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Effect of Pasture Mixtures on Forage Yields and Botanical Composition in Jeju at Altitude of 200 m (제주지역 표고 200 m에서 혼합조합별 초지 생산성 및 식생구성)

  • Chae, Hyun Seok;Kim, Nam Young;Woo, Jae Hoon;Park, Seol Hwa;Son, Jun Kyu;Back, Kwang Soo;Lee, Wang Shik;Kim, Si Hyun;Hwang, Kyung Jun;Kim, Young Jin;Park, Nam Gun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.325-332
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to determine the growth characteristics of cool ($C_1$) and warm season grasses ($C_2$) in pastures mixed with $C_1$ and $C_2$ suitable for grazing horses and effect of pastures mixed with tall and short grasses on the intake characteristics of horses. $C_1$ used in this study was Kentucky bluegrass, Redtop (short type grass) and tall type grasses were orchardgrass and tall fescue, respectively. The short type grass used as $C_2$ was Bermudagrass. This study had the following four treatment groups: 1) Treatment 1 (Bermudagrass + Kentucky bluegrass + Redtop) 2) Treatment 2 (Bermudagrass + tall fescue + orchardgrass) 3) Treatment 3 (Kentucky bluegrass + Redtop) 4) Treatment 4 (tall fescue + orchardgrass). There was no winterkilling or lodging problem at an altitude of 200 m. Plant heights in mixed pasture of Treatment 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 53.9, 58.2, 57.5, and 78.1 cm, respectively. Plant height was the highest in Treatment 4. Dry matter yield was in the following order : Treatment 4 > Treatment 3 > Treatment 2 > Treatment 1. In the first investigation regarding vegetation distribution, Bermudagrass ratios among grasses in Treatment 1 and Treatment 2 were 70% and 66.7%, respectively. Overall, other grasses showed poor growth. In the second investigation of vegetation distribution, Bermudagrass ratios among grasses in Treatment 1 and Treatment 2 were 80% and 60.7%, respectively. Crude protein content, neutral detergent fiber content, acid detergent fiber content, digestibility value, and nutritive values were the lowest in Treatment 4, followed by those in Treatment 1, Treatment 2 and Treatment 3.

'Saeyoung', a Winter Forage Triticale Cultivare of High-Yielding and Tolerance to Cold (추위에 강하고 수량이 많은 조사료용 트리티케일 품종 '세영')

  • Han, Ouk-Kyu;Park, Hyung-Ho;Park, Tae-Il;Cho, Sang-Kyun;Choi, In-Bae;Noh, Jae-Hwan;Kim, Kee-Jong;Oh, Young-Jin;Park, Ki-Hun;Kim, Dea-Wook;Ku, Ja-Hwan;Kweon, Soon-Jong;Ahn, Jong-Woong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2017
  • 'Saeyoung', a winter triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) for forage, was developed at the Department of Rice and Winter Cereal Crop, NICS, RDA in 2012. The cultivar 'Saeyoung' has narrow and long leaves of light green color, middle size and thin culm, and a medium grain of brown color. The heading date and yellow ripe stage of 'Saeyoung' was May 3 and May 27, which were similar to check cultivar 'Shinyoung', respectively. 'Saeyoung' showed a little stronger in cold tolerance and a little weaker in resistance to lodging than the check, and wet injury, powdery mildew, and leaf rust were similar to those of the check cultivar. The forage fresh and dry matter yields of 'Saeyoung' at milk-ripe stages were 47.2 and $15.6MT\;ha^{-1}$, respectively, which was 9% and 4% higher than those of the check. The crude protein content of 'Saeyoung' was 0.4% lower than 6.8% of the check, while was higher than the check cultivar 'Shinyoung' in neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber. Total digestible nutrients of 'Saeyoung' was also 3% lower than 62.8% of the check cultivar. It showed grain yield of $4.1MT\;ha^{-1}$, which was 11% higher than that of the check. 'Saeyoung' is recommended for fall sowing forage crops in areas in which average daily minimum mean temperatures in January are higher than $-10^{\circ}C$.

