• Title, Summary, Keyword: TL

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Two Anhydrous Zeolite X Crystal Structures, $Ca_{18}Tl_{56}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}\;and\;Ca_{32}Tl_{28}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}$ (제올라이트 X의 두 개의 무수물 $Ca_{18}Tl_{56}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}$$Ca_{32}Tl_{28}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}$의 결정구조)

  • Choi, Eun Young;Kim, Yang
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.384-385
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    • 1999
  • Two anhydrous crystal structures of fully dehydrated, $Ca^{2+}$- and $Tl^+$-exchanged zeolite X, TEX>$Ca_{18}Tl_{56}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}($Ca_{18}Tl_{56}$-X;\alpha=24.883(4)\AA)$ and TEX>$Ca_{32}Tl_{28}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}($Ca_{32}Tl_{28}$-X;\alpha=24.973(4)\AA)$ per unit cell, have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques in the cubic space group Fd3 at $21(1)^{\circ}C.$ $Ca_{18}Tl_{56}-X$ was prepared by ion exchange in a flowing stream of 0.045 M aqueous $Ca(NO_3)_2$ and 0.005 M $TlNO_3$. $Ca_{32}Tl_{28}-X$ was prepared similarly using a mixed solution of 0.0495 M $Ca(NO_3)_2$ and 0.0005M $TlNO_3$. Each crystal was then dehydrated at 360 $^{\circ}C$ and $2{\times}10^{-6}$ Torr for 2 days. Their structures were refined to the final error indices, $R_1=0.039\;and\;R_2=0.036$ with 382 reflections for $Ca_{18}Tl_{56}-X$ , and $R_1=0.046\;and\;R_2=0.045$ with 472 reflections for $Ca_{32}Tl_{28}$-X for which $/>3\sigma(I).$ In the structures of dehydrated $Ca_{18}Tl_{56^-}X\;and\;Ca_{32}Tl_{28}$-X, $Ca^{2+}\;and\;Tl^+$ ions are located at six crystallographic sites. Sixteen $Ca^{2+}$ ions fill the octahedral sites I at the centers of double six rings ($Ca_{18}Tl_{56}$-X:Ca-O=2.42(1) and O-Ca-O=93.06(4)$^{\circ}$; $Ca_{32}Tl_{28}$-X Ca-O=2.40(1) $\AA$ and O-Ca-O=93.08(3)$^{\circ}$). In the structure of $Ca_{18}Tl_{56}$-X, another two $Ca^{2+}$ ions occupy site II (Ca-O=2.35(2) $\AA$ and O-Ca-O=111.69(2)$^{\circ}$) and twenty six $Tl^+$ ions occupy site II opposite single six-rings in the supercage; each is 1.493 $\AA$ from the plane of three oxygens $(Tl-O=2.70(8)\AA$ and O-Tl-O=92.33(4)$^{\circ}$). About four $Tl^+$ ions are found at site II',1.695 $\AA$ into sodalite cavity from their three oxygen plane (Tl-O=2.81 (1) and O-Tl-O=87.48(3)). The remaining twenty six $Tl^+$ ions are distributed over site III'(Tl-O=2.82 (1) $\AA$ and Tl-O=2.88(3)$^{\circ}$). In the structure of $Ca_{32}Tl_{28}$-X, sixteen $Ca^{2+}$ ions and fifteen $Tl^+$ ions occupy site III' (Ca-O=2.26(1) $\AA$ and O-Ca-O=119.14(4)$^{\circ}$; Tl-O=2.70(1) $\AA$ and O-Tl-O=92.38$^{\circ}$) and one $Tl^+$ ion occupies site II'. The remaining twelve $Tl^+$ ions are distributed over site III'. It appears that $Ca^{2+}$ ions prefer sites I and II in that order and $Tl^+$ ions occupy the remaining sites.

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MEET-REDUCIBILITY OF TL-SUBGROUPS

  • Kim, Jae-Gyeom
    • Journal of the Chungcheong Mathematical Society
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.587-591
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    • 2009
  • The structure of a TL-subgroup can be understood from the representations of the TL-sub group as meets of TL-subgroups containing the TL-subgroup. Indeed, the structure of the meet of TL-subgroups can easily be obtained from the structures of the TL-subgroups and the structures of the TL-subgroups may be more simple than the structure of the meet. In this paper, we discuss meet-reducibility of TL-subgroups.

