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Effects of Energy Level of Concentrate Feed on Meat Quality and Economic Evaluation in Finishing Hanwoo Steers (거세한우 비육후기 농후사료 에너지 수준이 육질 및 경제성에 미치는 영향)

  • Paek, B.H.;Hong, S.G.;Kwon, E.G.;Cho, W.M.;Yoo, Y.M.;Shin, K.J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.447-456
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of energy level of concentrate feed in finishing Hanwoo steers for 6 months before slaughter. Feeding trial was done with 2 treatment groups, IDN72 (72% of TDN in concentrate) and TDN74 (74 % of TDN in concentrate). The body weight (from 19 to 24 months) tended to be higher in TDN74 than in TDN72, but was not significant. Average daily gain of TDN74 was higher by 4.4 % in comparison to TDN72. There was no significant differences in concentrate, dry matter and TDN intake per I kg body weight gain between TDN72 and TDN74. And there was a tendency to improve crude protein intake per I kg body weight gain by increasing TDN content from 72 to 74 %. The dressing percentage tended to be higher in TDN74 than in TDN72, but was not significant. Salable meat percentage tended to be lower in TDN74 than in TDN72 because of higher body fat percentage in TDN74 than in TDN72. There were no significant differences in marbling score, meat color, fat color, carcass weight, rib-eye area and back fat thickness between TDN72 and TDN74. Significant differences were not found in shear value, cooking loss, water holding capacity or moisture and protein contents of longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles between TDN72 and TDN74. Fat content of LD muscles tend to be lower in TDN74 than in IDN72 but without any significance. There was a tendency to improve juiciness and taste by feeding IDN74 rather than TDN72. Especially, tenderness of TDN74 was increased by 7.4% in comparison to TDN72 (p < 0.05). Gross income from TDN74 was higher than TDN72 by 5% The results suggested that significant differences were not found in growth performance, feed conversion and carcass characteristics between TDN72 and TDN74. The results also show that more studies are required to clarify the energy level for finishing Hanwoo steers.

Cloning Genes Involved in Aniline Degradation from Delftia acidovorans. (Delftia acidovorans로부터 Aniline 분해관련 유전자의 분리)

  • 김현주;김성은;김정건;김진철;최경자;김흥태;황인규;김홍기;조광연
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 2003
  • Delftia acidovorans 51-A isolated from river water degrades aniline. In order to clone genes involved in aniline degradation, transposon Tn5-B20 was inserted into the strain 51-A to generate a mutant strain 10-4-2 that cannot utilize aniline as a carbon source. The mutant strain was not an auxotroph but could not degrade aniline. Southern hybridization analysis indicated that the transposon was inserted into the mutant bacterial DNA as a single copy. Flanking DNA fragment of Tn5-B2O insertion was cloned and sequenced. DNA sequence analysis revealed three ORFs encoding TdnQ, TdnT, and TdnA 1 that arc responsible for catechol formation from aniline through oxidative deamination. The analysis also confirmed that Tn5-B2O was inserted at the immediate downstream of tdnA1. The result suggests that the transposon insertion behind tdirA1 disrupted the pathway of the catechol formation from aniline, resulting in the mutant phenotype, which cannot degrade aniline. A large plasmid over 100-kb in size was detected from D. acidovorans 51-A and Southern hybridization analysis with Tn5-B2O probe showed that the transposon was inserted on the plasmid named pTDN51. Our results indicated that the tdn genes on pTDN51 of D. acidovorans 51-A are involved in aniline degradation.

Effect of Total Digestible Nutrients Level of Concentrates on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Meat Composition of Korean Hanwoo Steers

  • Ahn, Jun Sang;Son, Gi Hwal;Kim, Min Ji;Choi, Chang Six;Lee, Chang Woo;Park, Joong Kook;Kwon, Eung Gi;Shin, Jong Suh;Park, Byung Ki
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.388-401
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the total digestible nutrients (TDN) level of commercial concentrates on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat composition of late fattening Hanwoo steers. A total of 28 steers were randomly assigned to one of four dietary groups; T1 (73.30% TDN), T2 (74.50% TDN), T3 (76.40% TDN), and T4 (77.10% TDN). Average daily gain (ADG) was slightly but not significantly higher in the T2 than in the other treatments. Dry matter intake (DMI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were higher in the T2 than in the other treatments; however, the differences were not statistically significant. Carcass back fat thickness was thicker in the T4 and marbling score was higher in the T2 than in the other treatments; however, the differences were not statistically significant. The TDN level of concentrates had no effect on the physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of the longissimus muscle. The finding of this study indicate that less than 74% or greater than 75% TDN in the commercial concentrate did not contribute to improve ADG, FCR, marbling score; therefore, in the present study, the recommendable TDN level in the commercial concentrate for late fattening period was 74% to 75% in terms of growth performance and marbling score of Hanwoo steer.

