• Title, Summary, Keyword: TL reader

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Development of Thermoluminescence and Optical Stimulated Luminescence Measurements System (열자극발광 및 광자극발광 측정장치의 개발)

  • Park, Chang-Young;Chung, Ki-Soo;Lee, Jong-Duk;Chang, In-Su;Lee, Jungil;Kim, Jang-Lyul
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.46-54
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    • 2015
  • The thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are commonly used to measure and record the expose of individuals to ionization radiation. Design and performance test results of a newly developed TL and OSL measurement system are presented in this paper. For this purpose, the temperature of the TL material can be controlled precisely in the range of $1{\sim}1.5^{\circ}C$ by using high-frequency (35 kHz) heating system. This high-frequency power supply was made of transformer with ferrite core. For optical stimulation, we have completed an optimal combination of the filters with the arrangement of GG420 filter for filtering the stimulating light source and a UG11 filter at the detecting window (PMT). By using a high luminance blue LED (Luxeon V), sufficient luminous intensity could be obtained for optical stimulation. By using various control boards, the TL/OSL reader device was successfully interfaced with a personal computer. A software based on LabView program (National Instruments, Inc.) was also developed to control the TL/OSL reader system. In this study, a multi-functional TL/OSL dosimeter was developed and the performance testing of the system was carried out to confirm its reliability and reproducibility.

Thermoluminescent Characteristics of Newly Developed LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL Detectors

  • Lee J. I.;Kim J. L.;Chang S. Y.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 2004
  • Recently, a new sintered pellet-type LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL detector which has a high sensitivity and good reusability, named KLT-300(KAERI LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL detector), was developed by the variation of the dopants concentrations and the parameters of the preparation procedure at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). In this study, the thermoluminescent characteristics of the newly developed TL detectors were investigated. The sensitivity of the TL detector was compared with that of the TLD-100 by light integration. The dose linearity of the detector was tested from $10^{-6}$ Gy up to 30 Gy. The dose response was very linear up to 10 Gy and a sublinear response was observed at higher doses. The energy response of the detector was studied for photon energies from 20 keV to 662 keV. The result shows that a maximum response of 1.004 at 53 keV and a minimum response of 0.825 at 20 keV were observed. The reproducibility study for the TL detector was also carried out. The coefficients of variation for each detector separately did not exceed 0.016, and for all the 10 detectors collectively was 0.0054. Lower limit of detection for the detector was investigated at 70 nGy by the Harshaw 4500 TLD Reader and the residual signal of the TL detector was found to be $0.57\%$.

Dosimetric Properties of LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL pellets (LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL 소자의 선량계적 특성)

  • Nam, Young-Mi;Kim, Jang-Lyul;Chang, Si-Young
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 2001
  • Sintered LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si thermoluminescence (TL) pellets were developed for application in radiation dosimetry. In the present study, the TL dosimetric properties of LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL pellets have been investigated for emission spectrum, dose response, energy response, and fading characteristics. LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL pellets were made by using a sintering process, that is, pressing and heat treatment from TL powders. Photon irradiations for the experiments were carried out using X-ray beams and a $^{137}Cs$ gamma source at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The average energies and the dose were in the range of 20-662 keV and $10^{-6}-10^{-2}\;Gy$, respectively. The glow curves were measured with a manual type TLD reader(System 310, Teledyne) at a constant nitrogen flux and a linear heating rate. For a constant heating rate of $5^{\circ}C\;s^{-1}$, the main dosimetric peak of glow curve appeared at $234^{\circ}C$, the activation energy was 2.34 eV and frequency factor was $1.00{\times}10^{23}$. TL emission spectrum is appeared at the blue region centered at 410 nm. A linearity of photon dose response was maintained up to 100 Gy. The photon energy responses relative to $^{137}Cs$ response were within ${\pm}20%$ at overall photon energy region. The fading of TL sensitivity of the pellets stored at the room temperature was not found for one year.

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Measuring Thermo-luminescence Efficiency of TLD-2000 Detectors to Different Energy Photons

  • Xie, Wei-min;Chen, Bao-wei;Han, Yi;Yang, Zhong-Jian
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.179-183
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    • 2016
  • Background: As an important detecting device, TLD is a widely used in the radiation monitoring. It is essential for us to study the property of detecting element. The aim of this study is to calculate the thermo-luminescence efficiency of TL elements. Materials and Methods: A batch of thermo-luminescence elements were irradiated by the filtered X-ray beams of average energies in the range 40-200 kVp, 662 keV $^{137}Cs$ gamma rays and then the amounts of lights were measured by the TL reader. The deposition energies in elements were calculated by theory formula and Monte Carlo simulation. The unit absorbed dose in elements by photons with different energies corresponding to the amounts of lights was calculated, which is called the thermo luminescent efficiency (${\eta}^{(E)}$). Because of the amounts of lights can be calculated by the absorbed dose in elements multiply ${\eta}^{(E)}$, the ${\eta}^{(E)}$ can be calculated by the experimental data (the amounts of lights) divided by absorbed dose. Results and Discussion: The deviation of simulation results compared with theoretical calculation results were less than 5%, so the absorbed dose in elements was calculated by simulation results in here. The change range of ${\eta}^{(E)}$ value, relative to 662 keV $^{137}Cs$ gamma rays, is about 30% in the energy range of 33 keV to 662 keV, is in accordance by the comparison with relevant foreign literatures. Conclusion: The ${\eta}^{(E)}$ values can be used for updating the amounts of lights that are got by the direct ratio assumed relations with deposition energy in TL elements, which can largely reduce the error of calculation results of the amounts of lights. These data can be used for the design of individual dosimeter which used TLD-2000 thermo-luminescence elements, also have a certain reference value for manufacturer to improve the energy-response performance of TL elements by formulation adjustment.

