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Effect of FSH-P Dose and Energy Level on Normal Embryo Production in Hanwoo (한우에 있어서 FSH-P 투여량과 에너지수준이 정상수정란의 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • 임석기;전기준;우제석;장선식;박준철;정종원;윤상보
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.301-306
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    • 1997
  • The present study was carried out to investigate effect of FSH -P dose and energy level on normal embryo production after superovulation in Hanwoo. The results obtained were as follows ; 1. There was a significant effect of dose of FSH-P on normal embryo production in Hanwoo(P$\pm$5.9), 40(4.9i5.7), 50mg(2.2$\pm$2.6). 2. The plasma P$_4$ levels on the first treatment day were higher group( >4ng /ml) than lower group( <=4ng /ml), produced significicantly(P<0.05) higher number of normal embryos. 3. There was a significant effect of energy level on normal embryo production in Hanwoo(P$\pm$6.0), number of normal embryos were higher than TDN 70%(5.1$\pm$6.5) and TDN 130%(4.4$\pm$2.6) 4. The donor returned to normal estrus after superovulation were 44.8, 28.4 and 29.9 days by TDN 70, 100 and 130%, respectively.

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Effects of Applying Livestock Manure on Productivity and Feed Value of Corn and Sorghum$\times$Sorghum Hybrid (가축분뇨시용이 옥수수와 수수$\times$수수교잡종의 생산성 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Jo, Ik-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.115-125
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to determine adequate forage crop choice and optimal level of livestock manure, when different types and levels of the livestock manure were applied in corns or sorghum$\times$sorghum hybrids for the production of organic roughages by utilizing livestock manure. For the corn, yields of annual dry matter (DM) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were highest in N+P+K-applied treatments, showing 17.3 and 11.7 ton/ha, respectively. Treatments applied 100% composted cattle manure (8.9 and 6.1 ton/ha) and 100% cattle slurry (9.4 and 7.5 ton/ ha) in contrast with chemical fertilizer-N had higher yields of DM and TDN than no fertilizer (4.8 and 2.7 ton/ha) and P+K-applied treatments (8.8 and 6.0 ton/ha). Particularly, treatments applied 150% composted cattle manure and 150% cattle slurry were markedly higher, which represented 11.4 and 7.6 ton/ha and 10.3 and 7.3 ton/ha, respectively. Crude protein (CP) contents for corns applied livestock manure ranged from 5.6 to 6.6%, which were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of no fertilizer (3.9%) and P+K-applied treatments (5.5%). ADF (42.4%) and NDF (58.3%) contents for no fertilizer treatment were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of other treatments. However, TDN contents were higher for livestock manure treatments than for no and/or chemical fertilizer treatments. In particular, TDN contents of treatments applied 150% composted cattle manure and 150% cattle slurry showed 72.3 and 70.8%, respectively and both treatments were significantly (p<0.05) higher than all of the other treatments. For the sorghum$\times$sorghum hybrid, yields of annual DM and TDN for 100% (12.4 and 7.4 ton/ha) and 150% (13.1 and 7.6 ton/ha) cattle slurry-applied treatments, and N+P+K-applied treatments (12.6 and 7.7 ton/ha) were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of the others. In the others, 150% composted cattle manure (9.3 and 5.2 ton/ha) had higher annual DM and TDN yields than P+K-applied (8.4 and 4.8 ton/ha) and 100% composted cattle manure treatments (7.4 and 4.2 ton/ha), with no significant difference. Crude protein contents for sorghum$\times$sorghum hybrid applied P+K and cattle slurry were 8.8 and 8.6%, respectively. CP contents for both treatments were significantly higher than those of composted manure ($7.5{\sim}8.3%$) and no fertilizer (4.0%) treatments, but 100% livestock manure treatments had higher CP contents than 150%-applied treatments. ADF and NDF contents for N+P+K and cattle slurry-applied treatments were significantly (p<0.05) lower than the others. However, TDN contents were highest in N+P+K and cattle slurry-applied treatments, showing 61.2 and 58.3 to 59.4%, respectively. These results indicated that application of livestock manure instead of chemical fertilizer to the soil of forage crops might not only improve yields of DM and TDN, but also reduce environmental pollution by producing organic roughages through recycling of livestock manure.

