• Title, Summary, Keyword: TMA

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Removal of benzene from aqueous solution by TMA-Zeolite complex (TMA-Zeolite Comphx 에 의한 수용액(水溶液)중 Benzene 제거(除去))

  • Lee, Chan-Il;Lee, Dong-Hoon;Choi, Jyung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.43-47
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    • 1998
  • This study was performed to remove the dissolved benzene in water by using TMA-Zeolite complex which was formed by the adsorption of TMA(Tetramethyl ammonium), a kind of ration surfactant on a natural zeolite produced in Korea. The dorminant clay minerals of the natural zeolite was identified by X-ray diffractometry and Infrared spectrophotometry to be mordenite and clinoptilolite. The CEC of the zeolite used was 95.9 cmol/kg. TMA was adsorbed on natural zeolite very quickly, and the amount of TMA adsorption on zeolite was known to be equivalent to about 8% of the CEC of natrual zeolite. The amount of benzene adsorption on TMA-zeolite complex was much more than natural zeolite, indicating that the dissolved benzene in water could be removed effectively by TMA-zeolite comple.

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ITS : Intelligent Tissue Mineral Analysis Medical Information System (ITS : 지능적 Tissue Mineral Analysis 의료 정보 시스템)

  • Cho, Young-Im
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.257-263
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    • 2005
  • There are some problems in TMA. There are no databases in Korea which can be independently and specially analyzed the TMA results. Even there are some medical databases, some of them are low level databases which are related to TMA, so they can not serve medical services to patients as well as doctors. Moreover, TMA results are based on the database of american health and mineral standards, it is possibly mislead oriental, especially korean, mineral standards. The purposes of this paper is to develope the first Intelligent TMA Information System(ITS) which makes clear the problems mentioned earlier ITS can analyze TMA data with multiple stage decision tree classifier. It is also constructed with multiple fuzzy rule base and hence analyze the complex data from Korean database by fuzzy inference methods.

Characterization of TMA-A zeolite incorporated by ZnO nanocrystals (ZnO 나노결정을 담지한 TMA-A 제올라이트의 특성분석)

  • Lee, Seok Ju;Lim, Chang Sung;Kim, Ik Jin
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.58-63
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    • 2008
  • Nano-sized ZnO crystals were successfully incorporated using ion exchange method in TMA-A zeolite synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The optimal composition for the synthesis of TMA-A zeolite was resulted in a solution of $Al(i-pro)_3$ : 2.2 TEOS : 2.4 TMAOH : 0.3 NaOH : 200 $H_2O$. 0.3 g of TMA-A zeolite and 5 mol of $ZnCl_2$ solution were employed for the preparation of ZnO incorporated TMA-A zeolite. The crystallization process of ZnO incorporated TMA-A zeolite was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The incorporated nano-sized ZnO crystals and the crystallinity of TMA-A zeolite were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The size of the incorporated nano-sized ZnO crystals was 3~5 nm, while the TMA-A zeolite was 60~100 nm. The bonding structure and absorption of the ZnO incorporated TMA-A zeolite were compared with the ZnO and TMA-A zeolite by the FT-IR analysis. Subsequentlly, the ZnO incorporated TMA-A zeolite showed the photoluminescent characteristics on the wavelengths of 330~260 nm and 260~230 nm by measurement of UV spectrophotometer.

Fabrication of ZnO incorporated TMA-A zeolite nanocrystals (ZnO를 담지한 TMA-A 제올라이트 나노결정의 제조)