Development of OSL Dosimetry Reader (선량 판독용 OSL 측정장치의 개발)

  • Park, Chang-Young;Chung, Ki-Soo;Lee, Jong-Duk;Chang, In-Su;Lee, Jung-Il;Kim, Jang-Lyul
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.10-15
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    • 2012
  • Design and performance test results of a newly developed optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurement system are presented in this paper. Generally, different types of optical filters are used in OSL reader system to minimize the interference of the stimulation light in the OSL signal. For optically stimulation of $Al_2O_3:C$, we have arrived at an optimal combination of the filters, i.e., GG420 filter for filtering the stimulating light source, and a combined UG11 and BG39 filter at the detecting window (PMT). By using a high luminance blue LED (Luxeon V), sufficient luminous intensity could be obtained for optically stimulation. By using various control boards, the OSL reader device was successfully interfaced with a personal computer. A software was developed to deliver required commands to operate the OSL reader by using the LabView program (National Instruments, Inc.). In order to evaluate the reliability and the reproducibility of newly designed-OSL reader. Performance testing of the OSL reader was carried out for OSL efficiency, OSL decay curve and signal to noise ratio of the standard $Al_2O_3:C$ OSL material. It was found to be comparable with that of commercial Riso reader system.

Anneal Characteristics of LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si Teflon TLDs (LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si Teflon TLD의 열처리 특성)

  • Nam, Young-Mi;Chung, Woon-Hyuk;Lee, Dae-Won;Kim, Hyun-Ja;Kim, Gi-Dong
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.135-141
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    • 1997
  • The study of anneal characteristics is important for TL dosimeter to reuse. To obtain the annealing condition of the recently developed, new TL dosimeter, LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si Teflon Tills in a disk type (diameter 4.5 mm, thickness about $90mg/cm^2$), we studied for pre-irradiation annealing, readout procedure and post-readout annealing, in order. The gamma irradiations were carried out with a $^{60}Co$, dose of 0.1 Gy. We have used the method that observe the variation of thermoluminescent(TL) intensity of these Teflon TLDs over repeated cycles by changing both anneal temperature and anneal time with the TLD reader and the oven. There is a 5% loss in sensitivity over the ten repeated readouts by the annealing condition:pre-irradiation annealing at $80^{\circ}C$ for one hour, readout to $280^{\circ}C$ and post-readout annealing at $270^{\circ}C$ for 20 seconds.

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Evaluation the Output Dose of Linear Accelerator Photon Beams by Blind Test with Dose Characteristics of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLD (LiF:Mg,Cu,P 열형광선량계의 선량특성을 이용한 눈가림법에 의한 출력선량 평가)

  • Choi, Tae-Jin;Lee, Ho-Joon;Yie, Ji-Won;Oh, Young-Gi;Kim, Jin-Hee;Kim, Ok-Bae
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.308-316
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    • 2009
  • To achieve the accurate evaluation of given absorbed dose from output dose of linear accelerator photon beam through investigate the characteristics of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLD powder. This experimental TL phosphor is performed with a commercial LiF:Mg,Cu,P powder (Supplied by PTW) and TL reader (LTM, France). The TLD was exposed to 6 MV X rays of linear accelerator photon beam with range 15 to 800 cGy in blind dose at two hospitals. The dose evaluation of TLD was through the experimental algorithms which were dose dependency, dose rate dependency, fading and powder weight dependency. The glow curve has shown the three peaks which are 110, 183 and 232 degrees of heating temperature and the main dosimetric peak showed highest TL response at 232 high temperature. In this experiments, the LiF:Mg,Cu,P phosphor has shown the 2.5 eV of electron trap energy with a second order. This experiments guided the dose evaluation accuracy is within 1% +2.58% of discrepancy. The TLD powder of LiF:Mg,Cu,P was analyzed to dosimetric characterists of electron captured energy and order by glow shape, and dose-TL response curve guided the accuracy within 1.0+2.58% of output dose discrepancy.