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Tl-Tl Interactions in Tl Dimer Investigated by Relativistic and Nonrelativistic EHT Calculations

  • Lee, Yoon-Sup;Do, Young-Kyu
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.346-348
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    • 1989
  • Interactions between Tl atoms for the Tl dimer are studied by relativistic and nonrelativistic EHT methods. Relativistic bond weakening for the Tl dimer is qualitatively explained by comparing orbital energies from relativistic and nonrelativistic calculations. It is also shown that significant overlap exists, especially for 6p orbitals, at the internuclear distance larger than 4 ${\AA}$, implying that Tl-Tl interaction is not just the electrostatic interaction in the recently discovered dimeric thallacarborane.

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Detection of Irradiated Potato and Garlic by Thermoluminescence Measurement (Thermoluminescence 측정에 의한 감자와 마늘의 방사선 조사유무 확인)

  • Chung, Hyung-Wook;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.283-287
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    • 1998
  • Potato and garlic irradiated with gamma ray and electron beam at sprout-inhibition doses, 0.15 and 0.30 kGy were subjected to the detection whether they are irradiated or not by measuring thermoluminescence(TL) for the minerals adhering to the samples. Minerals extracted from the samples showed a high correlation coefficients between absorbed doses and corresponding TL responses. Nonirradiated samples, however, did not exhibit characteristic TL glowcurves. Major glowcurve peaks were observed at 200 to $260^{\circ}C$ in all irradiated samples. TL intensity was proportional to irradiated doses, but it varied with the samples tested even at the same dose. It can be concluded from the results that detection of irradiated potato and garlic is possible by measuring TL for extracted minerals from the unknown samples.

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Early Osteological Development and Squamation in the Spotted Sea Bass Lateolabrax maculates (Pisces: Lateolabracidae) (한국산 점농어(Lateolabrax maculatus) 자치어의 골격발달과 비늘형성)

  • Kang, Chung-Bae;Myoung, Jung-Goo;Kim, Yong-Uk;Kim, Hyong-Chol
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.271-282
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    • 2012
  • Early osteological development of the skull, vertebral column, and fins, and squamation in the spotted sea bass, Lateolabrax maculates, were studied under extensive larval rearing conditions. The first ossification during cephalic skeleton development began with the premaxillary, dentary, and parasphenoid at 6.4 mm Total length (Notochord length 6.1 mm) and was completed by 25.2 mm TL (Standard length 20.3 mm). Ossification of the cartilaginous caudal complex started simultaneously in the urostyle and two preural centra at 12.2 mm TL (10.4 mm) and it was completely ossified by 32.0 mm TL (26.4 mm). The principal caudal fin rays, with a count of 9/8, began to ossify at 11.6 mm TL (10.2 mm) and the procurrent caudal fin rays, with counts of 4 (upper) and 3 (lower), started to ossify by 12.6 mm TL (10.9 mm). Ossification of these parts was completed by 21.4 mm TL (17.5 mm). Ossification of the vertebral column was first observed in the first to fourth centra at 8.3 mm TL (7.5 mm) and was fully completed by 21.7-35.0 mm TL (17.8-29.3 mm). The pectoral girdle started to ossify by 5.6 mm TL (5.4 mm) and was completed by 26.8 mm TL (21.8 mm). Eight pectoral fin rays were ossified at 11.6 mm TL (10.2 mm) and 16-18 rays were fully ossified by 13.8 mm TL (12.0 mm). Also, the dorsal, anal, and pelvic fin rays started to ossify at 12.2 mm TL (10.4 mm) and were completed by 12.8 mm TL (11.2 mm), 23.8 mm TL (19.4 mm), and 13.8 mm TL (12.0 mm), respectively. Ossification of the anal and dorsal pterygiophores initially occurred by 12.6 mm TL (10.9 mm) and 14.3 mm TL (12.2 mm), and was completed by 21.4 mm TL (17.5 mm) and 19.3 mm TL (15.9 mm), respectively. Squamation started at three centers of differentiation: the middle region of the trunk, the anterior of the caudal peduncle, and on the caudal peduncle at 23.8 mm TL (19.4 mm). The body was covered with scales, except the snout, at 57.2-60.2 mm TL (SL 47.1-49.2 mm).

The effects of grouping method on mathematical achievement and attitude toward mathematics (집단구성이 수학 성취도와 수학에 대한 태도에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo Jong-Jin;Park Dal-Won
    • Journal of the Korean School Mathematics Society
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.145-165
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    • 2005
  • The present study was investigate the effects of grouping method on mathematical achievement and attitude toward mathematics. The result of this study are as following. Referring to the improvement of mathematics achievement, TL-LS group I and II turns out to be more efficient than the normal learning groupIII(p<.05), there found no significant differ between TL-LS group I and II (p>.05). As for the level of mathematics achievement, TL-LS group II show more efficient than the normal learning groupIII at a medium and low level(p<.05), and TL-LS group I show more efficient than the normal learning groupIII at a low level(p>.05). As for the attitude toward mathematics, TL-LS group I and II turns out to be more efficient than the normal learning groupIII(p<.05), there found no significant differ between TL-LS group I and II (p>.05).