Study on the Determination of Crude Protein Requirement for Maintenance of fattening Black Goat(Capra hircus coreanae) (비육기 흑염소의 유지를 위한 조단백질 요구량 결정에 관한 연구)

  • Yun, Yeong Sik;Jang, Se Young;Seong, Hye Jin;Tang, Yu Jiao;Ding, Yu Ling;Park, Jae Hyun;Moon, Sang Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.176-182
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the protein requirement for maintenance of fattening Korean black goat (Capra hircus coreanae). Six male goats with average initial body weight (BW) of $31.78{\pm}4.54kg$ and an average age of 8 months were used in this study. The experiment had a replicated duplicated $3{\times}3$ Latin square design for balancing carryover effects. In the course of the experiment, each of Black goats were fed three diets that were formulated to contain T1 (13%), T2 (16%) and T3 (19%) levels of crude protein (CP). A 14-day diet adjustment period was followed by a 5-day collection period. Dry matter intake (DMI) of groups fed diets with T2 was 966.67g/d which was higher than group fed diets with T1 and T3 were 925.14g/d and 936.08g/d each. Average daily gains (ADG) of black goats were the highest in T2(167.13g/d) But, there was no significant difference. Dietary protein levels affected the apparent digestibility of CP (p<0.05). A significant difference was found in CP intake among treatments and goats receiving T3, T2, and T1 recorded 181.23, 154.57, and 128.78g CP/d, respectively. This was excepted because CP intake is proportional to CP content of diet, which from highest to lowest was as follows: T3 (19%) > T2 (16%) > T1 (13%). Intercept of the regression equation between CP intake and CP balance indicated that maintenance CP requirement was 1.63g/BW0.75.

Comparative Study on the Productivity and Quality of Hilly Pasture by Management type (경영형태별 산지 초지의 생산성 및 사료가치 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Jong Geun;Liu, Chang;Zhao, Guoqiang;Park, Hyung Soo;Jeong, Jong Sung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2019
  • This experiment was carried out to study the change of productivity and feed value in different types of hilly pasture. The pasture utilized in the experiment was placed on the experimental farm of Pyeongchang Campus of Seoul National University. Forage production type(FP; Orchardgrass 18 + Tall Fescue 12 + Timothy 5 + White clover 5 kg/ha) and Public farm type(PF: Orchardgrass 12 + Tall Fescue 18 + Timothy 5 + White clover 5 kg/ha) pasture were established in September 3, 2014 and utilized (cutting or grazing) four times every year. Growth characteristics, yield and forage quality were investigated for two years. Plant height of grasses was the highest in the $1^{st}$ cutting and legumes was in the $2^{nd}$ cutting. Dry matter (DM) content was highest at every the $1^{st}$ cut grasses significantly lower at the $2^{nd}$ harvest (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the $2^{nd}$, $3^{rd}$ and $4^{th}$ harvest in 2016. In the botanical composition change, the portion of legume was gradually increased after pasture establishment and the ratio of weed and bare land was higher at $2^{nd}$ and $3^{rd}$ cutting, but it was decreased at $4^{th}$ harvest. There was no significant difference in 2016 of fresh yield between two farm types (p>0.05). The yield of dry matter showed similar trend of fresh yield and forage production type was higher than that of public farm type (p<0.05). The forage intake by livestock was 1,452 kg/ha in 2015 and 1,743 kg/ha in 2016. Pasture utilization ratio of public farm type pasture was highest in the $3^{rd}$ grazing time. Forage quality of pasture in relation to management type had not significant difference, but there was difference in harvest times. Crude protein (CP) was the lowest in the $1^{st}$ harvest and total digestible nutrient (TDN) was highest in the $1^{st}$ harvest and lowest in the $4^{th}$ harvest. Based on the above results, it is found that the establishment of pasture suitable for farm's situation is important for set up of Korean model of hilly pasture. Although the forage production type is superior on forage productivity, it is recommended that the results will be provided as basic data for management of public farm type in the future.

