• Title, Summary, Keyword: TDN

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Harvest Management and Nitrigen Fertilization Level to Maximize Nutrient Yield of Reed Canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) in Uncultivated Rice Paddy (유휴논토양에서 Reed Canarygrass의 최대 양분수량을 얻기 위한 질소시비와 예취관리)

  • 이주삼;조익환;안종호
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.123-134
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    • 1997
  • The effects of cutting 6equency and nitrogen fertilization on feed values of reed canarygrass were investigated in uncultivated rice paddy and the attemp was made to estimate the economical and efficient levels of nitrogen fertilization for the increased production of nutrients in reed canarygrass. The results are summarized as follows; 1. Crude protein(CP) content was higher at 1st cut of all treatments(12.5% in 3 cutting 6equency; 19, 7% in 4 cutting frequency; 22.5% in 5 cutting kquency). However, Total Digestible Nutrients(TDN) and Relative Feed Value(RFV) in 3 and 4 cutting 6equencies were higher at 3rd cut(63.5%, 126.8) and 4th cut(65.7%, 146.4) respectively in which the contents of Neutral Detergent Fiber(NDF) and Acid Detergent Fiber(ADF) were lowest. In 5 cutting frequency, 1st cut showed the highest TDN and RFV as 70.5% and 232.4 respectively. 2. The level of nitrogen fertilization affected CP content of reed canarygrass. Nitrogen fertilization of 120kgl halcut showed high CP contents of 11.4, 14.7 and 16.5% in 3, 4 and 5 cutting eequency respectively. In 3 and 4 cutting frequency, TDN and RFV were highest with nitrogen fertilization of 90kg/ha/cut where NDF and ADF were lowest, however those in 5 cutting frequency were highest with nitrogen fertilization of 30kg/ha/cut. 3. The yields of CP varied according to the number of cutting frequency and those were 0.45~0.65 in 3 cutting hquency, 0.35~0.50 in 4 cutting frequency, and 0.19~0.67tond/ha in 5 cutting 6equency respectively and TDN was 2.09~3.60, 1.64~2.77 and 0.73~2.96tons/ha respectively. 4. The ratios between the yields of CP and TDN were 5.48, 4.60 and 4.34 in 3, 4 and 5 cutting 6equency respectively and it indicates lower ratio in result of higher number of cutting 6equency. 5. Higher nitrogen fertilization increased the yields of CP and TDN. The yields of CP were higher in 5 cutting frequency as 1.55~2.62tons/ha than of 3(1.20~1.91tons/ha) and 4 cutting frequency(1.35-2.23tons/ha). The yields of TDN were 6.31~9.93, 5.99~9.99 and 7.16~10.57tons/ha in 3, 4 and 5 cutting frequency respectively. 6. The levels of nitrogen fertilization for high production efficiency of crude protein(kg CPYkg N) was estimated as 113.4~302.5kg/ha and it resulted in 1.44~2.09ton/ha of CP yields. The levels of nitrogen fertilization for high production efficiency of dry matter was 199.2-361.3kgha in which nitrogen were fertilized below 400kg/ha and it resulted in 1.64~2.17ton/ha of CP yields. 7. The levels of nitrogen fertilization for high production efficiency of total digestible nutrients(kg TDNYkg N) were 149.9~294.1kg/ha in 3 and 4 cutting kequency and it resulted in 8.66~8.89ton/ha of TDN yileds. With the levels of nitrogen fertilization for high production efficiency of dry matter of 199.2~361.3kg/ha, TDN yields were high as 8.77~9.94ton/ha.

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Evaluation on the Greenhouse Gas Emission According to the Intake Levels of Total Mixed Rations of Hanwoo Cow (급여수준에 따른 한우 암소의 온실가스 배출량 평가)

  • Kim, Du-Ri;Ha, Jae-Jung;Kim, Jong-Taek;Song, Young-Han
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.475-480
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different feeding level of TDN (Total Digestible Nutrients) on the generation of main greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane in Hanwoo cows. The diet TDN (kg) adjusted to achieve ADG of 0 g/day (Control), 200 g/day (T1), and 400 g/day (T2) of the maintenance level TMR (Total Mixed Ration) delivered twice a day at 08:30 and 17:30. Cow are housed in a respiration chamber and the environmental temperature was maintained at $20^{\circ}C$. The gases were measured for 24 hours using the multi-detector instrument Mamos-300. The analyzed methane emissions of T1 and T2 were 33.5% and 69.6% higher than control, respectively, and the carbon dioxide emissions were 21.1% and 40.6% higher than control. Also, the hourly pattern of carbon dioxide and methane production were showed very similar emission. Gas production showed peak after 1 hour of feeding and this gap was wider in the afternoon than in the morning hours. It is clearly conducted that $CO_2$ and $CH_4$ emissions were different by limited intake levels of feed.

