 Color Marking) and TRBD(Target Rate Based Dropping) mechanisms. The TRA3CM and TRBD mechanisms provide three color marking and fair transmission rates among aggregate flows by considering RTT, target rate, and UDP flows simultaneously. In the results of comparing the performance among existing mechanisms and the TRA3CM-TRBD, the TRA3CM-TRBD mechanism was able to mitigate the RTT and UDP effect better than the former. The TRA3CM-TRBD is shown to provide good performance for transmission rates proportional to various target rates.

Purification and Characterization of a New Galactoside Specific Lectin from Trichosanthes kirilowii Root

  • Yun, Doo-Hee;Park, Eun-Ju;Park, Jong-Ok;Lee, Young-Han;Seo, Jeong-Kon;Ryu, Sung-Ho;Suh, Pann-Ghill;Kim, Hee-Sook
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.6-11
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    • 1995
  • A new lectin, named TRA, was purified from Trichosanthes kirilowii root by acid-treated Sepharose 6B, Mono-Q, and TSK-gel 3000SW column sequential chromatography. The lectin appeared homogeneous by native gel electrophoresis at pH 4.3 and gave two protein bands of Mr=31 and 28 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the polypeptides of TRA have not been reported in amino acid sequences of the lectins. TRA lectin formed a precipitate with asialofetuin, neuraminidase-treated fetuin. A sugar inhibition assay indicated that N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, among the monosaccharides tested, was the most potent inhibitor of TRA-induced hemagglutination. Asialofetuin showed a 260-times stronger inhibitory activity than N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. TRA lectin also showed agglutination with normal leukocytes and lymphoma cells, but not with premature hemopoietic cells. These results suggest that TRA is a novel plant lectin.

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