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Effect of Planting Date and Plant Density on Yield and Quality of Soybean Forage in Jeju

  • Kang, Young-Kil;Kim, Hyun-Tae;Cho, Nam-Ki;Kim, Yeong-Chan
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.95-99
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    • 2001
  • Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is known to produce the highest total digestible mutrients (TDN) yield among summer grain legumes in Jeju area but little is known about the effects of cultural practices on forage yield and quality. A determinate soybean cv. Baegunkong was planted on 5 June, 20 June, and 3 July and grown at four plant densities (30, 50, 70 and 90 plants $m^{-2}$ in 1998 in Jeju to evaluate the effects of planting date and plant density on the yield and quality of soybean forage. Days to flowering decreased from 47 to 38 days, average plant height from 61 to 51cm and main stem diameter from 6.31 to 5.00mm as planting was delayed from 5 June to 3 July. Average plant height quadratically increased from 45 to 62cm as plant density increased from 30 to 90 plants $m^{-2}$. Planting date did not affect the average dry matter, crude protein, and TDN yields. The average dry matter and TDN yields displayed a quadratic response to plant density and the optimum plant density for both dry matter and TDN yields was estimated about 60 plants $m^{-2}$. Plant density had no effect on crude protein yield. Planting date did not significantly influence forage quality. The crude protein content was not significantly influenced by plant density. Increasing plant density slightly increased acid detergent fiber content but slightly decreased TDN content.

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EFFECT OF STANDING AND LYING BEHAVIORS ON HEAT PRODUCTION OF DAIRY HEIFERS DIFFERING IN FEED INTAKE LEVELS

  • Purwanto, B.P.;Matsumoto, T.;Nakamasu, F.;Ito, T.;Yamamoto, Sadaki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.271-274
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    • 1993
  • Four Holstein heifers were used in the present study to investigate the effect of standing and lying behaviors on heat production and physiological responses under low (L), medium (M) and high (H) levels of TDN intake. Rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR), heat production (HP) and animals behavior (standing time, ST) were measured continuously for 5h (11:00-16:00) periods. There was a tendency for increased RT with TDN intake, and no difference in RT was observed between standing and lying. The RR, HR and HP during standing were significantly higher (p<0.05) than during lying. The difference between standing and lying HP were 4.41, 4.68 and $5.37kJ/kg^{0.75}$ h for L, M and H of TDN intake, respectively. These values showed that standing HP was 18.6-20.9% higher than lying HP. A multiple regression analysis of HP ($kJ/kg^{0.75}$ h) on TDN intake ($g/kg^{0.75}$ d) and ST (min/h) was HP = 7.75 + 0.28 TDN intake + 0.12 ST (R = 0.84). This analysis showed that the total HP not only depend on feed intake levels, but also depends on animal behavior. It was suggested that the change in HP due to the change in feed intake and animal behavior would influence the level of heat loss which was indicated by the changes in the RR and HR.

Genetic Parameters for Traits in Performance and Progeny Tests and Their Genetic Relationships in Japanese Black Cattle