Selection of Promising Barley Cultivar for Silage 2. Nutrient value and total digestible nutrient yield (사일리지용 우량 보리품종 선발 2. 사료가치 및 TDN 수량)

  • Kim, W.H.;Seo, S.;Yoon, S.H.;Kim, K.Y.;Cho, Y.M.;Park, T.I.;Koh, J.M.;Park, G.J.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.283-288
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to a comparison of nutrient value and total digestible nutrient yield f3r select the promising barley cultivar for whole crop silage in paddy field of Suwon from 1998 to 2001. In milk stage, acid deferent fiber(ADF) content of barley were 27.3 ∼ 29.1, 27.4 ∼ 30.4 at yellow ripe stage. Neutral deferent fiber(NDF) content of milk and yellow ripe stage were 50.6 ∼ 55.9 and 53.1 ∼ 00.0. Also, total digestible nutrient(TDN) content of milk and yellow ripe stage we.e 65.4 ∼ 67.4 and 64.3 ∼ 67.7. And TDN yield at milk and yellow ripe stage were 4,120 ∼ 5,528 and 5,674 ∼ 6,569 MT per ha and in vitro dry matter digestibility(IVDMD) at milk and yellow ripe stage were 65.8 ∼ 74.6 and 64.6 ∼ 73.9. The for promising barley cultivars for whole crop silage in paddy field were Albori at Suwon. it was best before yellow ripe stage for harvest in cropping system.

Study on High Forage Production in Double Cropping Systems with Barley and Corn at paddy field in Middle Region (청보리-옥수수 작부체계시 조사료 최대생산을 위한 청보리 수확시기 구명)

  • Ju, Jung-Il;Kang, Young-Sik;Seong, Yeul-Gue;Ji, Hee-Chung;Lee, Hee-Bong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.285-292
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    • 2012
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the harvesting day after heading of barley for highest total forage yield in double cropping with corn at paddy field in middle region. The fresh barley yield was the highest at the harvest of 20 days after heading, but the dry matter yield and TDN yield were the highest at the harvest of 25 days after heading because of higher dry matter rate. The dry matter yield of corn after the harvest of 25 days after heading was decreased about 16 percent than that of the check, sowing on april 25. But total fresh yield of corn monoculture was lower about 31 percent, and decreased 28 percent of dry matter and 23 percent of TDN yield, respectively, than that of the double cropping system with corn and barley. In double cropping system at paddy field, the total forage yield was the highest at the harvest of 25 days after heading of barley and grew corn subsequently. Although yield of corn was reduced by late sowing, the total forage yield was increased by double cropping system compared with corn monoculture.

Forage Yield and Quality in Rye Cultivars with Different Harvesting Dates (수확기에 따른 호밀 품종간의 사초 생산능력)

  • Kim Su-Gon;Kim Jong-Duk;Kwon Chan-Ho;Ha Jong-Kyu;Kim Dong-Am
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of harvesting date on the forage yield and quality of different rye (Secale cereale L.) cultivars. The experiment was conducted in split plot design with three replications. The main plots consisted of two harvesting dates 20th and 30th April. The subplots consisted of five rye cultivars from different maturity groups such as 'Kodiak (Late)'. 'Koolgrazer (Early)', 'Danko (Late)', 'Homil22 (Medium)' and 'Olhomil (Early)' Dry matter (DM) contents of 17.8% at early harvesting were lower 2.2% than at late harvesting. But crude protein (CP) of 18.9% and total digestible nutrients (TDN) contents of 65.5% at early harvesting were higher 2.3% and 3.0% than those at late harvesting, respectively. There were significant differences in DM, CP and TDN contents among the rye cultivars tested (p<0.05). The contents of fiber components at early harvesting were lower than those at late harvesting. The acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), cellulose and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents at early harvesting were lower than those at late harvesting, and hemicellulose contents at early harvesting was higher than that at late harvesting. The fiber component of early maturing cultivars such as 'Koolgrazer' and 'Olhomil' were higher than those of the others. Dry matter, CP, in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and TDN yields at early harvesting were lower than those at late harvesting, and the yield of early maturing cultivars were higher than those of the others. In this study, the results of this study indicate that forage production technology in combination with early maturing rye cultivar and late harvesting could enhance both production and quality of rye.

