• Title, Summary, Keyword: TGF-${\beta}$

Search Result 740, Processing Time 0.062 seconds

The Correlation between TGF-beta 1 Blood Levels and the Formation of Bullae in Patients with Spontaneous Pneumothorax (자연 기흉 환자의 혈액 내 TGF-beta 1 Ligand 양과 폐 기포 형성과의 연관관계에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Young-Sam;Kim, Kwang-Ho;Baek, Wan-Ki;Kim, Joung-Taek;Cha, Il-Kyu;Kim, Ji-Hye;Song, Sun-U;Choi, Mi-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
    • /
    • v.43 no.4
    • /
    • pp.394-398
    • /
    • 2010
  • Background: The overexpression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 receptor II (TGF-${\beta}1$RII) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-${\beta}1$) ligand may be involved in the formation of a bulla. In this study, we tested if serum TGF-${\beta}1$ ligand levels correlated with the expression level of TGF-${\beta}1$RII and TGF-${\beta}1$ in bullous tissues from patients with spontaneous pneumothorax. Material and Method: Bullous lung tissues and blood samples were obtained from 19 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax, 18 males and 1 female, aged 17 to 35 years old. The bullous tissues were obtained by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), fixed in formalin, embedded in paraffin, and cut into $5{\sim}6{\mu}m$ thick slices. Sections were immunohistochemically stained with primary antibodies against TGF-${\beta}1$ or TGF-${\beta}1$RII, and serum levels of TGF-${\beta}1$ in patients and normal controls was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Result: Of the 19 patients, 16 were TGF-${\beta}1$ positive and 10 were TGF-${\beta}1$RII positive. Among the 16 TGF-${\beta}1$ positives, 9 were also TGF-${\beta}1RII$ positive. As seen previously, strong immunohistochemical staining of TGF-${\beta}1$RII and TGF-${\beta}$ was detected in the boundary region between the bullous and normal lung tissues. Average TGF-${\beta}1$ blood levels of both TGF-${\beta}1$ and TGF-${\beta}1$RII positive patients was $38.36{\pm}16.2ng/mL$, and that of five controls was $54.06{\pm}15ng/mL$. Conclusion: These results suggest that overexpression of TGF-${\beta}1$ and TGF-${\beta}1$RII expression may be involved in the formation of bullae. TGF-${\beta}1$ blood levels in patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax is lower than normal people, suggesting that the high level of local TGF-${\beta}1$ expression in the bullous tissue region, but not in the whole blood, may contribute more in the formation of bullae.

Role of Transforming Growth Factor-β in Tumor Invasion and Metastasis

  • Kim, Eun-Sook;Moon, Aree
    • Toxicological Research
    • /
    • v.23 no.3
    • /
    • pp.197-205
    • /
    • 2007
  • Cancer metastasis is a major determinant of cancer patient mortality. Mounting evidence favors a strong positive role for $TGF-{\beta}$ in human cancer progression. The complex pattern on cross-talk of $TGF-{\beta}$ and the related other signaling pathways is an important area of investigation that will ultimately contribute to understanding of the bifunctional role of $TGF-{\beta}$ in cancer progression. This review summarizes some of the current understanding of $TGF-{\beta}$ signaling with a major focus in its contribution to the tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Five issues are addressed in this review: (1) $TGF-{\beta}$ signaling, (2) $TGF-{\beta}$ and EMT, (3) $TGF-{\beta}$ and MMP, (4) $TGF-{\beta}$ and Ras, and (5) Role of $TGF-{\beta}$ in invasion and metastasis. Due to the bifunctional cellular effects of $TGF-{\beta}$, as a tumor promoter and a tumor suppressor, more precisely defined $TGF-{\beta}$ signaling pathways need to be elucidated. According to the current literature, $TGF-{\beta}$ is clearly a major factor stimulating tumor progression through a complex spectrum of the interplay and cross-talk between various signaling molecules. Understanding the role of $TGF-{\beta}$ in invasion and metastasis will provide valuable information on establishing strategies to manipulate $TGF-{\beta}$ signaling which should be a high priority for the development of anti-metastatic therapeutics.

