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Development of Crushing Device for Whole Crop Silage and the Characteristics of Crushed Whole Crop Silage (총체맥류 분쇄기 개발 및 분쇄 총체맥류 사일리지의 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Sunghyoun;Yu, Byeongkee;Ju, Sunyi;Park, Taeil
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.344-349
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of expanding the usage of whole crop silage from beef cattle and dairy cow to hogs and chickens. For this purpose, a crushing device was developed to crush whole crop silage. The crushed silage was sealed, and analyzed for its feed value. The silage varieties used for the experiment included Saessal barley and Geumgang wheat. Whole crop barley and wheat were crushed in the crushing system as a whole without separating stems, leaves, grains, etc.. When the crushed whole crop silages (CWCS) were analyzed, full grain, grains above 10 mm in size, grains 5~10 mm in size, and grains below 5 mm in size accounted for, 20%, 4%, 27%, and 49 %, respectively. In order to facilitate the fermentation of CWCS, inoculated some fermenter into each CWCS sample (barley or wheat). As control, another set of sample was not inoculated. Crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), lignin, cellulose content, total digestible nutrient (TDN), and relative feed value (RFV) of fermenter-inoculated Saessal barley were 2.45 %, 1.61%, 8.95%, 16.94%, 9.52%, 1.01%, 8.51%, 81.38%, and 447.5%, respectively. The CP, EE, CF, NDF, ADF, lignin, cellulose content, TDN, and RFV in the other sample of Saessal barley without inoculation of fermenter were 2.57%, 1.62%, 9.61%, 18.25%, 10.13%, 1.10%, 9.04%, 80.90%, and 412.9%, respectively. The CP, EE, CF, NDF, ADF, lignin, cellulose content, TDN, and RFV of fermenter-inoculated Geumgang wheat sample were 2.43%, 1.27%, 10.99%, 19.49%, 11.23%, 1.46%, 9.77%, 80.03%, and 382.6%, respectively. The CP, EE, CF, NDF, ADF, lignin, cellulose content, TDN, RFV of the other set sample of Geumgang wheat sample without the inoculation of fermenter were 2.28%, 1.44%, 10.08%, 18.02%, 10.44%, 1.26%, 9.18%, 80.65%, and 416.9%, respectively. The TDN and RFV content in the fermenter-inoculated Saessal barley were 81.38% and 447.5%, respectively, while the one in the fermenter-inoculated Geumgang wheat were 80.03% and 382.6% respectively. When the feed value of whole crop barley and wheat silage without crushing process was compared to the feed value of whole crop barley and wheat silage made from crushing system, the latter appeared to be higher than the former. This could be due to the process of sealing the crushed silage which might have minimized air content between samples and shortened the golden period of fermentation. In conclusion, these results indicate that a crushing process might be needed to facilitate fermentation and improve the quality of silage when making whole crop silage.

