• Title, Summary, Keyword: TIMP

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Immunohistochemical Studies for TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 Expression after Irradiation in Lung, Liver and Kidney of C57BL/6 Mouse (C57BL/96 Mouse의 폐, 간, 신장에서 방사선조사 후 TIMP-1, TIMP-2의 발현에 대한 면역조직화학적 연구)

  • Noh, Young-Ju;Ahn, Seung-Do;Kim, Jong-Hoon;Choi, Eun-Kyung;Chang, Hye-Sook
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.181-189
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : Changes in the balance between MMP and TIMP can have a profound effect on the composition in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and affect various cellular functions including adhesion, migration, differentiation of cells, and fibrosis and invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Radiation therapy is a popular treatment modality for benign and malignant tumor, but the study for radiation effect on MMP and TIMP is scarce. In the current study, we have examined the expression of TIMP in fibrosis-prone (C57BL/6) mice after radiation. Methods and Materials : Adult female mice of $10\~12$ weeks were used. The whole body were irradiated using a Varian CL-4/100 with 2 and 10 Gy. Immunohistochemical staining was peformed according to Avidin Biotin complex method and evaluated by observing high power field. For TIMP-1, TIMP-2 antibodies, reactivity was assessed in the parenchymal cell and in the stromal cell. The scale of staining was assessed by combining the quantitative and qualiative intensity of staining. Results : TIMP-1 immunoreactivity did not change in lung. But, in liver, TIMP-1 immunoreactivity was localized in cytoplasm of hepatocyte and Kupffer cell. in kidney, TIMP-1 immunoreactivity was localized in cytoplasm of some tubular cell. Temporal variations were not seen. Dose-response relationship was not seen except kidney. TIMP-2 immunoreactivity in lung was a score (++) at 0 Gy and elevated to a score (+++) at 2 Gy. TIMP-2 immunoreactivity was a score (++) in liver at 0 Gy. TIMP-2 immunoreactivity was localized in cytoplasm of hepatocyte and Kupffer cell as same as patterns of TIMP-1 immunoreactivity. The TIMP-2 immunoreactivity in liver was elevated to (+++) at 2 Gy. Immunoreactivity to TIMP-2 in kidney was a score (+++) at 0 Gy and was not changed at 10 Gy. The score of TIMP-2 immunoreactivity was reduced to (++) at 2 Gy. TIMP-2 immunoreactivity was confined to tubules in kidney. Temporal variation of TIMP-2 immunoreactivity was irregular. Dose-response relationship of TIMP-2 immunoreactivity was not seen. Conclusions : Differences between intensity of expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in each organ was present. Expression of TIMP was localized to specific cell in each organ. Irradiation increased TIMP-1 immunoreactivity in the liver and the kidney. Irradiation increased TIMP-2 immunoreactivity in the lung. But, in the liver and the kidney, TIMP-2 expression to radiation was irregular. Temporal variation of TIMP-2 immunoreactivity was irregular. Dose-response relationship of TIHP-2 immunoreactivity was not seen. In the future, we expect that the study of immunohistochemical staining of longer period of postirradiation and quantitative analysis using western blotting and northern blotting could define the role of TIMP in the radiation induced tissue fibrosis.

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Expression level and glycan dynamics determine the net effects of TIMP-1 on cancer progression

