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Comparison of Agronomic Characteristics, Forage Yield and Quality of Sorghum X sudangrass Hybrid (수수 X 수단그라스 교잡종의 생육특성, 사초 수량 및 품질 비교)

  • 김종덕;권찬호;김호중;박진길;이병생;빙기선;문승태
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.297-302
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    • 2002
  • This study was carried out to compare the agronomic characteristics, forage yield, and quality of four sorghum $\times$ sudangrass hybrids at Yonam College of Agriculture Experimental Livestock Farm, Sunghwan in 2001. The four recommended hybrids used in this study were ‘SXl7’ and ‘877F’(heading type), and ‘TE Evergreen’ and ‘Turbo 9’(headless type). sugar content or heading hybrids(SX17 and 877F) were higher then that of headless hybrids(TE Evergreen and Turbo 9). SX17 had resistance to lodging, while all hybrids had resistance to foliar disease and insect. Dry matter(DM) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields of heading hybrids were higher then those of headless hybrids. Among sudangrass hybrids, DM and TDN yields of 877F were the highest(21,007 and 12,276kg/ha). The crude protein of Turbo 9(10.5%) was higher than other hybrids. Neutral detergent fiber(NDF) content of headless hybrids were higher than that of heading hybrids, while acid detergent fiber(ADF) and acid detergent lignin(ADL) contents of headless hybrids were lower than those of heading hybrids. Calculated TDN of headless hybrids were higher than that at heading hybrids. Cellulase digestible of organic matter of dry matter (CDOMD) of headless hybrids also were higher then that of heading hybrids. Results of this experiment indicates that heading hybrid was better than headless hybrid in the agronomic characteristics and forage yield of sorghum $\times$ sudangrass. However heading hybrid was lower than leafless hybrid in quality of sorghum $\times$ sudangrass.

Effect of Planting Date on Forage Yield and Quality of corn Four Maturity Groups (숙기가 다른 사일리지용 옥수수의 파종기가 사초의 수량과 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • 김동암;이광녕;신동은;김종덕;한건준
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.327-337
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    • 1996
  • A field experiment was conducted at SNU Experimental Livestock Farm, Suweon in 1995 to determine effect of planting date on forage performance of wm hybrids of four different maturity groups. A split-plot design replicated three times was used, with com hybrids representing four maturity groups (115, 118, 121 and 125 days) being the main plots and planting dates (3124, 415, 415, 425, 515 and 5/15) the sub-plots. 1. Days to emergence and percent emergence from the March 24 planting were, on the average, 36 days and 58%, respectively, but those from the April 5 to May 15 planting averaged 12 days and 92%, respectively. 2. Plant and ear heights increased gradually as the dates of planting were delayed except the May 15 planting, however, percent ear was decreased as the dates of planting were delayed. There was a trend for the mean lodging percentage of the hybrids to be higher as the planting date was delayed. 3. The 115-and 118-day mediumearly maturing hybrids harvested on August 18 produced silages with a dry matter content between 27 and 30% at all planting dates except the May 15 planting, while the 121-and 125-day medium-late maturing hybrids produced silages with a dry matter wntent less than 27% regardless of any planting dates. 4. There were no significant differences in mean dry matter yield among the hybrids, but significant mean TDN yield differences were found. The 115-, 118- and 125-day hybrids had significantly higher mean TDN yield than the 121-day hybrid. There were significant differences in mean dry matter and TDN yields among the planting dates. The mean dry matter and TDN yields from the April 5, 15 and 25 plantings were significantly higher than those of other plantings, however, there were no significant differences in mean TDN yield among the April 5, April 15 and April 25 plantings. No significant planting date $\times$ maturity interactions were found for both the dry matter and TDN yields. 5. Mean stover NDF and ADF contents of the 115- and 118day hybrids were higher than those of the 121- and 125-day hybrids, but the reverse was true for mean stover IVDMD and RFV. Mean stover NDF an ADF contents increased with earlier plantings, but mean stover IVDMD and RFV increased when planting was delayed. Results of this experiment indicate that for corn planting in central and northern areas of Korea, early to mid-April may be the right time with the 115-to 118-day maturity hybrids when silage making before August 20 is taken into consideration.

