• Title, Summary, Keyword: TDN

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Effects of TDN/CP Ratio on Nutrient Intake, Body Weight Gain, Blood Characteristics of Dairy Heifers from 12 to 14 Months of Age (TDN/CP 비율이 젖소 12~14개월령 육성우 영양소 섭취량, 증체량 및 혈액성상에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Gyeom-Heon;Hwang, Won-Uk;Kim, Hyun-Jin;Kim, Soo-Ki
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.115-123
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    • 2016
  • In this study, the effect of energy and protein ratio on the nutrient availability and body weight gain was determined to find the proper nutrient level for the stage of replacement dairy heifers before fertilization at approximately 12~24 months old after birth. Dry matter intake showed that the TDN/CP rate of T1 (5.0:1), T2 (4.5:1) and T3 (4.0:1) resulted in similar values. Among feces, the ash content of T1 was 11.07%, which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of T3 (9.69%). It was also significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of T2 (10.32%). When the TDN/CP rate was increased, the ash content in the feces was also increased. Regardless of the initial weight, weight gain was increased significantly as the CP rate in the feed was increased on the $30^{th}$ day. On the $60^{th}$ day, T2 showed the highest rate of gain (p < 0.05). As the TDN rate was decreased or the protein rate was increased, weight gain was significantly (p < 0.05) increased. Regarding GPT level in the blood after finishing the test, T1 and T3 (112.6, 88.3 u/l) showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher value than T2 (50.9 u/l). For phosphorus level, T1 (46.3 mg/dl) showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher value than other treatments. For HDL cholesterol level, T2 (145.2 mg/dl) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher level than T1 (121.0 mg/dl) or T3 (132.3 mg/dl). For triglyceride levels, T3 (40.6 mg/dl) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher value than T1 (20.7 mg/dl) and T2 (29.0 mg/dl). For other blood parameters including BUN concentration, there were no significant (p > 0.05) difference among treatments. As a result, although feed intake and weight gain with TDN/CP rate of 4:1 showed best results, considering the excess body fat accumulation possibilities or blood metabolism, it seems 4.5:1 ratio is most appropriate.

Studies on Corn-Legume Intercropping System IV. Effects of corn-soybean intercropping on chemical composition and TDN yield (Silage용 옥수수와 두과작물의 간작에 관한 연구 IV. Silage용 옥수수 (Zea mays L.) 와 콩 ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) 의 간작이 영양성분함량 및 TDN수량에 미치는 영향)

  • 이성규
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 1989
  • This experiment was carried out to compare chemical composition, TDN yield of corn-soybean intercropping and corn monocropping forage plants at different harvesting time and obtained the following results. 1. In both cropping systems, the content of chemical composition of forage were changed same pattern in growing stage. The content of crude protein in corn-soybean intercropping forage at yellow stage increased more than that of corn nonocropping forage, while the crude fat in corn monocropping forage plants increased than that of corn-soybean intercropping forage plants at mature stage. 2. The crude fiber, crude ash, ADF content of forage plants in both cropping system decreased same pattern in growing period, however, NFE content of forage increased with maturity. 3. TDN yield of corn-soybean intercropping and corn monocropping forage plants at yellow stage obtained similar results and TDN yield per 10a in intercropping and monocropping were 1006.lkg and 978.6kg, respectively. 4. Consequently, corn-soybean interaopping system could be increased crude protein yield without decreasing of dry matter yield in comparison with corn monocropping system for corn silage.