Expression and Activation of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 2 in Cultured Bone Cells

  • Lee, Chang-Ho
    • Animal cells and systems
    • /
    • v.4 no.3
    • /
    • pp.273-278
    • /
    • 2000
  • Transforming growth factor-$\beta$ (IGF-$\beta$)s are multifunctional small polypeptides synthesized in most cell types. TGF-$\beta$ exerts pivotal effects on both bone formation and resorption. In addition, increasing lines of evidence implicate TGF-$\beta$ as a potential coupling factor between these two processes during bone remodeling. In the present study, the expression form and the activation mechanism of latent-TGF-$\beta$ were investigated using specific antibodies for each isoform. TGF-$\beta$s were observed to be synthesized and accumulated in a large amount in cultured osteoblastic cells. The estimated molecular weights of intracellular TGF-$\beta$2 and -$\beta$3 were 49 and 55 kDa, respectively. Based on proteolytic digestion study and immunofluorescence observation, these precursor forms seemed to be accumulated in distinct intracellular compartments. To examine whether the internal pool of TGF-$\beta$ was possiblely regulated by external signals, their biological activites were examined in a conditioned media of this cell. Although the intact conditioned media did not contain detectable TGF-$\beta$ activity, heat-treatment or acid-activation of the conditioned media revealed significant TGF-$\beta$ activity. Furthermore, in the presence of estrogen, this activity was dramatically diminished. It is known that activation of latent TGF-$\beta$ can be achieved by different chemical and enzymatic treatments, or by incubation with certain cell types. This extracellular activation was suggested as a key step in the regulation of TGF-$\beta$ activity. In addition to these extracellular activation, this study suggests that the synthesis and intracellular processing are important regulation steps for TGF-$\beta$ action. In addition, this regulation Is specific for TGF-$\beta$ type 2, because the change was not observed in TGF-$\beta$3 in osteoblastic cell line.

  • PDF

Smad-dependent Expression of Gadd45b Gene during TGF-β-induced Apoptosis in EpH4 Cells. (EpH4 세포에서 TGF-β에 의한 세포사멸시 Smad 단백질에 의존한 Gadd45b 유전자의 발현 변화)

  • Cho, Hee-Jun;Yoo, Ji-Yun
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.18 no.4
    • /
    • pp.461-466
    • /
    • 2008
  • Transforming growth $factor-{\beta}$ ($TGF-{\beta}$)-dependent apoptosis is important in the elimination of damaged or abnormal cells from normal tissues in vivo. Gadd45b has been known to participate in $TGF-{\beta}-induced$ apoptosis by the activation of p38 kinase. In this report, we show that Gadd45b is an immediate-early response gene for $TGF-{\beta}$ during apoptosis in EpH4 cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of $TGF-{\beta}-induced$ Gadd45b gene expression, we cloned the 5'-flanking region of the mouse Gadd45b gene. When transfected into EpH4 cells, this 5'-flanking region conferred promoter activity and inducibility by $TGF-{\beta}$. Deletion analyses demonstrated that the minimal promoter activity was detected in the proximal region 220 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. We also found that the proximal Gadd45b promoter is activated by $TGF-{\beta}$ through the action of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4. Finally, we show that the expression of Gadd45b gene by $TGF-{\beta}$ is suppressed in EpRas cells in which $TGF-{\beta}$ could not induce apoptosis, suggesting that Gadd45b may be a crucial target for $TGF-{\beta}-induced$ apoptosis in EpH4 cells.

Purification of TGF-$\beta$1 from Bovine Colostrum (젖소 초유로부터 TGF-$\beta$1의 정제)

  • 남명수;배형철;김평현;김완섭;고준수
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
    • /
    • v.22 no.4
    • /
    • pp.343-347
    • /
    • 2002
  • Bovine colostrum contains various bio-functional Proteins. Especially, transforming: growth factor-${\beta}$1 (TGF-${\beta}$1) has a function in concerns with immune response. The purpose of this study was to establish the purification Processing of transforming growth factor-${\beta}$1(TGF-${\beta}$1). The highest concentration of TGF-${\beta}$1 was measured within 48 h after parturition in bovine colostrum using ELISA kit. Purification of TGF-${\beta}$1 from whey protein was carried out by the gel filtration, AF-heparin chromatography and AF-heparin rechromatography. After final purification step, TGF-${\beta}$1 with a molecular weight of 25 kD was obtained, and confirmed by silver staining and western blotting. Finally, TGF-${\beta}$1 was identified native form of 25 kD and reducing form of 12.5 kD by reducing agent.