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Yield and Quality of Silage Corn as Affected by Hybrid Maturity, Planting Date and Harvest Stage

  • Kim, J.D.;Kwon, C.H.;Kim, D.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.1705-1711
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    • 2001
  • Silage corn (Zea mays L) is grown extensively in livestock operations, and many managements focus on forage yield. This experiment was conducted at Seoul National University (SNU) Experimental Livestock Farm, Suwon in 1998. We determined the effect of planting date and harvest stage on forage yield and quality responses of corn hybrids (five relative maturity groups). The five maturity groups (100 d, 106 d, 111 d, 119 d and 125 d) were planted on 15 April and 15 May, and harvested at maturity stages (1/3, 1/2 and 2/3 kernel milkline). Whole plant dry matter (DM) and ear percentages had significant differences among corn hybrids. Ear percentages of early maturing corns (100 d and 106 d) were higher than for other hybrids. Ear percentage at the early planting date was higher than that at the late planting date for all corn hybrids. The DM and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields of the 106 d and 111 d corn hybrids were higher than other hybrids, and the DM and TDN yields at the early planting date were higher than that at the late planting date. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) percentages were greater for the late maturity corn hybrids. For plants of the early planting date, the ADF and NDF percentages were lower than for those of late planting date for hybrids. From the comparison among harvest stages, ADF and NDF percentages were decreased as harvest stage progressed. The TDN, net energy for lactation (NEL), and cellulase digestible organic matter of dry matter (CDOMD) were decreased as maturity of corn hybrid delayed. The TDN, NEL, and CDOMD values at the early planting date were higher than those at the late planting date among for corn hybrids. From the comparison among harvest dates, TDN, NEL, and CDOMD values were increased as harvest stage progressed. The correlation coefficient for DM percentage of grain at harvest with DM and TDN yields were 0.68*** and 0.76***, respectively. And the correlation coefficient for ear percentage with ADF, NDF, and CDOMD were -0.81***, -0.82*** and 0.73***, respectively. Our study showed differences of silage corn in forage production and quality resulting from hybrid maturity, planting date, and harvest stage. We believe that for the best silage corn, selection of the hybrid and best management practices are very important.

Forage Performance Evaluation of Rye Cultivars with Different Sowing Dates (파종기에 따른 호밀 품종간의 사초 생산능력)

  • Kim Su-Gon;Kim Jong-Duk;Kwon Chan-Ho;Ha Jong-Kyu;Kim Dong-Am
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of different sowing dates and cultivars on the forage yield and quality of winter rye (Secale cereale L.). The experiment was conducted in a split plot design with three replications. The main plots consisted of two sowing dates such as early (15 September) and late (30 September). The subplots consisted of rye cultivars of five different maturity groups such as 'Kodiak' (Late), 'Koolgrazer' (Early), 'Danko' (Late), 'Homil22' (Medium) and 'Olhomi1' (Early). Dry matter (DM) content at early sowing (19.7%) was higher than those at late sowing (17.8%), while crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) contents at early sowing (16.6% and 61.6%) were lower than those at late sowing (16.8% and 63.1%). Although DM content of early maturing cultivars (Koolgrazer and Olhomi1) was higher than the other cultivars, CP and TDN contents of those were lower compared to other cultivars. The contents of fiber components (ADF, NDF and cellulose) at early sowing were higher than those at late sowing, while ADL and hemicellulose at early sowing were lower than those at late sowing. ADF and cellulose of early maturing cultivars were higher than those of the other cultivars, while ADL and hemicellulose of Danko were higher than that of the other cultivars. DM, CP, In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and TDN yields at early sowing were higher than those at late sowing, and early maturing cultivars were higher than those of the other cultivars. Results of this study indicate that forage production technology in combination with early sowing and use of early maturing rye cultivar could enhance both production and quality of rye.

Forage Yield and Quality in Rye Cultivars with Different Harvesting Dates (수확기에 따른 호밀 품종간의 사초 생산능력)