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Tall fescue 품종의 환경적응성 VII. 계절과 품종에 따른 가소화양분총량과 건물소화율의 차이 ( Environmental Adaptation of Tall Fescue varieties in Mauntainous pastures VII. Seasonal and varietal differences of total digestible nutrients ( TDN ) and in vitro

  • 이주삼;한성윤;조익환
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.201-205
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    • 1994
  • The objectives of this research are to determine the seasonal and varietal differences of total digestible nutrients(TDN) and in vitro dry matter digestibility(1VDMD) of tall fescue grown in Takwalyon areas, based on the data of preceding paper(Lee et al. 1994b). The results are may be summarized as follows : 1. The values of total digestible nutrients(TDN) and in vitro dry matter digestibility(1VDMD) in 1st cutting were lower than the values of 2nd and 3rd cutting, and it was due to different stages of growth and seasonal difference of climatic conditions in this areas. 2. The relative yield(RY) had negative significantly correlation with in vitm dry matter digestibility(1VDMD) of 1st cutting. 3. Total digestible nutrients(TDN) indicated high positive significant correlation with in vitro dry matter digestility (IVDMD) in all cuttings. 4. The variety of Johnstone showed a high values of total digestible nutrients(TDN) and in vitm dry matter digestibility(1VDMD) of 2nd and 3rd cutting, but Fuego was lower than the other varieties.

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Effect of Planting Dates and Nitrogen Fertilization Rates on the Forage Yield and Feeding Value of Introduced Triticale (파종기 및 질소 시비량이 도입 트리티케일의 수량 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Yun, Seung-Gil;Kazuo Ataku
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.113-122
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    • 1998
  • This experiment was conducted to establish the cultural method of triticale(Triticum Secalotriticum Saratoviense Meister) as a whole crop silage by evaluating the effect of seeding date and nitrogen fertilization rate on forage yields and feeding value. Heading date, flowering date, and the dough stage of development came significantly earlier as triticale was seeded earlier. Soilage, dry matter yields and percent dry matter significantly varied with seeding dates and crude ash, NFE and TDN. However, TDN yield was significantly reduced by delayed seeding. Macromineral contents were not affected by seeding date. Soilage, dry matter yield, and percent dry matter significantly increased as nitrogen fertilization rate increased. The contents of crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, NFE, TDN and TDN yield also significantly increased. In contrast, crude fiber content of triticale decreased with increasing N fertilization rate.

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The Relationships of Plasma Leptin, Backfat Thickness and TDN Intake across Finishing Stage of Holstein Steers

  • Vega, R.A.;Hidari, H.;Kuwayama, H.;Suzuki, M.;Manalo, D.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.330-336
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    • 2004
  • Six 16 months old Holstein steers were offered ad libitum feed for 7 months, to determine the (1) relationships of backfat thickness (BFT) to plasma leptin, and insulin; and (2) associations of TDN intake/kg body weight (BW) to plasma leptin, BFT and insulin. Feed intake, body weight and BFT were measured on selected monthly ages from day 1 to 8, day 1 and 8, and day 8, respectively. Blood was sampled on day 8 and the plasma was analyzed for leptin, insulin, glucose, NEFA, total cholesterol and triglyceride. Body weight and BFT increased, while TDN intake per kg BW decreased from 16 to 23 months old. Plasma leptin increased and mimicked the level of insulin, resulting to significant correlation (r=0.54; p<0.002). TDN intake was negatively related to plasma leptin (r=0.49; p<0.004), insulin (r=0.41; p<0.02) and BFT at 12 to 13th rib (r=0.48; p<0.005). Backfat thickness at 12 to 13th rib was positively related to plasma leptin (r=0.45; p<0.01). Negative associations of TDN intake with plasma leptin and BFT during finishing period suggest long-term involvement of adipose tissues in the feed intake regulation of steers fed high concentrate diet.