TGF-$\beta$3 Selectively Induces Mouse IgA and IgG2b isotype (TGF-$\beta$3는 마우스 IgA, IgG2b 항체의 선택적 유도작용)

  • 이은경;박석래;전계택;김평현;이세원;최의열
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
    • /
    • v.35 no.2
    • /
    • pp.164-168
    • /
    • 1999
  • TGF-$\beta$3 is among five TGF-$\beta$ isolorms and shows 80% sequence identity to TGF-$\beta$I, a prototype of TGF--$\beta$. It has been reported that TGF-$\beta$I, particularly in the presence of IL-2 or L-5, increases the pmduction of IgA and IgG2b isoiypes by LPS-actwated murine B cells. We examined the effect of TGF-P3 on Ig synlhesis by B cells from different lymphoid origins. IgA induction by TGP-$\beta$3 was mardnal in LPS-activated spleen B cell culture, while 1gA production was markedly enhanced in the culture shulated with TGF-$\beta$P3 and L-5. In addition, number of IgA secreting cells was increased by TGF-$\beta$P3. Under the same conditions, TGP-$\beta$3 alone was enough to increase IgG2b production but IgM and 1gGl. Sirmlar patiem of IgA and IgGZb enbancement by TGF-$\beta$3 and L-5 was observed in the cullures of mesenteric lymph node B cells. Thus, overall effect of TGF-$\beta$3 on Ig synthesis was quite similar to that of TGF-$\beta$I. Nonetheless, it remains to be underslood whether TGF-$\beta$3 is an important modulator in B cell differentiation since regulation of TGF-$\beta$3 expression is considered to differ from that of TGF-$\beta$I

  • PDF

Expressions of transforming growth factor β in patients with rheumatioid arthritis and osteoarthritis (류머티스 관절염과 골관절염 환자에서 Transforming growth factor β의 발현 양상)

  • Kim, Chae-Gi;Yoon, Wern Chan;Song, Yong-Ho;Kim, Sang-Gyung;Choe, Jung-Yoon
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
    • /
    • v.1 no.3
    • /
    • pp.244-249
    • /
    • 2001
  • The transforming growth $factor-{\beta}$ ($TGF-{\beta}$) is a multifunctional cytokine modulating the onset and course of autoimmune disease as shown in experimental models. In synovial inflammation, there is a potential role for $TGF-{\beta}$ in repairment, the inhibition of cartilage and bone destruction, and the down-regulation of immune response. The biologic effects of $TGF-{\beta}$ depend on the cell type, the isoform and the availability of active $TGF-{\beta}$. We investigated $TGF-{\beta}$ expression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and compared to those of osteoarthritis (OA). And we determined a correlation between $TGF-{\beta}1$ and $TGF-{\beta}2$, and also the relationships between each $TGF-{\beta}$ isoform and the parameters for disease activity of RA. Methods: The study population consisted of 20 patients with RA and 20 patients with OA. The commercial ELISA kit was used to study $TGF-{\beta}1$ and $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels in peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluids (SF). Results: 1) While PB $TGF-{\beta}1$ level was of no difference between RA and OA patient groups, SF $TGF-{\beta}1$ level was higher in RA group than OA group. Similarly, PB $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels of RA and OA groups was not different, but SF $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels was higher in RA group than OA group. 2) In patients with RA, the $TGF-{\beta}1$ levels were higher than $TGF-{\beta}2$ in both the PB and SF, while in patients with OA, there showed higher readings for $TGF-{\beta}1$ than $TGF-{\beta}2$ in SF but no difference between $TGF-{\beta}1$ and $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels in PB. 3) In patients with RA, there were no correlations between PB $TGF-{\beta}1$ and PB $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels, nor between SF $TGF-{\beta}1$ and SF $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels. At the same way, there was no correlation between PB $TGF-{\beta}1$ and SF $TGF-{\beta}1$ levels, nor between each levels of $TGF-{\beta}2$ in patients with RA. 4) There was also no correlation between each $TGF-{\beta}$ isoform and the parameters for disease activity such as ESR, CRP, tender joint count, swollen joint count, rheumatoid factor, and the duration of morning stiffness except between in PB $TGF-{\beta}1$ and disease duration of RA (r=0.637, p<0.01). Conclusion: Each $TGF-{\beta}$ isoforms were higher in synovial fluid of patients with RA than that of patients with OA. The data from the RA patients demonstrated different patterns of expressions of the isoforms depending on which compartment (PB or SF) was investigated. The quantification of different $TGF-{\beta}$ isoform is thought to be important when $TGF-{\beta}$ is measured under disease conditions of RA.