  • Kim, Yong-Sam;Kim, Sun-Hee;Kang, Jeong-Gu;Ko, Jeong-Heon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.11
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    • pp.623-628
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    • 2012
  • Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs; TIMP-1, -2, -3 and -4) are endogenous inhibitor for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that are responsible for remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM) and involved in migration, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. Unlike under normal conditions, the imbalance between MMPs and TIMPs is associated with various diseased states. Among TIMPs, TIMP-1, a 184-residue protein, is the only N-linked glycoprotein with glycosylation sites at N30 and N78. The structural analysis of the catalytic domain of human stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) and human TIMP-1 suggests new possibilities of the role of TIMP-1 glycan moieties as a tuner for the proteolytic activities by MMPs. Because the TIMP-1 glycosylation participate in the interaction, aberrant glycosylation of TIMP-1 presumably affects the interaction, thereby leading to pathogenic dysfunction in cancer cells. TIMP-1 has not only the cell proliferation activities but also anti-oncogenic properties. Cancer cells appear to utilize these bilateral aspects of TIMP-1 for cancer progression; an elevated TIMP-1 level exerts to cancer development via MMP-independent pathway during the early phase of tumor formation, whereas it is the aberrant glycosylation of TIMP-1 that overcome the high anti-proteolytic burden. The aberrant glycosylation of TIMP-1 can thus be used as staging and/or prognostic biomarker in colon cancer.

TIMP-2 Gene Transfer Via Adenovirus Inhibits the Invasion of Lung Cancer Cell (TIMP-2 유전자 재조합 아데노바이러스의 폐암세포 침윤 억제 효과)

  • Oh, Yeon-Mok;Lee, Jae-Ho;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Chung, Hee-Soon;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo;Lee, Choon-Taek
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.189-197
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    • 2000
  • Background : Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase is a natural inhibitor that counteracts pro teolytic enzymes essential to the invasion of cancer cell. Whether or not TIMP-2 gene transfer via adenovirus could inhibit the invasion of lung cancer cell iη vitro was evaluated for the future purpose of gene therapy against lung cancer. Methods : Recombinant adenovirus-TIMP-2(Ad-TIMP-2) was generated by homologous recombination after pACCMV-TIMP-2 and pJM17 were cotransfected into 293 cell by standard calcium phosphate coprecipitate method. Calu-6, one of the most invasive lung cancer cells, was transduced with Ad-TIMP-2 or Ad-$\beta$gal. Anchorage-independent growth and invasiveness were assessed by soft agar clonogenicity assay and invasion assay using two-chamber, well divided by matrigel. Results : Ad-TIMP-2 transduced calu-6 cells produced biologically active TIMP-2 more than 50 times more than parental calu-6. TIMP-2 gene transfer did not suppress the in vitro tumorigenicity. However, two chamber well assay revealed that Ad-TIMP-2 transduction reduced the invasiveness of calu-6 efficiently (12% compared with parental cell) even at low 10moi. Conclusion : Even though TIMP-2 gene transfer did not inhibit in vitro tumorigenicity, it did inhibit invasion of lung cancer cell in vitro. The inhibition of invasion by Ad-TIMP-2 may be a useful strategy for the treatment of lung cancer.

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Expression of TIMP1, TIMP2 Genes by Ionizing Radiation (이온화 방사선에 의한 TIMP1, TIMP2 유전자 발현 측정)