두과 사료작물 종의 생산성과 사료가치 및 가축사육능력

  • Yun, Gi-Yong;Park, Jun-Hyeok;Lee, Ju-Sam
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Organic Agriculture Conference
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    • pp.133-138
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    • 2008
  • 1) 두과작물의 생초수량과 건물수량은 작물별로 차이가 컸다. 지상부는 Red clover가 생초수량 38.6 ton/ha, 건물수량 7.86 ton/ha로 가장 많았으며, 지하부 또한 Red clover가 생초수량 30 ton/ha, 건물수량 6.2 ton/ha로 가장 많았다. 2) CP 수량 및 TDN 수량은 Red clover가 각각 1 ton/ha, 4.6 ton/ha로 유의하게 높았으며 NDF와 ADF는 수확시기가 늦을수록 높은 경향을 나타내서 Galega와 Cicer milk vetch가 가장 높았다. 또한 상대사료가치(RFV)는 공시품종 대부분이 100 이상을 나타내어 사료가치가 우수하였으며 Yellow blossom sweet clover, Crimson clover, Hairy vetch 등은 151% 이상으로 1등급에 속하였다. 3) 가축사육능력은 $K_{cp}$(2.18 head/ha/yr) > $K_{TDN}$(1.25 head/ha/yr) >K(0.04 head/ha/yr) 순으로 높게 나타났으나 이는 상당히 낮은 수준이었으며 이는 두과작물의 적은 수량으로 인한 결과라 판단되어진다. 4) 두과작물과 화본과작물 혼파시 $K_{cp}$ $K_{TDN}$ 모두 두과작물 평균 2.18, 1.25보다 높았다. 또한 Rye-Galega 8:2 비율, Rye-Winter pea 7:3 비율에서 건물수량, $K_{cp}$ $K_{TDN}$이 화본과 단파시보다 증가하여 혼파효과가 인정되었다. 특히 건물수량과 $K_{TDN}$ 관계에서 혼파 비율에 따라 건물수량에 큰 차이를 보이지 않은 반면 $K_{TDN}$은 모든 비율에서 증가하여 사료가치가 상승하였다.

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Establishment of Cropping System for Organic Forage Production in Middle Region of Korea (중부지역에서 유기조사료 생산을 위한 작부체계 확립)

  • Park, Jun-Hyuk;Yoon, Ki-Yong;Park, Sang-Soo;Noh, Jin-Hwan;Lee, Ju-Sam
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.373-384
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    • 2011
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the selection of regional double cropping system for production of organic forage in middle part of Korea and investigated their productivity, feed values and stock carrying capacity. The test results proved the Sorghum${\times}$Sudangrass hybrid was 10.9 $ton{\cdot}ha^{-1}$, the one of Rye + Red clover and Rye + Hairy vetch were the highest one as 3.3 $ton{\cdot}ha^{-1}$ and the relative yield about a Rye is higher in the dry matter yield in the field soil. And as for the relative forage values (RFV), Corn is the most excellent ones as 96.6 but there were no the significant difference between the Sorghum${\times}$Sudangrass hybrid of 84.4 and it. The total digestible nutrient (TDN) content in Rye + Hairy vetch is higher than others as 59.7%. As for the relative feed value, Rye + Red clover is the highest one as 83.8 but there was no significant differences between them. As for the ability to raise livestock in the field soil, the average values of $K_{CP}$ and $K_{TDN}$ are shown as 4.27 head/ha/yr in Sorghum${\times}$Sudangrass hybrid. As for the same crops, the average values of $K_{CP}$ and $K_{TDN}$ showed the highest ones as 1.74 head/ha/yr, in Rye + Red clover but there were no the significant differences. As for the dry matter yield of the rice field soil, organic rice straw was 3.3 $ton{\cdot}ha^{-1}$ and Rye + Red clover significantly showed the highest values as 4.1 $ton{\cdot}ha^{-1}$. In the rice filed soil, the crude protein content of organic rice straw was 3.1% and the TDN content of organic rice straw was 55%. The TDN content in Rye + Red clover was higher than others as 59.7%. As for the relative forage values, Rye + Red clover showed the highest one as 83.8 but there were no significant differences between them. As for the ability to raise livestock in the rice field, the average values of $K_{CP}$ and $K_{TDN}$ in the organic rice straw was 1.04 head/ha/yr and the average values of $K_{CP}$ and $K_{TDN}$ in Rye + Red clover is the highest one as 1.84 head/ha/yr, but there were no significant differences in all of them.