Changes of Dry Matter Productivity and Feed Value of Forage Barley and Italian Ryegrass According to Cultivation Conditions in Mid-west Plain of Korea (중서부 평야지에서 재배조건에 따른 청보리와 이탈리안 라이그라스의 건물생산성 및 사료가치 변화)

  • Seo, Jong Ho;Kwon, Young Up;Cho, Ga Ok;Han, Ouk Kyu;Gu, Ja Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.84-90
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    • 2018
  • Cultivation of high-quality forage crop by using fallow field during winter is required for national high feed self-sufficiency and establishment of self-supply system of high-quality forage crop. Field experiments for cultivation of high-quality winter forage crop were conducted at the paddy and upland fields in Cheonan and Anseong city with treatments of single Italian ryegrass(IRG) and IRG mixed with forage barley at the paddy field and of single forage barley and forage barley mixed with IRG at the upland field in the Mid-west plain. Several cultivation conditions such as broadcasting IRG seed under standing rice, sowing time, tillage method, drainage condition, mixed sowing with forage barley were compared to know the change of growth, yield and quality of winter forage crop. In particular, over-wintering rate and dry matter yield were decreased significantly in late-sown IRG and moisture-stressed forage barley. Yield and quality of forage crops were increased by sowing after tillage, mixed sowing of IRG with barley at the paddy field with good drainage. High yield as much as dry matter $10MT\;ha^{-1}$ with high feed value could be obtained by early sowing of feed barley mixed with IRG at the upland field. Cultivation conditions such as early sowing, sowing after tillage, drainage management are required for higher dry matter yield, quality and stable cultivation of winter forage crops in the mid-west plain of Korea.

Effect of Forage Species, Mixed Pastures and Mesh on Forage Yields and Botanical Composition for Rapid Establishment of Grassland at Cutting Area in Middle Region of Korea (중부지역 절개지에서 신속한 초지조성을 위한 목초의 초종, 혼파조합 및 그물망 설치가 생산성과 식생에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Seung Min;Ji, Hee Chung;Lee, Ki Won;Kim, Ki Yong;Park, Hyung Soo;Lee, Sang Hoon;Kim, Ji Hye;Sung, Kyung Il;Hwang, Tae Young
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.61-73
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    • 2018
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the suitable method for rapid establishment of grassland according to forage species, mixed pastures and installation of mesh at 35 degree angle of cutting area in the middle region of Korea. In agronomic characteristics after wintering, vegetation coverage of Tall fescue(TF) was 74% in monoculture, which was the highest among 3 forage crops. Meanwhile average vegetation coverages of monoculture and mixed pasture were 67 and 92% in treated of mesh, which were 4 and 18% higher than untreated of mesh, respectively. In botanical composition, TF of monoculture and Orchardgrass(OG) and TF oriented mixed were indicated over 94% forage coverage. Meanwhile forage coverages Kentucky bluegrass(KBG) and Red top(RT) of monoculture and Perennial ryegrass(PRG) oriented mixture were 89, 81 and 92% in treated of mesh, which were 7, 6 and 5% higher than untreated of mesh, respectively. In forage productivity, dry matter yield(DMY) of TF(12,537kg/ha) and KBG(11,897kg/ha) of monoculture were significant(p<0.05) higher than RT(9,604kg/ha). Meanwhile DMY of OG(12,227kg/ha), TF(12,823kg/ha) and PRG(11,871kg/ha) oriented mixed were not significant difference(p>0.05). In forage quality of monoculture, in the first year, crude protein of KBG was 13.6%, which was the highest among 3 forage species. Also neutral detergent fiber(NDF) of TF was 56.5%, which was the lowest among 3 forage species. In mixed pasture, in the second year, NDF and acid detergent fiber of PRG oriented mixed were 56.5 and 34.3%, respectively, which was the lowest among 3 mixed pasture. In conclusion, forage species TF was more suitable on initial rootage and continuous forage coverage, OG and TF oriented mixed were more suitable on continuous forage coverage. Also the installation of mesh showed positive effects on initial rootage and maintain forage ratio.