  • Lee, Seok-Ju;Lim, Chang-Sung;Kim, Ik-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.238-244
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    • 2007
  • Nano-sized ZnO crystals were successfully incorporated using ion exchange method in TMA-A zeolite synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The optimal composition for the synthesis of TMA-A zeolite was resulted in a solution of $Al(i-pro)_3$:2.2 TEOS:2.4 TMAOH:0.3 NaOH:200 $H_2O$. 0.3g of TMA-A zeolite and 5mol of $ZnCl_2$ solution were employed for the preparation of ZnO incorporated TMA-A zeolite. The ZnO incorporated TMA-A zeolite precursors, prepared from the process of mixing, stirring, centrifugal separation and drying, were calcined at temperatures from 400 to $600^{\circ}C$ for 3 h. The crystallization process of ZnO incorporated TMA-A zeolite was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Brunaur-Emett-Teller (BET) surface area of the ZnO incorporated TMA-A zeolite was measured. Subsequently, the morphology and the particle size depending on the temperature and time were observed using scanning electron microscopy(SEM), transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and particle size analyzer.

TMA-OM(Tissue Microarray Object Model)과 주요 유전체 정보 통합

  • Kim Ju-Han
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Bioinformatics Conference
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    • pp.30-36
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    • 2006
  • Tissue microarray (TMA) is an array-based technology allowing the examination of hundreds of tissue samples on a single slide. To handle, exchange, and disseminate TMA data, we need standard representations of the methods used, of the data generated, and of the clinical and histopathological information related to TMA data analysis. This study aims to create a comprehensive data model with flexibility that supports diverse experimental designs and with expressivity and extensibility that enables an adequate and comprehensive description of new clinical and histopathological data elements. We designed a Tissue Microarray Object Model (TMA-OM). Both the Array Information and the Experimental Procedure models are created by referring to Microarray Gene Expression Object Model, Minimum Information Specification For In Situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry Experiments (MISFISHIE), and the TMA Data Exchange Specifications (TMA DES). The Clinical and Histopathological Information model is created by using CAP Cancer Protocols and National Cancer Institute Common Data Elements (NCI CDEs). MGED Ontology, UMLS and the terms extracted from CAP Cancer Protocols and NCI CDEs are used to create a controlled vocabulary for unambiguous annotation. We implemented a web-based application for TMA-OM, supporting data export in XML format conforming to the TMA DES or the DTD derived from TMA-OM. TMA-OM provides a comprehensive data model for storage, analysis and exchange of TMA data and facilitates model-level integration of other biological models.

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In-situ Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Study during Thermolysis of Trimethylaluminum and its Adduct (Trimethylaluminum (TMA), $NH_3$ 및 TMA :$NH_3$Adduct의 열분해 반응에 대한 in-situ FTIR 분광학적 연구)

  • Hyang Sook Kim;Seong Han Kim;Jin Soo Hwang;Joong Gill Choi;Paul Joe Chong
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.37 no.12
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    • pp.995-1002
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    • 1993
  • The thermal decomposition of trimethylaluminum (TMA) with ammonia has been investigated by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The spectroscopic reaction cell, which permits heating interna lly up to 1100$^{\circ}C$, consists of stainless-steel hexagonal-port chamber containing two NaCl windows installed in parallel. In this work, the stoichiometric reaction between TMA and $NH_3$ is found to be completed immediately after mixing. FTIR spectra observed in the range of temperature 25∼1100$^{\circ}C$ show that TMA and TMA : $NH_3$ adduct decompose into methane as a predominant product around 500$^{\circ}C$. The assignments of the IR bands due to the gaseous TMA, $NH_3$ and TMA : $NH_3$ adduct are attempted on the basis of the published data. Furthermore, the decomposition of TMA can be described as a first-order reaction. Kinetic data about the decompositon of TMA and TMA : $NH_3$adduct will also be discussed.