The Assessment of Cattle Slurry Application on Productivity and Feed Values of Barley and Hairy Vetch Influenced by Sowing Methods (보리와 헤어리 베치의 단, 혼파 재배 시 우분뇨의 시용에 따른 생산성과 사료가치의 평가)

  • Jo, Ik-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.219-230
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    • 2008
  • This trial was conducted to assess effects of cattle slurry application on productivity and feed values of barley and hairy vetch when they were influenced by single or mixed-sowed cultivation in paddy fields, and to obtain good quality of organic forage resources. The results summarized are as follows. For barley and hairy vetch, single-sowed cultivation was lower in annual dry matter (DM) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields than mixed-sowed (P<0.05). Although crude protein (CP) contents for the barley within single-sowed treatments were lowest as 6.5%, those of hairy vetch within the same sowed method were highest as 16.7%. However, mixed-sowed cultivation with barley and hairy vetch, showing 13.8% CP content, was significantly (P<0.05) higher than CP and relative feed value (RFV) of barley alone treatment. For barley alone treatment, cattle slurry application significantly increased annual DM and TDN yields in comparison with treatments of P+K fertilization as chemical fertilizers and no fertilizer as controls. Results from cattle slurry application showed 84% and 82% in contrast with chemical fertilizer for annual DM and TDN yields, respectively. For mixed-sowed cultivation with barley and hairy vetch, cattle slurry application showed 90% and 94% annual DM and TDN yields, respectively as compared with N+P+K fertilization as chemical fertilizers. Crude protein contents ($14.2{\sim}15.9%$) for cattle slurry application treatments were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of other treatments. Moreover, cattle slurry application treatment had the highest TDN and RFV among treatments, showing $60.7{\sim}61.8%$ and $112.2{\sim}118.1$, respectively. For hairy vetch alone treatments, annual DM and TDN yields of cattle slurry alone application treatment were highest among fertilization treatments. Furthermore, CP, TDN and RFV of cattle slurry alone application treatments were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of other treatments. The results showed that mixed-sowed cultivation rather than single-sowed for barley or hairy vetch improved their nutritive value and quality, and also within mixed-sowed cultivation, cattle slurry application increased production yield per ha and CP contents. In the application of above system to organic livestock farming, it would be expected that forages produced by cattle slurry application under mixed-sowed method might become a substitute for foreign organic grain as protein sources.

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Effect of Tillage System and Fertilizer Type on the Forage Yield, Quality, and Production Cost of Winter Rye (경운방법 및 비료종류가 호밀의 사초수량, 품질 및 생산비에 미치는 영향)

  • 김종덕;김수곤;권찬호
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of tillage system and fertilizer type on the forage yield, quality, and production cost of winter rye. This experiment was a 2×2 factorial arrangement for two tillage system (Tillage and No-tillage) and two fertilizer type (Chemical and Manure compost). There was no difference in dry matter (DM) content, TDN (total digestible nutrients) yield, and CP (crude protein) yield of rye, but the DM yield was significantly higher for rye in tillage compared to the no-tillage system. The use of chemical fertilizer type also showed significant increase in DM, TDN and CP yields compared to the use of manure compost as fertilizer. The CP content for rye was significantly higher in no-tillage compared to tillage system, but the type of fertilizer used has no significant effect. No significant effects were observed for NDF (neutral detergent fiber), ADF (acid detergent fiber), and TDN in tillage system and fertilizer type of rye. The total cost to prepare 1 ha is lower in no-tillage compared to tillage, but production cost in rye per kg of fresh, DM and TDN were almost the same as tillage system because of lower forage production. The total cost to prepare 1 ha with the use of chemical fertilizer was higher than using manure compost as fertilizer, however, the cost to produce 1 kg of fresh, DM and TDN were lower when using chemical as fertilizer because of higher yield. Based on the results of this study, tillage system and fertilizer type affected forage yield more than forage quality. Production cost per 1 kg of tillage was lower compared to no-tillage, and that of chemical was lower than manure because of higher forage yield.