The Effects of Cattle Slurry Application and Mixed Sowing with legumes on Productivity and Feed Values of Barley and Rye (액상우분뇨와 콩과식물 혼파재배가 보리, 호밀의 생산성과 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Jo, IK-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.371-380
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to assess effects of supplying different types of nitrogen sources as fertilizers on productivity and feed values of barley and rye as winter forage crops, and ultimately done to get good quality of organic forages with higher fertilization of soil. For barley, N+P+K plots were significantly (P<0.05) higher in annual dry matter (DM) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields than other plots. However, cattle manure plots had significantly (P<0.05) higher annual DM and TDN than P+K and non-fertilizer plots. Plots of 50%-cattle manure and mixed sowing with hairy vetch or forage pea were higher than only 50%-cattle manure plot, particularly, these were significantly higher than non-fertilizer, and their crude protein (CP) yields were much higher than other plots. Crude protein contents were significantly higher in N+P+K and 50%-cattle manure slurry plots than non-fertilizer and P+K plots, and plots of mixed sowing with hairy vetch or forage pea in application of 50%-cattle manure had higher CP content than other plots. ADF content was lowest in 50%-cattle manure+forage pea plots, but highest in 100%-cattle manure plots. NDF content was lowest in legumes-mixed sowing, but highest in 100%-cattle manure plots. TDN content was the highest in forage pea plots, and plots of 50%-cattle manure and legumes-mixed sowing had high RFV, but cattle manure plots rich in ADF and NDF content had the lowest TDN and RFV. For rye, plots of 50%-cattle manure+hairy vetch mixed sowing, and N+P+K application had significantly higher annual DM, CP and TDN than other plots except for cattle manure. DM productive efficiency to nitrogen fertilization was markedly higher for cattle manure plots than for chemical fertilizer. This tendency was more conspicuous in plots of 50% cattle manure+legumes-mixed sowing. CP content was higher for N+P+K plot than for all plots, and plots of 50%-cattle manure + legumes-mixed sowing were significantly higher than other plots. On the contrary, forage pea-mixed sowing plot had the lowest ADF and NDF, but TDN and RFV were significantly (P<0.05) higher than other plots. Grass crop cultivation together with legumes by applying livestock manure to soil may lead to higher palatability of livestock, and better quality of forage. Furthermore, cattle manure application increased production yield per ha and CP contents. Thus, when applying forage crops produced by cattle manure application and mixed sowing to organic livestock production, it was conceived that forages produced might become a substitute for foreign organic grain as protein sources.

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Effects of Food Waste Compost and Mineral Nitrogen Application Level on Nutritive Value and Nutrient Yields of Orchardgrass (Dactylis giomerata L.) (음식물쓰레기 퇴비와 무기태 질소 시용이 오차드그라스의 사료가치와 양분수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Jo, Ik-Hwan;Lee, Ju-Sam;Jun, Ha-Joon;Lee, Ju-Hee;Kim, Min
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.169-176
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    • 2000
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of application levels of food waste compost andmineral nitrogen in 3 cuttings per annurn on the nutritive value and nutrient yields of orchardgrass (Dactylisglomerata L.). Annual food waste compost (FWC) and mineral nitrogen were applied at levels of 0, 10, 20,40 and 60 ton ha-', and 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg ha-', respectively. The contents of crude protein (CP, %) oforchardgrass were significantly higher at the application levels of 40 ton ha-' yr-' by FWC than those atapplication levels of 0 ton ha-' yr-' (p<0.05), the contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, %), acid detergentfiber (ADF, %) and hemicellulose were also higher in FWC applied plots, except for the FWC levels of 10and 60 ton ha-' yr-'. The contents of total digestible nutrient (TDN, %) and relative feed value (RFV) oforchardgrass were significantly higher at FWC levels of 10 and 60 ton ha-' yr-' than at levels of 0 ton ha"yr-'. Annual yields of CP and TDN were increased with increase the FWC levels. The highest contents ofCP of orchardgrass were obtained at 1st cut, NDF and ADF at 2nd cut. As the mineral nitrogen fertilizationwas increased, the contents of CP, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose of orchardgrass were significantly increased,but TDN and RFV were decreased. .Annual yields of CP and TDN of orchardgrass were significantlyincreased with increase the mineral nitrogen fertilization.(Key words : Food waste compost, Mineral nitrogen, Crude protein, Neutral detergent fiber, Acid detergentfiber)rgent fiber, Acid detergent fiber)

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Effects of Phosphate Application Rate on Growth, Yield and Chemical Composition of Cassia mimosoides var. nomame (인산 시비량이 차풀의 생육과 수량 및 조성분에 미치는 영향)