The Effects of the Application Rate of Fermented Swine Manure and Additional Mineral Fertilizer on Productivity and Nutritive Value of Corn for Silage (발효돈분 및 화학비료 시용이 사일리지용 옥수수의 생산성과 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • 최기춘;육완방
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the application rate of fermented swine manure and additional mineral fertilizer on productivity and nutritive value of corn(Zea mays L.) for silage. Swine manures used in this study were the compost of swine manure fermented with sawdust(SMFWS) and swine sluny(SS). This study was arranged in split-split plot design. Main plots were the types of swine manure, subplots were the application rate of swine manure, such as 100, 200 and 400kgN/ha, and sub-subplots were the application rate of mineral fertilizer, such as 50 and 100kgNiha. Corn DM(dry matter) and TDN(tota1 digestible nutrient) yields increased as application rate of SMFWS and SS increased. DM and TDN yields in SS treatments were higher than those in SMFWS treatments. The effect of fermented swine manure improved positively as application rate of urea increased. Net energy for lactation(NE1) and TDN content in corn decreased as application rate of SMFWS and SS increased, but crude protein(CP) content increased by the application of SMFWS and SS. NE, and TDN contents in SMFWS treatments were lower than those in SS treatments, but CP content in SMFWS was higher than that in SS. The growth and nutritive value of corn were improved by the application of mineral fertilizer. (Key words : Swine manure, Swine sluury, Compost, Zea may, TDN, Net energy)

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Ruminal microbial responses in fermentation characteristics and dry matter degradability to TDN level of total mixed ration

  • Lee, Seung-Uk;Jo, Jin-Ho;Park, Sung-Kwon;Choi, Chang-Weon;Jeong, Jun;Chung, Ki-Young;Chang, Sun-Sik;Li, Xiang Zi;Choi, Seong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.80-86
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    • 2016
  • An in vitro trial was conducted to examine the effects of total mixed rations (TMR) on fermentation characteristics and effective degradability (ED) by rumen microbes. Three TMR diets were growing period TMR (GR-TMR, 67% TDN), early fattening period TMR (EF-TMR, 75.4% TDN) and late fattening TMR (LF-TMR, 80% TDN). Three TMR diets (3 g of TMRs in each incubation bottles) was added to the mixed culture solution of stained rumen fluid with artificial saliva (1:1, v/v) and incubated anaerobically for 48 hours at $39^{\circ}C$. The pH in all incubation solutions tended to decrease up to 48h, but the opposite results were found in concentration of total gas production, ammonia-N and total VFA in all incubations.The total gas production (p<0.05) in LF-TMR was highest compared with those of other diets. Also, concentration of total VFA was tended to increase in LF-TMR compared with other TMR diets in all incubations. The EDDM in both EF-TMR and LF-TMR was tended to high compared with GR-TMR (p=0.100). In this in vitro trials, concentration of propionate in all incubation solution was not affected by increased concentration of TDN. The results of the present in vitro study indicate that TMR may provide more favorable condition for nutrient digestion both in the rumen.

The Optimal TDN Levels of Concentrates and Slaughter Age in Hanwoo Steers (거세한우에 있어서 배합사료의 적정 TDN 수준과 도축 월령)

  • Kim, K.H.;Lee, J.H.;Oh, Y.G.;Kang, S.W.;Lee, S.C.;Park, W.Y.;Ko, Y.D.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.731-744
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    • 2005
  • Ninety Hanwoo steers(initial BW=167.2$\pm$13.4kg) were used to determine the effect of energy concentrations in concentrates and slaughter age on performance, carcass characteristics. Steers were allotted by BW to one of eighteen pens. Eighteen pens were randomly allotted to a low(70-70-71-72% for the growing, the early, the middle or the late fattening periods), medium(70-71-72-73%) or high(70-72- 73-74%) TDN level of concentrates. Five steers for each treatment of energy level were slaughtered every one month from 26 month of age to 31 month of age. Concentrates was fed restrictedly to achieve a predicted gain of 0.7-0.9kg from growing stage to middle fattening stage. All steers were fed orchard grass(Dactylis glomerata L.) hay as roughage during the growing period, fed rice straw gradually substituted for orchard grass hay during the early fattening period, and fed rice straw only thereafter. Overall body weight and feed intake were not affected by TDN levels of concentrates. Average daily gain for all treatments was higher than 0.9kg/d during the 19-21 month of age and decrease thereafter, but sustained above 0.7kg/d. Mean concentrates intake for all treatments was 1.0-1.3% of live BW during the growing period and 1.5% during the early fattening. Thereafter, it decreased up to 1.4% during the middle fattening and 1.0% during late fattening period. Delay of slaughter end point resulted in a gradual increase of rib-eye area, back fat thickness and marbling score, especially after slaughter age of 29 month there was significant increases(P<0.05). The appearance rate of 1+ and 1 grade related to the slaughter ages was 100% at 29, 30 and 31 months of age, whereas those at 26, 27 and 28 months were 93, 86 and 80%, respectively. Dressing rate was significantly(P<0.05) increased and rate of retailed cut weight significantly(P<0.05) decreased when slaughter age increased. In economic analysis, there was pronounced increase in net income up to 32-46% after slaughter age of 29 months. Under the conditions of this study, high TDN intake is not necessarily required for high quality Hanwoo meat production and slaughter age of 29 month might be the optimum for Hanwoo steers.