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Capacitively Loaded Loop Antenna Fed with Metamaterial Balun (Metamaterial 발룬으로 급전된 Capacitively Loaded 루프 안테나)

  • Jung, Youn-Kwon;Lee, Bom-Son
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.20 no.10
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    • pp.1084-1090
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    • 2009
  • This paper presents a balun consisting of a T-junction, a Right/Left Handed Transmission line(RLH-TL), and a conventional Right Handed(RH) line. It is assumed that the RLH-TL consists of N unit-cells. We provide closed-form solutions and design a very compact wideband(80 %) balun using CPW lines based on the obtained solutions. Then, we propose a capacitively loaded loop antenna designed for a uniform current distribution. The antenna resistance of the proposed antenna at resonance is about 204 ohms. The length of the unit cell is about $\lambda/12$(total length: $1\;\lambda$). The magnetic field generated from the proposed antenna is stronger than that of the conventional one by as much as 20 dB. We used a coplanar strip line(CPS) to combine the loop antenna and balun. The proposed antenna may be used as a near field UHF RFID reader antenna.

A Study on the Dose Assessment Methodology Using the Probabilistic Characteristics of TL Element Response (확률분포 특성을 이용한 열형광선량계의 선량평가방법에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Dae-Hyung;Oh, Jang-Jin;Han, Seung-Jae;Na, Seong-Ho;Hwang, Won-Guk;Lee, Won-Keun
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.123-138
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    • 1998
  • Characteristics of element responses of Panasonic UD802 personnel dosimeters in the X, ${\beta}$, ${\gamma}$, ${\gamma}/X$, ${\gamma}/{\beta}$ and ${\gamma}$/neutron mixed fields were assessed. A dose-response algorithm has been developed to decide the high probability of a radiation type and energy by using the distribution in all six ratios of the multi-element TLD. To calculate the 4-element response factors and ratios between the elements of the Panasonic TLDs in the X, $\beta$, and $\gamma$ radiation fields, Panasonic’s UD802 TLDs were irradiated with KINS’s reference irradiation facility. In the photon radiation field, this study confirms that element-3 (E3) and element-4 (E4) of the Panasonic TLDs show energy dependent both in low- and intermediate-energy range, while element-1 (E1) and element-2 (E2) show little energy dependency in the entire whole range. The algorithm, which was developed in this study, was applied to the Panasonic personnel dosimetry system with UD716AGL reader and UD802 TLDs. Performance tests of the algorithm developed was conducted according to the standards and criteria recommended in the ANSI N13.11. The sum of biases and standard deviations was less than 0.232. The values of biases and standard deviations are distributed within a triangle of a lateral value of 0.3 in the ordinate and abscissa, With the above algorithm, Panasonic TLDs satisfactorily perform optimum dose assessment even under an abnormal response of the TLD elements to the energy imparted. This algorithm can be applied to a more rigorous dose assessment by distinguishing an unexpected dose from the planned dose for the most practical purposes, and is useful in conducting an effective personnel dose control program.

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Characteristics of the Maximum Glow Intensity According to the Thermoluminescent Phosphors used in the Absorbed Dose Measurement of the Radiation Therapy (방사선치료 선량 측정에 사용되는 열형광체에 따른 최대 형광 강도 특성)

  • Kang, Suman;Im, Inchul;Park, Cheolwoo;Lee, Mihyeon;Lee, Jaeseung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.181-187
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study were to analyze the characteristic of the glow curves in order to the glow temperature of the thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) for the absorbed dose measurement of the radiation therapy. In this study, we was used the TLDs of the LiF:Mg${\cdot}$Ti, LiF:Mg${\cdot}$Cu${\cdot}$P, $CaF_2$:Dy, $CaF_2$:Mn (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., USA). The source-to-solid dry phantom (RW3 slab, IBA Dosmetry, Germany) surface distance was set at 100 cm, and the exposure dose of 100 MU (monitor unit) was used 6- and 15-MV X-rays, and 6- and 12-MeV electron beams in the reference depth, respectively. After the radiations exposure, we were to analyze the glow curves by using the TL reader (Hashaw 3500, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., USA) at the fixed heating rate of $15^{\circ}C/sec$ from $50^{\circ}C$ to $260^{\circ}C$. The glow peaks, the trapping level in the captured electrons and holes combined with the emitted light, were discovered the two or three peak. When the definite increasing the temperature of the TLDs, the maximum glow peak representing the glow temperature was follow as; $LiF:Mg{\cdot}Ti$: $185.5{\pm}1.3^{\circ}C$, $LiF:Mg{\cdot}Ti$: $135.0{\pm}5.1^{\circ}C$, $CaF_2$:Dy: $144.0{\pm}1.6^{\circ}C$, $CaF_2$:Mn: $294.3{\pm}3.8^{\circ}C$, respectively. Because the glow emission probability of the captured electrons depend on the heating temperature after the exposure radiation, TLDs by applying the fixed heating rate, the accuracy of measurement will be able to improve within the absorbed dose measurement of the radiation therapy.