  • 조남기;강영길;송창길;오은경;조영일
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.163-166
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    • 2000
  • Cassia mimosoides var. nomame was grown at five phosphate rates (0, 5, 15, 25 and 35 kg/10a) at Cheju in 1998 to determine the influence of phosphate rate on growth, forage yield and quality. As phosphate rate increased from 0 to 35kg/10a, the plant growth was increased such as days to flowering, plant height, the number of branches and green leaves per plant, stem diameter and SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development) reading values of leaves but the number of withering leaves per plant decreased. Fresh forage yield was 3, 291kg/10a at 0 kg/10a of phosphate rate and increased 5, 200 and 5, 230 kg/10a at 25 and 35 kg/10a of phosphate level, respectively. Dry matter, crude protein and total digestible nutrients (TDN) showed the same tendency of changes as the fresh forage yield. Crude protein, crude fat, nitrogen free extract and TDN content increased but crude ash and crude fiber content decreased as the increasing of phosphate rate increased.

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Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Level and Cutting Time on Forage Yield and Feed Value of Rye in Paddy Field (질소시비량과 예취시기가 답리작 호밀의 수량 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • ;Je-Cheon Chae
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.373-381
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    • 1994
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer level on forage yield and feed value, and to clarify the optimum nitrogen fertilizer level of rye in middle west area when cultured in paddy field. The field experiment treated 5 levels of nitrogen fertilization was carried out at Yesan from Oct. 1990 to June 1991. The fresh and dry weight increased with increased nitrogen fertilizer level by 30kg /10a, but dry matter ratio decreased. The ratio of leaf blade and leaf sheath in rye plant increased with increased nitrogen fertilizer level, but the ratio of stem and inflorescence decreased. The content and yield per unit area for protein, total digestible nutrient(TDN). Minerals, and energy increased with increased nitrogen fertilizer level, while acid detergent fiber(ADF) and neutral detergent fiber(NDF) decreased. The ratio of available protein among crude protein became higher with increased nitrogen fertilizer level. The optimum clipping time for net energy gain(NEG) and net energy maintenance(NEM) were 10 days earlier than milk stage for conventional items including TDN and proteins.

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Nutrient requirement for maintenance and nutritional changes of the Hanwoo steers in early-fattening stage under heat stress

  • Choi, Chang Weon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.74-83
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    • 2018
  • Four early-fattening Hanwoo steers weighing $247{\pm}13.5kg$ were used within a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to establish a nutrient requirement for maintenance and to investigate nutritional changes in the steers under heat stress condition. The steers were fed four different energy level diets: 100% (control) and 100%, 115% and 130% of total digestible nutrients (TDN) requirement of the early-fattening Hanwoo steers for maintenance based on the Korean Feeding Standard for Hanwoo. The steers in the control were housed with no stress (temperature $24^{\circ}C$ and humidity 60%), whereas the steers in the other groups were under heat stress (temperature $30^{\circ}C$ and humidity 70%). True digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and other nutrients were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by heat stress (i.e., control vs T100). This may be the result of a lower DM intake than that of the Korean feeding standard due to the establishment of the nutrients requirement under heat stress. Heat stress and different energy intake levels did not affect the blood metabolite concentrations. Average daily gain (ADG) for T100 (-69.6 g) was lower than that of the control (-44.6 g, numerically), T115 (44.6 g, p < 0.05) and T130 (83.3 g, p < 0.05), respectively. Based on the ADG and TDN intake, the equation (Y = 0.1814X + 111.5) for the TDN requirement of the early fattening Hanwoo steers for maintenance was calculated, indicating that 11.5% of TDN requirement for maintenance under heat stress may be additionally supplied.