  • Park Kun-Koo;Jin Jung Sun;Park Ki Yong;Lee Yun Hee;Kim Sang Yoon;Noh Young Ju;Ahn Seung Do;Kim Jong Hoon;Choi Eun Kyung;Chang Hyesook
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.171-180
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : Expression of TIMP, intrinsic inhibitor of MMP, is regulated by signal transduction in response to genotoxins and is likely to be an important step in metastasis, angiogenesis and wound healing after ionizing radiation. Therefore, we studied radiation mediated TIMP expression and its mechanism in head and neck cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods : Human head and neck cancer cell lines established at Asan Medical Center were used and radiosensitivity $(D_0)$, radiation cytotoxicity and metastatic potential were measured by clonogenic assay, n assay and invasion assay, respectively. The conditioned medium was prepared at 24 hours and 48 hours after 2 Gy and 10 Gy irradiation and expression of TIMP protein was measured by Elisa assay with specific antibodies against human TIMP. hTIMP1 promoter region was cloned and TIMP1 luciferase reporter vector was constructed. The reporter vector was transfected to AMC-HN-1 and -HN-9 cells with or without expression vector Ras, then the cells were exposed to radiation or PMA, PKC activator. EMSA was peformed with oligonucleotide (-59/-53 element and SP1) of TIMP1 promoter. Results : $D_0$ of HN-1, -2, -3, -5 and -9 cell lines were 1.55 Gy, 1.8 Gy, 1.5 Gt, 1.55 Gy and 2.45 Gy respectively. n assay confirmed cell viability, over $94\%$ at 24hrs, 48hrs after 2 Gy irradiation and over 73% after 10 Gy irradiation. Elisa assay confirmed that cells secreted TIMP1, 2 proteins continuously. After 2 Gy irradiation, TIMP2 secretion was decreased at 24hrs in HN-1 and HN-9 cell lines but after 10 Gy irradiation, it was increased in all cell lines. At 48hrs after irradiation, it was increased in HN-1 but decreased in HN-9 cells. But the change in TIMP secretion by RT was mild. The transcription of TIMP1 gene in HN-1 was induced by PMA but in HN-9 cell lines, it was suppressed. Wild type Ras induced the TIMP-1 transcription by 20 fold and 4 fold in HN-1 and HN-9 respectively. The binding activity to -59/-53, AP1 motif was increased by RT, but not to SP1 motif in both cell lines. Conclusions : We observed the difference of expression and activity of TIMPs between radiosensitive and radioresistant cell line and the different signal transduction pathway between in these cell lines may contribute the different radiosensitivity. Further research to investigate the radiation response and its signal pathway of TIMPs is needed.

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Anti-tumorigenic and Invasive Activity of Colon Cancer Cells Transfected with the Retroviral Vector Encoding Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 (레트로바이러스를 이용한 Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 유전자 발현이 대장암 세포의 전이 및 종양형성에 미치는 영향)

  • 오일웅;정자영;장석기;이수해;김연수;손여원
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.189-196
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    • 2004
  • Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) playa key role in tumor invasion and metastasis. As an inhibitor of MMP-2, TIMP-2 is known to block both the invasive and metastatic behavior of cancer cells, and decrease tumor growth activity. We performed this study to investigate the effects of TIMP-2 over-expression induced by retroviral mediated gene transfer in vitro and in vivo. The human colon cancer cell line SW480 was transfected with the retroviral vector encoding TIMP-2. The effects of TIMP-2 over-expression were analyzed by invasion assay and gelatinase activity test in colon cancer cells and tumorigencity in nude mice. In evaluation of the transfection efficiency of the retroviral vector encoding TIMP-2 in colon cancer cells, we confirmed up-regulation of TIMP-2 expression dependent on the time of cell culture. In addition, inhibition of MMP-2 expression in SW480/TIMP-2 was shown by gelatin zymography. In the in vitro invasion assay SW480/TIMP-2 inhibited the invasiveness on matrigel coated with collagen. To determine whether TIMP-2 can modulate in vivo tumorigenicity and metastasis, SW480/TIMP-2 cells were injected subcutaneously in nude mice. The tumor mass formation of SW480/TIMP-2 cells in nude mice was markedly decreased compared to nontransfected cancer cells. These results showed that colon cancer cells transfected with the retroviral vector encoding TIMP-2 inhibits the invasiveness in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo.

Increased Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 Levels in the Cerebrospinal Fluid from Children with Aseptic Meningitis (무균성 뇌수막염 소아에서 뇌척수액내 Matrix Metalloproteinase(MMP)-9과 Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase(TIMP)-1의 증가)