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Design and Implementation of an Intelligent Medical Expert System for TMA(Tissue Mineral Analysis) (TMA 분석을 위한 지능적 의학 전문가 시스템의 설계 및 구현)

  • 조영임;한근식
    • Journal of KIISE:Software and Applications
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.137-152
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    • 2004
  • Assesment of 30 nutritional minerals and 8 toxic elements in hair are very important not only for determining adequacy, deficiencies and unbalance, but also for assessing their relative relationships in the body. A test has been developed that serves this purpose exceedingly well. This test is known as tissue mineral analysis(TMA). TMA is very popular method in hair mineral analysis for health care professionals in over 46 countries' medical center. However, there are some problems. First, they do not have database which is suitable for korean to do analyze. Second, as the TMA results from TEI-USA is composed of english documents and graphic files prohibited to open, its usability is very low. Third, some of them has low level database which is related to TMA, so hairs are sent to TEI-USA for analyzing and medical services. it bring about an severe outflow of dollars. Finally, TMA results are based on the database of american health and mineral standards, it is possibly mislead korean mineral standards. The purposes of this research is to develope the first Intelligent Medical Expert System(IMES) of TMA, in Korea, which makes clear the problems mentioned earlier IMES can analyze the tissue mineral data with multiple stage decision tree classifier. It is also constructed with multiple fuzzy rule base and hence analyze the complex data from Korean database by fuzzy inference methods. Pilot test of this systems are increased of business efficiency and business satisfaction 86% and 92% respectively.

A Study on Cooling Characteristics of Clathrate Compound with Concentration of TMA (TMA 농도에 따른 포접화합물의 냉각특성에 대한 연구)

  • Kim Jin-Heung;Chung Nak-Kyu;Kim Chang-Oh
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.18-23
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    • 2005
  • This study is investigated the cooling characteristics of the TMA clathrate compound including TMA (Tri-methyl-amine, (CH₃)₃N) of 20~25 wt% as a low temperature storage material at -5℃ heat source. The results showed that as the concentration of TMA is increased, phase change temperature and specific heat are increased, but the supercooling and retention time of liquid phase are decreased. Especially, low temperature storage material containing TMA 25 wt% has the average of phase change temperature of 5.8℃, supercooling of 8.0℃, retention time of liquid phase for 10 minutes and specific heat of 4.099 kJ/kg℃ in the cooling process. From the results of this study, TMA clathrate compound showed higher phase change temperature than water md supercooling repression effect.

Low Temperature Latent Heat Storage Material of Cooling Characteristics According to Concentration of TMA (TMA 농도에 따른 저온잠열축열물질의 냉각특성)

  • Kim, Chang-Oh;Chung, Hyun-Ho;Chung, Nak-Kyu
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 2010
  • The ice storage system uses water for low temperature latent heat storage. However, a refrigerator capacity are increased and COP are decreased due to supercooling of water in the course of phase change from liquid to solid. This study investigates the cooling characteristics of the TMA-water clathrate compound including TMA (Tri-methyl-amine, $(CH_3)_3N$) of 20~25 wt% as a low temperature latent heat storage material. The results showed that the phase change temperature are increased and the supercooling degree and the specific heat are decreased according to the weight concentration of TMA increased. Especially, the clathrate compound containing TMA 25wt% has the average phase change temperature of $5.8^{\circ}C$ and the supercooling degree of $8.0^{\circ}C$, retention time of liquid phase for 651sec and specific heat of 3.499 kJ/kgK in the cooling process. This expressed good than different concentration of TMA cooling characteristic. Like this, to apply TMA 25wt%-water clathrate compound is determined by advantageous as the low temperature latent heat storage material.

A Study on the Cooling Characteristics and Subcooling Improvement of TMA-Water Clathrate Compound (TMA-물계 포접화합물의 냉각특성과 과냉각 개선에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Seul-Hyun;Kim, Chang-Oh
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2014
  • This study carried out experimental on the cooling characteristics of clathrate compound including TMA(Tri-Methyl-Amine ; $(CH_3)_3N$) as a low temperature latent heat storage material. And additive was used for subcooling improvement of TMA-water clathrate compound. The conclusion of above study is as following ; TMA 25wt%-water clathrate compound is shown stable phase change and low subcooling degree. The subcooling was improved in the case ethanol($CH_3CH_2OH$) 0.5wt% is added to TMA 25wt%-water clathrate compound.