  • Oikawa, T.;Hoque, M.A.;Hitomi, T.;Suzuki, K.;Uchida, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.611-616
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    • 2006
  • Genetic parameters for performance traits on 409 bulls and growth and carcass traits on 591 of their steer progeny were estimated in Japanese Black cattle with Gibbs sampling. Traits of bulls included body weight at the start (BWS) and finish (BWF) of test, daily gain (DG), concentrate, roughage and TDN intake, and TDN conversion ratio. Progeny traits were BWS, BWF, DG, rib eye area, marbling score (MSR), dressing percentage and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT). In bulls, heritabilities were high for BWS (0.50) and BWF (0.63) and moderate for concentrate (0.48) and TDN intake (0.45), while in progeny, the heritability for all the studied traits was moderate to high (ranging from 0.30 to 0.73), highlighting the potential for genetic improvement of these traits. Genetic correlations between TDN intake and growth traits (BWS, BWF and DG) in bulls were highly positive (ranging from 0.77 to 0.94). The weak but negative genetic correlation (-0.20) between MSR and SFT in progeny indicated that improvement of beef marbling without increasing subcutaneous fat deposition could be possible. The estimated genetic correlations of roughage intake of bulls with body weights (BWS and BWF) and MSR of their progeny were moderate (ranging from 0.35 to 0.52). On the basis of the selection for bulls, growth traits and TDN intake correlated positively with SFT (ranging from 0.43 to 0.53) of their progeny, suggesting the necessity of controlling the increase of SFT in selection programs.

Analysis of Dry Matter Yield and Feed Value for Selecting of Whole Crop Rice (최적 총체사료벼 품종 선발을 위한 건물수량 및 사료가치 분석)

  • Lee, Jeom-Ho;Jeong, O.Y.;Paek, J.S.;Hong, H.C.;Yang, S.J.;Lee, Y.T.;Kim, J.G.;Sung, K.I.;Kim, B.W.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.355-362
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to obtain basic information on variety selection for the utilization of whole crop rices(WCR) at National Institute of Crop Science, RDA, in 2004. Fifteen varieties and elite line were evaluated on feed value such as dry matter yield(DMY), crude protein( CP), acid detergent fiber(ADF), neutral detergent fiber(NDF) and total digestible nutrients(TDN). The dry matter yields were ranged from 13.23 to 17.83 ton per ha, the highest yielding varieties were Sobibyeo(l6.98ton / ha) in Japonica type, SR22060 (17.83 ton / ha) in New plant type, Hangangchalbyeo(I7.66 ton / ha) in Tongil type. Suweon 468 showed the highest value in the RFV and TDN content among the varieties, and Suweon 468, Suweon 498, Suweon 490 and SR22058 were chosen to have the high feed values through cluster analysis. The dry weight(grain) was found to be positively related with percent of the ripened grain, 1,000 grain weight and CPo TDN content was found to be positively related with CP, but negatively related with NDF and ADF. RFV was found to be negatively related with plant height, NDF and ADF. The promising rice varieties for WCR were Suweon 468, Suweon 498, Suweon 490 and SR22058 on the basis of CP, TDN and DMY.

Harvest Management and Nitrigen Fertilization Level to Maximize Nutrient Yield of Reed Canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) in Uncultivated Rice Paddy (유휴논토양에서 Reed Canarygrass의 최대 양분수량을 얻기 위한 질소시비와 예취관리)