Evaluation of Feed Values for Imported Hay Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (근적외선분광법을 이용한 수입 건초의 사료가치 평가)

  • Park, Hyung Soo;Kim, Ji Hye;Choi, Ki Choon;Oh, Mirae;Lee, Ki-Won;Lee, Bae Hun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.258-263
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    • 2019
  • Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has become increasingly used as a rapid and accurate method of evaluating some chemical compositions in forages. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of NIRS, applied to imported forage, to estimate the moisture and chemical parameters for imported hays. A population of 392 imported hay representing a wide range in chemical parameters was used in this study. Samples of forage were scanned at 1 nm intervals over the wavelength range 680-2500nm and the optical data was recorded as log 1/Reflectance(log 1/R), which scanned in intact fresh condition. The spectral data were regressed against a range of chemical parameters using partial least squares(PLS) multivariate analysis in conjunction with spectral math treatments to reduced the effect of extraneous noise. The optimum calibrations were selected based on the highest coefficients of determination in cross validation(R2) and the lowest standard error of cross-validation(SECV). The results of this study showed that NIRS predicted the chemical parameters with very high degree of accuracy. The R2 and SECV for imported hay calibration were 0.92(SECV 0.61%) for moisture, 0.98(SECV 0.65%) for acid detergent fiber, 0.97(SECV 0.40%) for neutral detergent fiber, 0.99(SECV 0.06%) for crude protein and 0.97(SECV 3.04%) for relative feed value on a dry matter(%), respectively. Results of this experiment showed the possibility of NIRS method to predict the moisture and chemical composition of imported hay in Korea for routine analysis method to evaluate the feed value.

An Early-Maturing and High-Biomass Tetraploid Rye (Secale cereale L.) Variety 'Daegokgreen' for Forage Use (조생 다수성 조사료용 4배체 호밀 '대곡그린')

  • Ku, Ja-Hwan;Han, Ouk-kyu;Oh, Young-Jin;Park, Tae-Il;Kim, Dae-Wook;Kim, Byung-Joo;Park, Myoung Ryoul;Ra, Kyung-Yoon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.209-215
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    • 2020
  • A winter forage tetraploid rye (Secale cereale L.) cultivar, 'Daegokgreen', was developed at the Department of Central Area Crop Science, NICS, RDA in 2016. The mutant line 'CG11003-8-B', which was induced from rye cultivar 'Gogu' (diploid) by colchicine treatment, was selected for its excellent agronomic performance and was placed in preliminary yield trials for one year, 2013. The line was designated "Homil59" and was tested for regional yield trials at the four locations in Korea from 2014 to 2016. Finally, the new cultivar was named as the 'Daegokgreen' (grant number 8274). The leaf of cultivar 'Daegokgreen' is wide, long and dark-green color. The cultivar also has a big-size grain with light-brown color. The heading date of cultivar 'Daegokgreen' was April 17 which was 2 days later than that of check cultivar 'Gogu'. The tolerance to cold and wet injury, and resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust of the new cultivar were similar to those of the check cultivar but the resistance to the lodging of the new cultivar was stronger than that of the check. The average roughage fresh and dry matter yield of the new cultivar after 10 days from heading were 37.0 and 7.7 MT ha-1, respectively, which were similar to those (38.4 and 8.0 MT ha-1) of the check cultivar. The roughage quality of 'Daegokgreen' was higher in crude protein content (8.9%) than that of the check cultivar (7.9%), while was similar to the check in total digestible nutrients (56.9%). This cultivar is recommended for fall sowing forage crops at all of crop cultivation areas in Korea.