  • PDF

Effects of TGF-${\beta}1$ Ribbon Antisense on $CCl_4$-induced Liver Fibrosis

  • Doh, Kyung-Oh
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.12 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-6
    • /
    • 2008
  • Ribbon-type antisense oligonucleotide to TGF-${\beta}1$ (TGF-${\beta}1$ RiAS) was designed and tested to prevent or resolve the fibrotic changes induced by $CCl_4$ injection. When Hepa1c1c7 cells were transfected with TGF-${\beta}1$ RiAS, the level of TGF-${\beta}1$ mRNA was effectively reduced. TGF-${\beta}1$ RiAS, mismatched RiAS, and normal saline were each injected to mice via tail veins. When examined for the biochemical effects on the liver, TGF-${\beta}1$ mRNA levels were significantly reduced only in the TGF-${\beta}1$ RiAS-treated group. The results of immunohistochemical studies showed that TGF-${\beta}1$ RiAS prevented the accumulation of collagen and ${\alpha}$-smooth muscle actin, but could not resolve established fibrosis. These results indicate that ribbon antisense to TGF-${\beta}1$ with efficient uptake can effectively prevent fibrosis of the liver.

Kinetics and Biological Function of Transforming Growth Factor-$\beta$ Isoforms in Bovine and Human Colostrum

  • CHUN, SUNG-KI;NAM, MYOUNG-SOO;GOH, JUHN-SU;KIM, WAN-SUP;HAN, YOUNG-HWAN;KIM, PYEUNG-HYEUN
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.14 no.6
    • /
    • pp.1267-1274
    • /
    • 2004
  • Colostrum contains various kinds of cytokines including TGF-$\beta$ that has potent regulatory effects on cells of the immune system. We compared the levels of TGF-$\beta$1 and TGF-$\beta$2 in bovine and human colostrum. Based on the isoform-specific ELISA, bovine colostrum collected on day 1 post-delivery retained $53.71{\pm}29.55\;ng/ml$ of TGF-$\beta$1 and $40.41{\pm}21.78\;{\mu}g/ml$ of TGF-$\beta$2 (n=4), while in human, $381.45{\pm}158.24\;ng/ml$ of TGF-$\beta$1 and $41.47{\pm}9.63\;ng/ml$ of TGF-$\beta$2 (n=5). Thus, dominant TGF-$\beta$ isoforms were completely opposite between human and bovine colostrum samples. The concentrations of both isoforms declined as lactation proceeded. Biological activities of the colostrum samples were determined using an MV1LU cell line. Consistent with the result from the immunoassay, TGF-$\beta$1 in human and TGF-$\beta$2 in bovine colostrum were responsible for the anti proliferative activity against MV1LU cells. Furthermore, bovine colostrum increased IgA secretion by LPS-stimulated mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, and this effect was abrogated by either anti­TGF-$\beta$2 antibody or combined anti-TGF-$\beta$1/$\beta$2 antibody, but not by anti- TGF-$\beta$1 antibody alone. Similarly, TGF-$\beta$2 in bovine colostrum enhanced the Ig germ line (GL) promoter activity, which is the earliest event toward IgA isotype switching. Taken together, these results suggest that TGF-$\beta$ isoforms, differentially expressed in human and bovine colostrum, may promote IgA isotype production in the neonatal intestine.

Role of TGF-β1 in Human Colorectal Cancer and Effects after Cantharidinate Intervention

  • Ma, Jie;Gao, Hai-Mei;Hua, Xin;Lu, Ze-Yuan;Gao, Hai-Cheng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.9
    • /
    • pp.4045-4048
    • /
    • 2014
  • Effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-${\beta}$) were investigated in human colorectal cancer, and the influence of cantharidinate in inhibiting TGF-${\beta}1$ expression was explored. Relationships among TGF-${\beta}1$ and sex, age, tumor size, tumor location, tumor stage were also analyzed. H&E and immunohistochemistry staining were employed to assess colorectal cancer and TGF-${\beta}1$ expression, respectively. Then, HCT-116 CRC cells were randomly divided into four groups, controls, no serum-treated, chemotherapy and cantharidinate-treated. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were employed to assess the expression of TGF-${\beta}1$ in CRC cells. Our data showed that the expression of TGF-${\beta}1$ might be associated with tumor size and tumor location (P<0.05). The expression of TGF-${\beta}1$ in CRC groups was higher than in adjacent groups (P<0.05). In addition, the expression of TGF-${\beta}1$ in cantharidinate-treated group was much lower than in CRC group (P<0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that TGF-${\beta}1$ plays an important role in CRC development. Cantharidinate might inhibit the expression of TGF-${\beta}1$ and control the development of colorectal cancer.