Effects of Sowing Date and Cutting Time on Feed Value of Rye in Paddy Field (파종기와 예취시기가 답리작 호밀의 동료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • ;Je-Cheon Chae
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.519-525
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    • 1994
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sowing date and cutting time on feed value of rye in paddy field at Yesan from Oct. 1990 to June 1991. The field experiment was sown 5 times at 10 day intervals from Oct. 5. The content of crude protein, digestible protein, total digestible nutrient(TDN), minerals(P, K, Ca, Mg), and energy(ENE, NEL, NEM, NEG) were decreased due to earlier sowing, while the content of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber(NDF) increased. On the other hand, the yields per unit area for crude and digestible protein, TDN, minerals, and energy increased due to earlier sowing, but there was no significant difference among the plots sown on Oct. 5 through Oct. 25. The highest yield of crude protein was shown at late flowering stage, digestible protein and net energy gain (NEG) at heading stage and TDN at milk stage respectively.

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The Effect of Application of Cattle Slurry and Chemical Fertilizer on Productivity of Rye and Hairy Vetch by Single or Mixed Sowing (답리작으로 호밀과 헤어리베치의 단, 혼파 재배 시 우분뇨 및 화학비료의 시용에 따른 생산성 평가)

  • Jo, Ik-Hwan;Yun, Young-Bum;Park, Wung-Ryeol;HwangBo, Soon;Lee, Sung-Hoon;Lee, Ju-Sam
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.323-330
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of application of cattle manure and chemical fertilizer on dry matter productivity and nutritive values of rye and hairy vetch according to two different sowing methods such as single or mixed-sowed cultivation. Dry matter and TDN yields for rye single culture, and rye and hairy vetch mixed culture were 7.2 and 4.0 ton/ha, and 8.0 and 4.4 ton/ha, respectively. They were significantly (p<0.05) higher than that (4.5 and 2.7 ton/ha) of hairy vetch single culture. Moreover, plots produced by mixed-sowing cultivation had a higher crude protein (CP) as 7.7% than that of only rye plot, and higher TDN and RFV as 55.8 and 79.4%, respectively. Within rye alone plots, completely cattle slurry application produced significantly higher annual DM and TDN yields (7.4 and 4.1 ton/ha) than those of P+K fertilization (7.2 and 3.9 ton/ha) as a chemical fertilizer and non-fertilizer (5.5 and 3.1 ton/ha). Cattle slurry application plot revealed 75.52 and 78.97% of N+P+K fertilization plot for annual DM and TDN, respectively. Within mixed-sowing cultivation with rye and hairy vetch, completely cattle slurry application produced 7.6 ton/ha DM and 4.5 ton/ha TDN, showing 79.50 and 86.77% of N+P+K fertilization plot, respectively. Furthermore, the CP content for cattle slurry plots was 8.5%, which was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of other plots, and it was also highest in TDN (58.3%) and RFV (86). Overall, rye mixed-sowing with hairy vetch rather than rye alone sowing reduced DM yields, but leaded to enhancement of feed value and nutritive yields. And also, it would be expected that cattle slurry application in comparison with chemical fertilizers might result in reutilization of resources, improved forage quality and, extended harvest period by preventing feed value from rapidly deteriorating.

A Comparison on Dry Matter Yield and Feed Value of Winter Forage Crops Cultivated after Rice Harvest in the Central Inland Region (중부내륙지방에서 벼 수확 후 재배한 월동 사료작물들의 생산성 및 사료가치 비교)

  • Lee, Sang Moo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2019
  • This study was carried out to investigate the growth characteristics, yield, and chemical compositions of winter forage crops cultivated after rice harvest in the central inland region. The experimental design was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of 4 species (Rye, Oat, Triticale and Italian ryegrass), and varieties were "Marton", "Donghan", "Shinyoung" and "Kowinnearly", respectively. As a result, dry matter yield and TDN yield were higher in rye than in the other winter forage crops, and lowest in Oat(p<0.05). Crude protein and crude fat content were significantly higher in Italian ryegrass(p<0.05). However, Crude ash and ADF content did not show significant difference among winter forage crops. NDF content was higher in order of Rye > Triticale > Oat > Italian ryegrass(p<0.05). TDN and total amino acid content (EAA+NEAA) were higher in order of winter forage crop with high crude protein content (Italian ryegrass > Oat > Triticale > Rye). Total mineral content was higher in order of Rye > Triticale > Oat > Italian ryegrass(p<0.05), and total free sugar content was higher in order of Oat > Italian Ryegrass > Triticale > Rye(p<0.05). Compared with the results above, Italian ryegrass and Oat are high in crude protein, TDN, amino acid and free sugar content. Rye and Triticale have the merit that feed value is decreased but high yield(dry matter and TDN yield) can be maintained. Therefore, it is advantageous to grow Rye and Triticale as winter forage crops after rice harvest in the central inland region.