Effects of High Levels of Nutrients on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Cattle

  • Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar;Jeong, Jin Young;Ji, Sang Yun;Baek, Youl-Chang;Lee, Seul;Kim, Minseok;Oh, Young Kyun;Lee, Hyun-Jeong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.180-189
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    • 2018
  • The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high levels of nutrients on the growth performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo cattle. Eighteen Hanwoo steers were fed two types of diets: 1) Nine animals were fed the conventional diet including typical levels of crude protein (CP) and total digestive nutrients (TDN), and 2) Nine animals were fed the treatment diet including high levels of CP and TDN. The average body weight (BW) and dry matter intake (DMI) were greater (P < 0.05) in the treatment group than in the conventional group at early and late fattening stages. Also, in the treatment group, the average daily gain (ADG) was greater (P < 0.05) at the late fattening stage. The serum total lipid and cholesterol levels were higher (P < 0.05) in the late fattening stage of treatment group. The carcass weight, total fat weight, longissimus muscle area and the grade of meat quality were also greater (P < 0.05) in the treatment group than the conventional diet group. This study demonstrates that high levels of CP and TDN exhibit a positive effect on the growth performance and carcass characteristics, indicating that high levels of CP and TDN can be used as a cost-effective feeding program for Hanwoo cattle by shortening the feeding period.

Effect of Planting Date and Hybrid on Forage Yield and Quality of Corn for Silage I. Agronomic characteristics and forage yield of corn (파종시기 및 품종이 사일리지용 옥수수의 수량과 사료가치에 미치는 영향. I. 옥수수의 생육특성 및 사초수량)

  • Kim, J.D.;Kim, D.A.;Park, H.S.;Kim, S.G.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.211-220
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    • 1999
  • The corn is mostly planted in mid-April in single-cropping silage system if possible, however, in a double-cropping silage system, the corn planting date is delayed until after the mid-May. The objective of this study was to evaluate agronomic characteristics and forage performance of the eight government recommended corn hybrids for silage at two dates of planting. Split-plot design replicated three times was used, that is, main plots were planting dates, sub-plots were eight hybrids at Suweon in 1997. Days from planting to silking of optimum planting was 84 days and that of late was 69 days. The difference in silking day among the hybrids was 6 days at optimum planting and 2 days at late planting. Plant height of optimum planting corn was higher than that of late one, however, ear height and stem diameter of optimum planting were lower than those of late planting corn. Among the corn hybrids tested, plant heights of 'P3156' and 'P3163' were higher than those of the other hybrids. Ear height of 'DK713' was the lowest among the corn hybrids and stem diameter of 'P3394' was thicker than that of the other hybrids. European corn borer(ECB) damage(16.6%) at optimum planting was lower than that(49.9%) of late, however, there were no significant ECB damage differences among the corn hybrids tested. Whole plant dry matter(DM) contents of 'P3525', 'P3394' and 'P3352' hybrids were higher than those of the other corn hybrids at harvest. Ear percentages of the total dry matter(DM) of 'P3394' and 'P3156' were higher than those of the other corn hybrids. Dry matter(DM) and total digestible nutrients(TDN) yields(19,696 and 14,621kg/ha) at optimum planting were higher than those (17,163 and 12,570kg/ha) of late planting, while there were no significant differences in DM and TDN yields among the corn hybrids tested. And those hybrids with greater proportion of grain in the whole plant have higher DM and TDN yields. Correlation coefficients for days from planting to silking with DM and TDN yields were $0.84^{**}$ and $0.87^{**}$, and those for ear percent were $0.86^{**}$ and $0.87^{**}$. Results of this study indicate that optimum planting date(15 April) is better than late planting date(16 May) in agronomic characteristics and forage production of silage corn. Days from planting to silking and ear percent as welI as other characters are important factors screening the corn hybrid for silage.