  • Yang, Ju Hee;Park, Min Hyuk;Shim, Jung-Yeon;Jung, Hye Lim;Park, Moon Soo;Keum, Dong Hyuck
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.548-553
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : Matrix metalloproteinase(MMP)-9 is known to breakdown the blood-brain barrier by degrading the extracellular matrix of the subendothelial basement membrane in meningitis. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase(TIMP)-1, a known inhibitor of MMP-9, has been postulated to inhibit the proteolytic activity of MMP-9 by bindng to MMP-9, but their interaction has not been fully understood yet. So far, there have been some reports on the relationship of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in bacterial meningitis, but few reports in viral meningitis. Furthermore, there has been no report on this in Korea. We investigated the concentrations of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with viral meningitis and control subjects, and evaluated their relationship with other clinical parameters of meningitis. Methods : CSF and blood were obtained from 25 subjects with viral meningitis and 14 control subjects. After centrifugation, supernatants were stored at $-20^{\circ}C$ and we assayed concentrations of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 by the sandwich ELISA method. Results : Concentrations of CSF MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were significantly elevated in patients with viral meningitis, when compared with those in control subjects. Their serum levels showed no differences between the two groups. MMP-9 levels were closely correlated with TIMP-1 levels in the CSF($r_s=0.42$, P<0.05). CSF MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios were significantly higher in patients with viral meningitis than those in the control subjects(P<0.05). Both CSF MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels positively correlated with CSF total leukocyte counts($r_s=0.43$, P<0.05, $r_s=0.48$, P<0.05). TIMP-1 levels positively correlated with total protein concentrations in the CSF($r_s=0.43$, P<0.05). Conclusion : MMP-9 and TIMP-1 may play an important role in the breakdown and maintenance of BBB in viral meningitis, respectively.

The Relationship Between Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases(MMPs)-2, 9 and Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase(TIMPs)-1, 2 and Survival Time in Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (비소세포폐암에서 Matrix Metalloproteinase(MMPs)-2, 9와 Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase(TIMPs)-1, 2의 발현과 생존율과의 관계)

  • Kim, Hak-Ryul;Yang, Sei-Hoon;Jeong, Eun-Taik
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.453-462
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    • 2002
  • Background : Matrix metalloproteinases(MMPs) are a large family of proteolytic enzymes, which are involved in the degradation of many different components of the extracellular matrix. There is increasing evidence indicating that individual MMPs have important roles in tumor invasion by inactivating the MMPs. In this study, the correlation between MMPs and TIMPs expression, and the clinical outcome was investigated. Materials and Methods : Immunohistochemical staining of MMP-2, 9 and TIMP-1,2 were performed on paraffin-embedded tumor sections from 74 resected primary non-small cell lung cancers. Results : In 74 patients, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 immunoreactivity was demonstrated in 24(34%), 19(26%) and 32(43%) of the paraffin-embedded tumors, respectively. The median survival of the MMP-2 positive cases was significantly shorter than that of the negative cases(20 vs 34 months). The median survival of the TIMP-2 positive cases was also was significantly longer than that of the negative cases (34 vs 18 months). The MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression level had a positively correlation with a more advanced stage and lymph node metastasis. There was inverse correlation between TIMP-2 expression and tumor invasion. The median survival of the MMP-2 negative/TIMP-2 positive cases was higher than that of the other cases. Conclusion : These results suggest that tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis are closely related to MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. There was an inverse correlation between TIMP-2 and MMP-9 expression, and tumor invasion.

Clinical significance of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 and 2 in Kawasaki disease (가와사끼병에서 Matrix metalloproteinase 9과 Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, 2의 임상적 중요성)

  • Yun, Ki-Wook;Yun, Sin-Weon;Lee, Jung-Ju;Chae, Soo-Ahn;Lim, In-Seok;Choi, Eung-Sang;Yoo, Byoung-Hoon;Lee, Mi-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.510-518
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis, a leading cause of pediatric acquired heart disease. Histopathological findings of coronary artery lesion (CAL) in KD indicate destruction of the coronary artery wall with diffuse vasculitis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) might play central roles in this process. Special attention to MMP-9 has recently been emerging. This study was performed to investigate the clinical significance of MMP-9 and its inhibitors, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, in KD. Methods : We compared 47 KD patients with 14 febrile controls. Serum MMP-9 and TIMP-1, TIMP-2 were measured by ELISA and compared according to clinical stages and coronary involvement. Results : In acute stage, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were significantly higher, whereas TIMP-2 was lower, in KD than those in febrile controls ($P$<0.05). The elevated MMP-9 levels in acute phase significantly decreased during the subacute and convalescent phases ($P$<0.05). During acute phase, the MMP-9, TIMP-1, and MMP-9/TIMP-2 levels in the CAL group were lower than those in the non-CAL group, but they increased significantly in the subacute phase ($P$<0.05). MMP-9 has a positive correlation with TIMP-1 in the acute and subacute phases, and negative correlation with TIMP-2 in the subacute and convalescent phases ($P$<0.05). Conclusion : These results suggest that MMP-9, TIMP-1, and the imbalance in MMP-9 and TIMP-2 might play important roles on the pathophysiology of KD and especially on the development of CAL. However, further larger studies are needed.