Forage Performance Evaluation of Rye Cultivars with Different Sowing Dates (파종기에 따른 호밀 품종간의 사초 생산능력)

  • Kim Su-Gon;Kim Jong-Duk;Kwon Chan-Ho;Ha Jong-Kyu;Kim Dong-Am
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of different sowing dates and cultivars on the forage yield and quality of winter rye (Secale cereale L.). The experiment was conducted in a split plot design with three replications. The main plots consisted of two sowing dates such as early (15 September) and late (30 September). The subplots consisted of rye cultivars of five different maturity groups such as 'Kodiak' (Late), 'Koolgrazer' (Early), 'Danko' (Late), 'Homil22' (Medium) and 'Olhomi1' (Early). Dry matter (DM) content at early sowing (19.7%) was higher than those at late sowing (17.8%), while crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) contents at early sowing (16.6% and 61.6%) were lower than those at late sowing (16.8% and 63.1%). Although DM content of early maturing cultivars (Koolgrazer and Olhomi1) was higher than the other cultivars, CP and TDN contents of those were lower compared to other cultivars. The contents of fiber components (ADF, NDF and cellulose) at early sowing were higher than those at late sowing, while ADL and hemicellulose at early sowing were lower than those at late sowing. ADF and cellulose of early maturing cultivars were higher than those of the other cultivars, while ADL and hemicellulose of Danko were higher than that of the other cultivars. DM, CP, In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and TDN yields at early sowing were higher than those at late sowing, and early maturing cultivars were higher than those of the other cultivars. Results of this study indicate that forage production technology in combination with early sowing and use of early maturing rye cultivar could enhance both production and quality of rye.

Comparison of Agronomic Characteristics, Forage Yield and Quality of Sorghum X sudangrass Hybrid (수수 X 수단그라스 교잡종의 생육특성, 사초 수량 및 품질 비교)

  • 김종덕;권찬호;김호중;박진길;이병생;빙기선;문승태
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.297-302
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    • 2002
  • This study was carried out to compare the agronomic characteristics, forage yield, and quality of four sorghum $\times$ sudangrass hybrids at Yonam College of Agriculture Experimental Livestock Farm, Sunghwan in 2001. The four recommended hybrids used in this study were ‘SXl7’ and ‘877F’(heading type), and ‘TE Evergreen’ and ‘Turbo 9’(headless type). sugar content or heading hybrids(SX17 and 877F) were higher then that of headless hybrids(TE Evergreen and Turbo 9). SX17 had resistance to lodging, while all hybrids had resistance to foliar disease and insect. Dry matter(DM) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields of heading hybrids were higher then those of headless hybrids. Among sudangrass hybrids, DM and TDN yields of 877F were the highest(21,007 and 12,276kg/ha). The crude protein of Turbo 9(10.5%) was higher than other hybrids. Neutral detergent fiber(NDF) content of headless hybrids were higher than that of heading hybrids, while acid detergent fiber(ADF) and acid detergent lignin(ADL) contents of headless hybrids were lower than those of heading hybrids. Calculated TDN of headless hybrids were higher than that at heading hybrids. Cellulase digestible of organic matter of dry matter (CDOMD) of headless hybrids also were higher then that of heading hybrids. Results of this experiment indicates that heading hybrid was better than headless hybrid in the agronomic characteristics and forage yield of sorghum $\times$ sudangrass. However heading hybrid was lower than leafless hybrid in quality of sorghum $\times$ sudangrass.