Study on Ruminal Disappearance and Energy Value of Corn Flake Using the Pressurized Steam Chamber (가압식 스팀 챔버를 이용한 옥수수 후레이크의 반추위 소실율 및 에너지 가치 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Byung-Ki;Ahn, Jun-Sang;Chung, Ki-Yong;Cho, Sung-Myoun;Kim, Il-Young;Sim, Jae-Yoon;Kim, Min-Ji;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Shin, Jong-Suh
    • ANNALS OF ANIMAL RESOURCE SCIENCES
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.95-105
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    • 2018
  • This study aimed to investigate the effect of using corn flakes, produced by pressurized steam chamber, on nutrient disappearance rate and energy value in three Hanwoo and three Holstein cows, implanted with a ruminal fistula. Corn flakes were categorized in 2 groups based on the chamber type: control (corn flakes produced using a steam chamber) and treatment (corn flakes produced using a pressurized steam chamber). Dry matter (DM) disappearance rate was 5.17% higher in treatment than in control (p<0.01). Starch disappearance rate was also higher in the treatment than in the control (p<0.01). Nitrogen free extract (NFE) and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) disappearance rates were 6.08 and 5.71% higher in treatment compared to control, respectively (p<0.01). In comparison by breed and incubation time, DM, starch, NFE, and NFC disappearance rates were higher in treatment than in control. The mean total digestible nutrients (TDN) was higher in treatment than in control (p<0.05). In comparison between Hanwoo and Holstein, TDN of corn flakes was slightly but not significantly higher in Holstein than in Hanwoo. Thus, these results indicate that the use of the pressurized steam chamber is recommended to increase the nutrient (starch, NFE, NFC etc.) disappearance rate and TDN.

Planting Date and Hybrid Influence on Silage Corn Yield and Quality at Paddy Field in Middle Region (중부지역에서 청보리 뒷그루로 만파한 사일리지 옥수수 품종의 생육 및 수량)

  • Ju, Jung-Il;Seung, Yeul-Gue;Kim, Chung-Guk;Lee, Hee-Bong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2010
  • Few management studies have been conducted on late planting date for corn silage in paddy field as a barley-corn forage cropping system. Experiments were conducted during 2007 and 2008 at the Chungnam Agricultural Research & Extension Services. The objectives of this study were to determine relationships between planting date and com forage yield and to determine the best hybrid at the delayed planting after whole crop barley's harvest. The treatments consisted of 2 planting dates and 7 hybrids. Delayed planting considerately reduced stem diameter, individual ear size and weight. The ratio of dried leaf and culm in aerial plants was increased and that of ear was decreased. The coefficient of variation in fresh, dry matter (DM) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yield was higher at delayed planting date on cropping system with whole crop barley than that of planting at optimum season. So, fresh weight was reduced by 91.8%, dry matter by 72.6%, grain yield by 51.0% and TDN yield by 68.1%. The appropriate hybrid for delayed planting after whole crop barley harvest in middle region was 'Gangdaok' as lower in the reduction of ear size and weight compared to that of planting at optimum season. Reduction in grain yield caused to decrease the DM and TDN yields. Therefore, to gain stable dry matter in silage corn by delayed planting date on cropping system with whole crop barley was necessary to select com hybrid on the minimum reduction in ear size and weight.