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Studies on Cropping System for Year-Round Cultivation of Forage Crops in Gyeongnam Province (경남지방에서 조사료 주년생산 작부체계에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Dal-Soon;Kim, Dae-Ho;Shin, Hyun-Yul;Son, Gil-Man;Rho, Chi-Woong;Kim, Jung-Gon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.137-152
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    • 2009
  • Present experiment was conducted at the field of Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services in Jinju city for two continuous cropping seasons to develop several adaptable and valuable year-round forage-producing system for elevating self-sufficiency and dollar-saving by reduced importing of crude forage. Twenty cropping systems were tested in experiment using whole crop barley (WCB), oat, rye, Italian ryegrass (IRG), and triticale in winter season and com, sorghum, sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid, and oat in summer time. Sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid showed highest fresh forage yield among experimented summer season crops, and followed com. Com produced the most dry matter yield, and followed sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid, sorghum and oat in order. There was no significant effect of former winter crops on fresh and dry matter production succeeding summer time crops. Among winter season forage crops tested, oat showed the highest fresh and dry matter when clipped on mid-May, and followed triticale, IRG, rye and WCB. Winter-time cultivated crops showed no clear effect on the growth and forage (fresh and dry matter) producing ability of following summer crops. There was the most protein content in oat plant among summer season planted crops, and in sorghum for acid detergent fiber (ADF) and in sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid for neutral detergent fiber (NDF), respectively. While, com showed highest value of relative feed value (RFV) and total digestive nutrients (TDN) among those crops. Among winter crops, the highest crude protein was in oat plant showing no significant differences of ADF and NDF, while, relatively higher value of RFV was recognized with rye and triticale. Also, triticale contained more TDN as compare to other forage crops. The cropping combinations such as com followed by (fb) rye and maize fb triticale were regarded as promising systems having higher dry matter producing ability among tested combinations. Considering TDN producing potential, the combinations with sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid fb triticale andlor rye were would be suitable ones, coincidently. There was a tendency which elevating pH, electric conductivity (EC) and organic matter (OM) contents in soil after experiment comparing to before planting. More crude protein content in plant was shown at mid-May clipping as compared to the forage at April cut in all winter season grown crops. ADF and NDF contents were increased by delayed clipping showing decreased tendency of RFV and TDN in plant. In conclusion, many cropping systems would be available using above mentioned forage crops according to farmer's conditions and scale, etc.

Mass Balance of Salts, DIP, DIN and DON in the Gomso Tidal Flat (곰소만 조간대에서 Salts, DIP, TDN의 물질 수지)

  • Jeong Yong-Hoon;Kim Yeong-Tae;Kim Ki-Hyun;Kim Soh-Young;Kim Byung-Hoon;Yang Jae-Sam
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.68-81
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    • 2006
  • As one of the on-going projects to investigate the biogeochemical characteristics of tidal flat, we develop seasonal mass balance calculations (or DIP, DIN and DON in Gomso Bay. We have obtained 13-hours time-series data of salinity, tidal current, nutrients, and chlorophyll-a of seawater for spring, dry summer, rainy summer and winter during $1999{\sim}2000$. DIP of $-1.10{\times}10^6g\;P\;day^{-1},\;-4.50{\times}10^5g\;P\;day^{-1}$ was out-fluxed from the bay to the bay proper for spring and dry summer, respectively. Whereas $1.06{\times}10^4g\;P\;day^{-1}$ of net influx of DIP was found during winter and $2.72{\times}10^6g\;P\;day^{-1}$ of net influx was also found during the rainy summer. Therefore we suggest the role of Gomso tidal flat as a source of DIP fur the seasons of spring and summer, but as an opposite role during the rainy summer and winter but much smaller in magnitude. Except winter, the advection process by tidal current is found the most dominant flux among the diverse fluxes of DIP in the bay. Whereas ground water is estimated as the strongest flux of TDN except winter. TDN of $1.38{\times}10^7g\;N\;day^{-1},\;2.45{\times}10^6g\;N\;day^{-1},\;and\;4.65{\times}10^7g\;N\;day^{-1}$ was in-fluxed to the bay from the bay proper far spring, rainy summer and summer, respectively. Only $-1.70{\times}10^7g\;N\;day^{-1}$ of net out-flux was found during the winter. Therefore we suggest the role of Gomso tidal flat as a sink of TDN far the year round except winter.