  • Kim Su-Gon;Kim Jong-Duk;Kwon Chan-Ho;Ha Jong-Kyu;Kim Dong-Am
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of harvesting date on the forage yield and quality of different rye (Secale cereale L.) cultivars. The experiment was conducted in split plot design with three replications. The main plots consisted of two harvesting dates 20th and 30th April. The subplots consisted of five rye cultivars from different maturity groups such as 'Kodiak (Late)'. 'Koolgrazer (Early)', 'Danko (Late)', 'Homil22 (Medium)' and 'Olhomil (Early)' Dry matter (DM) contents of 17.8% at early harvesting were lower 2.2% than at late harvesting. But crude protein (CP) of 18.9% and total digestible nutrients (TDN) contents of 65.5% at early harvesting were higher 2.3% and 3.0% than those at late harvesting, respectively. There were significant differences in DM, CP and TDN contents among the rye cultivars tested (p<0.05). The contents of fiber components at early harvesting were lower than those at late harvesting. The acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), cellulose and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents at early harvesting were lower than those at late harvesting, and hemicellulose contents at early harvesting was higher than that at late harvesting. The fiber component of early maturing cultivars such as 'Koolgrazer' and 'Olhomil' were higher than those of the others. Dry matter, CP, in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and TDN yields at early harvesting were lower than those at late harvesting, and the yield of early maturing cultivars were higher than those of the others. In this study, the results of this study indicate that forage production technology in combination with early maturing rye cultivar and late harvesting could enhance both production and quality of rye.

Evaluation on the Greenhouse Gas Emission According to the Intake Levels of Total Mixed Rations of Hanwoo Cow (급여수준에 따른 한우 암소의 온실가스 배출량 평가)

  • Kim, Du-Ri;Ha, Jae-Jung;Kim, Jong-Taek;Song, Young-Han
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.475-480
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different feeding level of TDN (Total Digestible Nutrients) on the generation of main greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane in Hanwoo cows. The diet TDN (kg) adjusted to achieve ADG of 0 g/day (Control), 200 g/day (T1), and 400 g/day (T2) of the maintenance level TMR (Total Mixed Ration) delivered twice a day at 08:30 and 17:30. Cow are housed in a respiration chamber and the environmental temperature was maintained at $20^{\circ}C$. The gases were measured for 24 hours using the multi-detector instrument Mamos-300. The analyzed methane emissions of T1 and T2 were 33.5% and 69.6% higher than control, respectively, and the carbon dioxide emissions were 21.1% and 40.6% higher than control. Also, the hourly pattern of carbon dioxide and methane production were showed very similar emission. Gas production showed peak after 1 hour of feeding and this gap was wider in the afternoon than in the morning hours. It is clearly conducted that $CO_2$ and $CH_4$ emissions were different by limited intake levels of feed.

Study on High Forage Production in Double Cropping Systems with Barley and Corn at paddy field in Middle Region (청보리-옥수수 작부체계시 조사료 최대생산을 위한 청보리 수확시기 구명)

  • Ju, Jung-Il;Kang, Young-Sik;Seong, Yeul-Gue;Ji, Hee-Chung;Lee, Hee-Bong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.285-292
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    • 2012
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the harvesting day after heading of barley for highest total forage yield in double cropping with corn at paddy field in middle region. The fresh barley yield was the highest at the harvest of 20 days after heading, but the dry matter yield and TDN yield were the highest at the harvest of 25 days after heading because of higher dry matter rate. The dry matter yield of corn after the harvest of 25 days after heading was decreased about 16 percent than that of the check, sowing on april 25. But total fresh yield of corn monoculture was lower about 31 percent, and decreased 28 percent of dry matter and 23 percent of TDN yield, respectively, than that of the double cropping system with corn and barley. In double cropping system at paddy field, the total forage yield was the highest at the harvest of 25 days after heading of barley and grew corn subsequently. Although yield of corn was reduced by late sowing, the total forage yield was increased by double cropping system compared with corn monoculture.