Yield and Quality of Silage Corn as Affected by Hybrid Maturity, Planting Date and Harvest Stage

  • Kim, J.D.;Kwon, C.H.;Kim, D.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.1705-1711
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    • 2001
  • Silage corn (Zea mays L) is grown extensively in livestock operations, and many managements focus on forage yield. This experiment was conducted at Seoul National University (SNU) Experimental Livestock Farm, Suwon in 1998. We determined the effect of planting date and harvest stage on forage yield and quality responses of corn hybrids (five relative maturity groups). The five maturity groups (100 d, 106 d, 111 d, 119 d and 125 d) were planted on 15 April and 15 May, and harvested at maturity stages (1/3, 1/2 and 2/3 kernel milkline). Whole plant dry matter (DM) and ear percentages had significant differences among corn hybrids. Ear percentages of early maturing corns (100 d and 106 d) were higher than for other hybrids. Ear percentage at the early planting date was higher than that at the late planting date for all corn hybrids. The DM and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields of the 106 d and 111 d corn hybrids were higher than other hybrids, and the DM and TDN yields at the early planting date were higher than that at the late planting date. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) percentages were greater for the late maturity corn hybrids. For plants of the early planting date, the ADF and NDF percentages were lower than for those of late planting date for hybrids. From the comparison among harvest stages, ADF and NDF percentages were decreased as harvest stage progressed. The TDN, net energy for lactation (NEL), and cellulase digestible organic matter of dry matter (CDOMD) were decreased as maturity of corn hybrid delayed. The TDN, NEL, and CDOMD values at the early planting date were higher than those at the late planting date among for corn hybrids. From the comparison among harvest dates, TDN, NEL, and CDOMD values were increased as harvest stage progressed. The correlation coefficient for DM percentage of grain at harvest with DM and TDN yields were 0.68*** and 0.76***, respectively. And the correlation coefficient for ear percentage with ADF, NDF, and CDOMD were -0.81***, -0.82*** and 0.73***, respectively. Our study showed differences of silage corn in forage production and quality resulting from hybrid maturity, planting date, and harvest stage. We believe that for the best silage corn, selection of the hybrid and best management practices are very important.

Effect of Planting Date on Forage Yield and Quality of corn Four Maturity Groups (숙기가 다른 사일리지용 옥수수의 파종기가 사초의 수량과 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • 김동암;이광녕;신동은;김종덕;한건준
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.327-337
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    • 1996
  • A field experiment was conducted at SNU Experimental Livestock Farm, Suweon in 1995 to determine effect of planting date on forage performance of wm hybrids of four different maturity groups. A split-plot design replicated three times was used, with com hybrids representing four maturity groups (115, 118, 121 and 125 days) being the main plots and planting dates (3124, 415, 415, 425, 515 and 5/15) the sub-plots. 1. Days to emergence and percent emergence from the March 24 planting were, on the average, 36 days and 58%, respectively, but those from the April 5 to May 15 planting averaged 12 days and 92%, respectively. 2. Plant and ear heights increased gradually as the dates of planting were delayed except the May 15 planting, however, percent ear was decreased as the dates of planting were delayed. There was a trend for the mean lodging percentage of the hybrids to be higher as the planting date was delayed. 3. The 115-and 118-day mediumearly maturing hybrids harvested on August 18 produced silages with a dry matter content between 27 and 30% at all planting dates except the May 15 planting, while the 121-and 125-day medium-late maturing hybrids produced silages with a dry matter wntent less than 27% regardless of any planting dates. 4. There were no significant differences in mean dry matter yield among the hybrids, but significant mean TDN yield differences were found. The 115-, 118- and 125-day hybrids had significantly higher mean TDN yield than the 121-day hybrid. There were significant differences in mean dry matter and TDN yields among the planting dates. The mean dry matter and TDN yields from the April 5, 15 and 25 plantings were significantly higher than those of other plantings, however, there were no significant differences in mean TDN yield among the April 5, April 15 and April 25 plantings. No significant planting date $\times$ maturity interactions were found for both the dry matter and TDN yields. 5. Mean stover NDF and ADF contents of the 115- and 118day hybrids were higher than those of the 121- and 125-day hybrids, but the reverse was true for mean stover IVDMD and RFV. Mean stover NDF an ADF contents increased with earlier plantings, but mean stover IVDMD and RFV increased when planting was delayed. Results of this experiment indicate that for corn planting in central and northern areas of Korea, early to mid-April may be the right time with the 115-to 118-day maturity hybrids when silage making before August 20 is taken into consideration.

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