  • 이주삼;조익환;안종호
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.123-134
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    • 1997
  • The effects of cutting 6equency and nitrogen fertilization on feed values of reed canarygrass were investigated in uncultivated rice paddy and the attemp was made to estimate the economical and efficient levels of nitrogen fertilization for the increased production of nutrients in reed canarygrass. The results are summarized as follows; 1. Crude protein(CP) content was higher at 1st cut of all treatments(12.5% in 3 cutting 6equency; 19, 7% in 4 cutting frequency; 22.5% in 5 cutting kquency). However, Total Digestible Nutrients(TDN) and Relative Feed Value(RFV) in 3 and 4 cutting 6equencies were higher at 3rd cut(63.5%, 126.8) and 4th cut(65.7%, 146.4) respectively in which the contents of Neutral Detergent Fiber(NDF) and Acid Detergent Fiber(ADF) were lowest. In 5 cutting frequency, 1st cut showed the highest TDN and RFV as 70.5% and 232.4 respectively. 2. The level of nitrogen fertilization affected CP content of reed canarygrass. Nitrogen fertilization of 120kgl halcut showed high CP contents of 11.4, 14.7 and 16.5% in 3, 4 and 5 cutting eequency respectively. In 3 and 4 cutting frequency, TDN and RFV were highest with nitrogen fertilization of 90kg/ha/cut where NDF and ADF were lowest, however those in 5 cutting frequency were highest with nitrogen fertilization of 30kg/ha/cut. 3. The yields of CP varied according to the number of cutting frequency and those were 0.45~0.65 in 3 cutting hquency, 0.35~0.50 in 4 cutting frequency, and 0.19~0.67tond/ha in 5 cutting 6equency respectively and TDN was 2.09~3.60, 1.64~2.77 and 0.73~2.96tons/ha respectively. 4. The ratios between the yields of CP and TDN were 5.48, 4.60 and 4.34 in 3, 4 and 5 cutting 6equency respectively and it indicates lower ratio in result of higher number of cutting 6equency. 5. Higher nitrogen fertilization increased the yields of CP and TDN. The yields of CP were higher in 5 cutting frequency as 1.55~2.62tons/ha than of 3(1.20~1.91tons/ha) and 4 cutting frequency(1.35-2.23tons/ha). The yields of TDN were 6.31~9.93, 5.99~9.99 and 7.16~10.57tons/ha in 3, 4 and 5 cutting frequency respectively. 6. The levels of nitrogen fertilization for high production efficiency of crude protein(kg CPYkg N) was estimated as 113.4~302.5kg/ha and it resulted in 1.44~2.09ton/ha of CP yields. The levels of nitrogen fertilization for high production efficiency of dry matter was 199.2-361.3kgha in which nitrogen were fertilized below 400kg/ha and it resulted in 1.64~2.17ton/ha of CP yields. 7. The levels of nitrogen fertilization for high production efficiency of total digestible nutrients(kg TDNYkg N) were 149.9~294.1kg/ha in 3 and 4 cutting kequency and it resulted in 8.66~8.89ton/ha of TDN yileds. With the levels of nitrogen fertilization for high production efficiency of dry matter of 199.2~361.3kg/ha, TDN yields were high as 8.77~9.94ton/ha.

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Effects of Level of CP and TDN in the Concentrate Supplement on Growth Performances and Carcass Characteristics in Hanwoo Steers during Final Fattening Period (한우거세우 비육후기 배합사료의 적정 조단백질 및 에너지함량 규명에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Joon;Seong, Nak-Il;Hwang, Il-Ki;Lee, Sun-Bok;Yu, Myung-Sang;Nam, In-Sik;Lee, Myong-Il
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.305-312
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    • 2010
  • Seventy two Hanwoo steers in final fattening period ($585.87{\pm}41.02kg$) were randomly assigned to 3 groups, LPLT (relatively low protein and low energy; CP 12%, TDN 73%), LPHT (relatively low protein and high energy; CP 12%, TDN 75%) and HPHT (relatively high protein and high energy; CP 14%, TDN 75%) in concentrate feed for 163 days in order to investigate the effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and longissimus dorsi muscle's chemical compositions. Rice straw was also fed as a roughage. Because ADGs were higher in LPLT and HPHT than LPHT, feed efficiencies were improved in LPLT and HPHT group (P<0.05). Feeding concentrates with different CP and TDN levels had affected to improve back fat thickness and rib eye area in HPHT group but had no effect on carcass weight and meat yield index. Carcass weight for LPLT, LPHT and HPHT were $420.75{\pm}30.56$, $417.05{\pm}32.03$ and $418.32{\pm}32.03kg$, respectively. Meat quality grade was improved in HPHT (P<0.001), because the marbling score was highest in HPHT group. Auction prices (carcass/kg) of LPLT, LPHT and HPHT group were 17,904 won, 18,094 won and 18,899 won, respectively. The percentage of animals over grade 1 appeared in LPLT, LPHT and HPHT were 79.2, 72.7 and 90.8%, respectively. The results of chemical analysis of longissimus dorsi muscle showed no difference between groups but crude fat composition tended to be higher in HPHT group (P=0.088) than the other groups. Stearic acid contents in the muscle was significantly increased in HPHT group than LPLT group (P<0.05). Myristoleic acid and oleic acid composition in HPHT group was higher than LPLT and LPHT group. These results supported the hypothesis that supplementation of higher levels of crude protein and energy in concentrates to Hanwoo steers' during final fattening period improved the growth performance and the carcass quality grade.