The Effects of Cattle Slurry Application and Mixed Sowing with legumes on Productivity and Feed Values of Barley and Rye (액상우분뇨와 콩과식물 혼파재배가 보리, 호밀의 생산성과 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Jo, IK-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.371-380
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to assess effects of supplying different types of nitrogen sources as fertilizers on productivity and feed values of barley and rye as winter forage crops, and ultimately done to get good quality of organic forages with higher fertilization of soil. For barley, N+P+K plots were significantly (P<0.05) higher in annual dry matter (DM) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields than other plots. However, cattle manure plots had significantly (P<0.05) higher annual DM and TDN than P+K and non-fertilizer plots. Plots of 50%-cattle manure and mixed sowing with hairy vetch or forage pea were higher than only 50%-cattle manure plot, particularly, these were significantly higher than non-fertilizer, and their crude protein (CP) yields were much higher than other plots. Crude protein contents were significantly higher in N+P+K and 50%-cattle manure slurry plots than non-fertilizer and P+K plots, and plots of mixed sowing with hairy vetch or forage pea in application of 50%-cattle manure had higher CP content than other plots. ADF content was lowest in 50%-cattle manure+forage pea plots, but highest in 100%-cattle manure plots. NDF content was lowest in legumes-mixed sowing, but highest in 100%-cattle manure plots. TDN content was the highest in forage pea plots, and plots of 50%-cattle manure and legumes-mixed sowing had high RFV, but cattle manure plots rich in ADF and NDF content had the lowest TDN and RFV. For rye, plots of 50%-cattle manure+hairy vetch mixed sowing, and N+P+K application had significantly higher annual DM, CP and TDN than other plots except for cattle manure. DM productive efficiency to nitrogen fertilization was markedly higher for cattle manure plots than for chemical fertilizer. This tendency was more conspicuous in plots of 50% cattle manure+legumes-mixed sowing. CP content was higher for N+P+K plot than for all plots, and plots of 50%-cattle manure + legumes-mixed sowing were significantly higher than other plots. On the contrary, forage pea-mixed sowing plot had the lowest ADF and NDF, but TDN and RFV were significantly (P<0.05) higher than other plots. Grass crop cultivation together with legumes by applying livestock manure to soil may lead to higher palatability of livestock, and better quality of forage. Furthermore, cattle manure application increased production yield per ha and CP contents. Thus, when applying forage crops produced by cattle manure application and mixed sowing to organic livestock production, it was conceived that forages produced might become a substitute for foreign organic grain as protein sources.

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Development of Crushing Device for Whole Crop Silage and the Characteristics of Crushed Whole Crop Silage (총체맥류 분쇄기 개발 및 분쇄 총체맥류 사일리지의 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Sunghyoun;Yu, Byeongkee;Ju, Sunyi;Park, Taeil
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.344-349
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of expanding the usage of whole crop silage from beef cattle and dairy cow to hogs and chickens. For this purpose, a crushing device was developed to crush whole crop silage. The crushed silage was sealed, and analyzed for its feed value. The silage varieties used for the experiment included Saessal barley and Geumgang wheat. Whole crop barley and wheat were crushed in the crushing system as a whole without separating stems, leaves, grains, etc.. When the crushed whole crop silages (CWCS) were analyzed, full grain, grains above 10 mm in size, grains 5~10 mm in size, and grains below 5 mm in size accounted for, 20%, 4%, 27%, and 49 %, respectively. In order to facilitate the fermentation of CWCS, inoculated some fermenter into each CWCS sample (barley or wheat). As control, another set of sample was not inoculated. Crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), lignin, cellulose content, total digestible nutrient (TDN), and relative feed value (RFV) of fermenter-inoculated Saessal barley were 2.45 %, 1.61%, 8.95%, 16.94%, 9.52%, 1.01%, 8.51%, 81.38%, and 447.5%, respectively. The CP, EE, CF, NDF, ADF, lignin, cellulose content, TDN, and RFV in the other sample of Saessal barley without inoculation of fermenter were 2.57%, 1.62%, 9.61%, 18.25%, 10.13%, 1.10%, 9.04%, 80.90%, and 412.9%, respectively. The CP, EE, CF, NDF, ADF, lignin, cellulose content, TDN, and RFV of fermenter-inoculated Geumgang wheat sample were 2.43%, 1.27%, 10.99%, 19.49%, 11.23%, 1.46%, 9.77%, 80.03%, and 382.6%, respectively. The CP, EE, CF, NDF, ADF, lignin, cellulose content, TDN, RFV of the other set sample of Geumgang wheat sample without the inoculation of fermenter were 2.28%, 1.44%, 10.08%, 18.02%, 10.44%, 1.26%, 9.18%, 80.65%, and 416.9%, respectively. The TDN and RFV content in the fermenter-inoculated Saessal barley were 81.38% and 447.5%, respectively, while the one in the fermenter-inoculated Geumgang wheat were 80.03% and 382.6% respectively. When the feed value of whole crop barley and wheat silage without crushing process was compared to the feed value of whole crop barley and wheat silage made from crushing system, the latter appeared to be higher than the former. This could be due to the process of sealing the crushed silage which might have minimized air content between samples and shortened the golden period of fermentation. In conclusion, these results indicate that a crushing process might be needed to facilitate fermentation and improve the quality of silage when making whole crop silage.