TIMP-2 Overexpression by Retrovirus Effectively Inhibits Invasive Phenotype - A Gene Therapy Approach

  • Ahn, Seong-Min;Yeowon Sohn;Kim, Yun-Soo;Aree Moon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.106-106
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    • 2001
  • Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) 는 다양한 세포에서 전이와 침윤성에 중요한 역할을 한다. MMP의 내인성 저해제인 tissue inhibitor of motalloprotease-2 (TIMP-2) 는 MMP-2에 높은 특이성을 지닌다. MMP-2와 TIMP-2사이의 불균형은 침윤성과 전이와 같은 병리학적 과정과 관계되는 extracellular matrix (ECM)의 퇴화를 일으킨다. TIMPs는 분비되는 분자이기 때문에 특정한 암의 유전자 치료에 사용될 가능성을 지닌다. 본 연구에서는 MMP-2가 H-ras에 의해 유도된 침윤성에 책임지는 것으로 보여지는 H-ras MCF10A 세포에 TIMP-2 유전자를 함유하는 retrovirus를 이용하여 연구하였다. TIMP-2 유전자를 함유하는 재조합 retrovirus는 PG13 세포를 infection 시키는데 사용되었다. H-ras MCF10A 세포는 PGl3 세포의 conditioned media로 처리되었을 때, gelatin zymography에서 MMP-2의 분비가 농도의존적으로 저해되었다. 또한 retrovirus에 의한 TIMP-2의 과잉 발현은 농도의존적으로 H-ras MCF10A 세포의 침윤성과 이동성을 상당히 감소시킨다. 이와 같은 실험 결과는 TIMP-2가 H-ras MCF10A 세포에서 MMP-2 분비와 세포의 침윤성, 이동성을 감소시키는 역할을 지닌다는 것과 TIMP-2 유전자를 함유하는 retrovirus가 효과적으로 MMP-2 분비, 세포 침윤성, 세포 이동성을 감소시켰다는 것을 보여 준다. 이는 암의 예방과 치료를 위한 유전자 치료법의 적용에 상당한 가능성을 제시한다.

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Purification of Progelatinase A (Matrix Metalloproteinase 2) and a Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2(TIMP-2) from T98G Human Glioblastoma Cells

  • Lee, Ho-Jae;Chung, Myung-Chul;Lee, Choong-Hwan;Chun, Hyo-Kon;Kho, Yung-Hee
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 1995
  • The Gelatinases (typeIV collagenases) are metalloproteinases that may play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Progelatinase A was purified from a conditioned medium of T98G human glioblastoma cells. TIMP-2 complexed progelatinase A and free progelatinase A were separated by heparin affinity HPLC. The final product was homogeneous on SDS-PAGE, with a molecular weight of 64,000 daltons without reduction. TIMP-2 and free progelatinase A were separated from TIMP-2 complexed progelatinase A by reverse-phase HPLC in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid. TIMP-2 complexed progelatinase A was resistant to activation by p-aminophenyl mercuric acetate (APMA), and showed less than 20% of the activity of the TIMP-2 free active enzyme. TIMP-2 free progelatinase A was easily activated to the mature form with a molecular weight of 57,000 daltons by APMA and showed high activity compared to the TIMP-2 complexed enzyme.

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