Selection of Promising Forage Crops and Variety for Forage Production in Paddy Field 1. Middle region(Suwon) (권역별 답리작 사료작물 최대 생산을 위한 적작목(품종) 선발 1. 중부지방(수원)을 중심으로)

  • Seo, Sung;Kim, W.H.;Kim, J.G.;Choi, G.J.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.207-216
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to select the promising forage crops for forage production in paddy field of NLRI, RDA, Suwon from 1999 to 2001. The species of forage crop used in this experiment were barley(3 varieties), wheat(2), rye(3) and Italian ryegrass(IRG, 3). Stages of heading, milk and yellow ripe of barley were 1 May, middle May and late May, respectively. In milk to yellow ripe stage, dry matter(DM) and total digestible nutrient(TDN) yield of barley were $7.30{\sim}9.58$ MT and $4.75{\sim}6.24$ MT per ha, and Albori was the most promising variety among the barley. The growth of wheat was a little late compared to that of barley. but it seemed to be crop having higher forage yield and nutritive value. In milk to yellow stage, DM and TDN yield of wheat were $8.17{\sim}10.82$ MT and $5.33{\sim}7.31$ MT per ha. Heading stage of rye was 27 to 29 April, and it seemed to be suitable for harvest at heading to flowering stage because of heavy lodging after flowering. In flowering stage, DM and TDN yield of rye were 10.18 and 6.03 MT per ha. Heading stage of early maturing IRG was 7 May and it seemed to be good for harvest at flowering stage of middle May in cropping system. In flowering stage, DM and TDN yield of early type IRG were 4.48 and 2.96 MT per ha. The results demonstrated that the promising forage crops for forage production in paddy. field were rye and barley(Albori) in Middle region, and rye harvesting at early May was recommended when considered middle May of rice transplanting period, and rye and barley considered late May of rice planting period. Also early maturing and high yielding IRG variety was strongly needed.

Selection of Promising Barley Cultivar for Silage 2. Nutrient value and total digestible nutrient yield (사일리지용 우량 보리품종 선발 2. 사료가치 및 TDN 수량)

  • Kim, W.H.;Seo, S.;Yoon, S.H.;Kim, K.Y.;Cho, Y.M.;Park, T.I.;Koh, J.M.;Park, G.J.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.283-288
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to a comparison of nutrient value and total digestible nutrient yield f3r select the promising barley cultivar for whole crop silage in paddy field of Suwon from 1998 to 2001. In milk stage, acid deferent fiber(ADF) content of barley were 27.3 ∼ 29.1, 27.4 ∼ 30.4 at yellow ripe stage. Neutral deferent fiber(NDF) content of milk and yellow ripe stage were 50.6 ∼ 55.9 and 53.1 ∼ 00.0. Also, total digestible nutrient(TDN) content of milk and yellow ripe stage we.e 65.4 ∼ 67.4 and 64.3 ∼ 67.7. And TDN yield at milk and yellow ripe stage were 4,120 ∼ 5,528 and 5,674 ∼ 6,569 MT per ha and in vitro dry matter digestibility(IVDMD) at milk and yellow ripe stage were 65.8 ∼ 74.6 and 64.6 ∼ 73.9. The for promising barley cultivars for whole crop silage in paddy field were Albori at Suwon. it was best before yellow ripe stage for harvest in cropping system.