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Some properties of TL-P* subgroups (TL-P*군의 몇가지 성질)

  • 김재겸;김한두
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems Conference
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    • pp.16-20
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    • 1998
  • We introduce the notion of TL-P*-subgroups which is an extension of the notion of TL-P*-subgroups and investigate basic properties of TL-P*-subgroups. And we consider decompositions of TL-subgroups.

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Defect center of $Li^{+}$ ion implanted $Al_2O_3$ ($Li^{+}$ 이온 주입된 $Al_2O_3$의 결함 특성)

  • Kim, Tae-Kyu
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.13-20
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    • 1994
  • The thermoluminescence(TL) glow curves and the optical absorption of $Al_2O_3$ irradiated with ${\gamma}$-ray, electron, and $Li^{+}$ ion followed by electron irradiation have been investigated to determine the relation of TL peak to its defect type. The TL glow curve of $Al_2O_3$ irradiated with ${\gamma}$-ray shows TL peaks at 380 K, 415 K, and 475 K. The UV photobleached TL glow curve of $Al_2O_3$ irradiated with ${\gamma}$-ray shows that the 380 K and 475 K TL peaks completely disappear while the 415 K TL peak still exists. The electron beam induced TL glow curve of $Al_2O_3$ after $Li^{+}$ ion implantation shows that the TL peak at 440 K is enhanced by a factor of 2 over the TL intensity of unimplanted $Al_2O_3$ while the TL peak at 380 K evidently disappears The implanted $Li^{+}$ ions are assumed to form singly charged interstitial cations and then recombine with electron trapped in F centers to produce F+ centers. The 380 K and 475 K TL peaks are proposed to be associated with F center, while the 415 K and 440 K TL peak are connected with F$^{+}$ center.

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ON TL-FINITE STATE MACHINES

  • Kim, Jae-Gyeom;Cho, Sung-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems Conference
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    • pp.78-81
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    • 1995
  • In this paper we introduce the notions of a TL-finite state machine, TL-retrievability, TL-separability, TL-connectivity and discuss their basic properties.

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Two Crystal Structures of Dehydrated Sr$^{2+}$ and Tl$^+$ Exchanged Zeolite A, $Sr_xTl_{12-2x}$-A (x=1.6 and 5.45)

  • Jeong Weon Yang;Jong Yul Park;Un Sik Kim;Yang Kim
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.582-585
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    • 1989
  • Two crystal structures of dehydrated $Sr^{2+}\;and\;Tl^+$ exchanged zeolite A, $Sr_xTl_{12-2x}-A$ (x = 1.6 and 5.45), have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Their structures were solved and refined in the cubic space group Pm3m at $21(1)^{\circ}C.$ Both crystals were ion exchanged in flowing streams of mixed $Sr(NO_3)_2\;and\;TlNO_3$ aqueous solution, followed by dehydration at $360^{\circ}C\; and\; 2${\times}$10^{-6}$ Torr for 2 days. Full-matrix least-squares refinements of the dehydrated $Sr_{1.6}Tl_{8.8}-A (a = 12.214(2){\AA})\; and\;Sr_{5.45}Tl{1.1}-A (a=12.291(2){\AA})$ have converged to final error indices, $R_1=0.055\; and\;R_2=0.061$ with 286 reflections, and R1 = 0.072 and R2 = 0.090 with 217 reflections, respectively, for which$\;I\;{>}\;3{\sigma}(I)$. In both structures, all Sr(II) ions are coordinated by three framework oxygens; Sr(II) to O(3) distances are $2.21(2){\AA}\;for\;Sr_{1.6}Tl_{8.8}-A \;and\;2.31(1){\AA} \;for\;Sr_{5.45}Tl_{1.1}-A,$and Tl(I) to O(3) distances are $2.657(6){\AA}\;for\;Sr_{1.6}Tl_{8.8}-A\;and\;2.845(8){\AA}\;for\;Sr_{5.45}Tl_{1.1}-A,$ respectively. In each structure, the angle subtended at Sr(II), O(3)-Sr(II)-O(3) is $118.7(4)^{\circ}\;for\; Sr_{1.6}Tl_{8.8}-A \;and\;120.0(4)^{\circ}\;for\;Sr_{5.45}Tl_{1.1}-A.\;Sr^{2+}$ ions prefer to 6-ring sites and $Tl^+$ ions to 8-ring sites when total number of ions per unit cell is more than 8.

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