Evaluation the Feed Value of Whole Crop Rice Silage and Comparison of Rumen Fermentation according to Its Ratio (신규 조사료원 사료용 벼 사일리지의 사료가치 평가 및 급여 비율에 따른 반추위 발효성상 비교)

  • Park, Seol Hwa;Baek, Youl Chang;Lee, Seul;Kim, Byeong Hyeon;Ryu, Chae Hwa
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.236-243
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    • 2020
  • This study was to evaluate the feed value of whole crop rice silage (WCRS) and to investigate a suitable ratio of the WCRS and concentrate by an analysis of rumen fermentation. A total of 6 treatments were used according to WCRS: concentrate ratio on in vitro rumen fermentation: T1 (100:0), T2 (60:40), T3 (40:60), T4 (20:80), T5 (10:90), and T6 (0:100). The ruminal pH, total gas emission, ammonia nitrogen, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) were determined as fermentation parameters. Total nutrients digestibility trial was conducted by 4 treatments according to WCRS: concentrate ratio at 40:60 (W40), 20:80 (W20), and 10:90 (W10), respectively. Feed value was analyzed according to AOAC (2019) and nutrient digestibility was calculated based on NRC (2001). The levels of crude protein (CP), crude fat, and neutral detergent fiber of the WCRS were 12.29%, 1.67%, and 59.79%, respectively. It was found to be 51.49% as a result of predicting the total digestible nutrient of WCRS using the NRC (2001) model. In vitro rumen fermentation, T4, T5, and T6 treatments showed a greater gas emission and total VFA concentration compared with other treatments (p<0.05). Acetate and acetate to propionate ratio of T4, T5, and T6 were significantly higher than other treatments (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in the level of propionate and butyrate according to the WCRS: concentrate ratio (p<0.05). The digestibility of dry matter and CP was significantly lower in W40 than in other treatments (p<0.05); however, there was no difference in W20 and W10. In conclusion, the 20:80 (WCRS: concentrate) is beneficial for stabilizing the rumen that does not inhibit rumen fermentation and nutrient digestion. This ratio might have a positive effect on the economics of farms as a valuable feed.

Effect of Livestock Manure Application on the Productivity of Whole Crop Rice, Feed Value and Soil Fertility (가축분뇨 시용이 총체 벼의 생산성, 사료가치 및 토양의 화학성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Young-Chul;Yoon, Sei-Hyung;Jung, Min-Woong;Kim, Won-Ho;Kim, Jong-Geun;Lee, Joung-Kyong;Seo, Sung;Park, Nam-Gun;Yook, Wan-Bang
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.287-296
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    • 2007
  • The experimental work was conducted to determine the growth characteristics and yield of whole crop rice (cv. Suwon 468 and cv. Chuchungbeo) and soil properties using various type of livestock manure application on rice paddy land for 3 years ($2003{\sim}3005$). Compared Suwon 468 and Chuchungbeo, Suwon 468 has longer plant height and more DM yield than that of Chuchungbeo. Among livestock manure type, plant height was longer in order of liquid swine manure (LSM) > composted swine manure (CSM) > chemical fertilizer (CF) > composted cattle manure (CCM). Number of branch on Chuchungbeo had more than that of Suwon 468. Among livestock manure type, number of branch had more in order of LSM > CSM > CF > CCM. DM yield of whole crop rice (WCR) was affected by various types of livestock manure application and increased in order CSM > CCM = LSM. DM yield on the effects of application level of LSM was highest in LSM 75% + CF 25%. Plant diseases such as rice blast, damage by insect, smut, sheath blight occurred in LSM and CSM and there was not significantly different among application level of LSM. The nitrogen content of WCR by CSM was the highest of all treatments and the ripened ratio by CSM was in contrary order. Moreover the feed value of WCR was not significantly different among treatments. Soil pH, organic matter and total nitrogen was not different by LSM application whereas phosphorus content increased by LSM application. Cu and Zn content increased by LSM and CSM application and were not different by CCM as compared to control plots.